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Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

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Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 126-150







See Lacquer.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under Miscellaneous Methods.



See Stoppers.



See Varnishes.



See Photography.



See Beverages.



See Alloys.



See Pyrotechnics.



See Adhesives.



See Beverages.




For the detection of sawdust in bran use a solution of 1 part of phloroglucin in 15 parts of alcohol, 15 parts of water, and 10 parts of syrupy phosphoric acid. Place 2 parts of the solution in a small porcelain dish, add a knifepointful of the bran and heat moderately. Sawdust is dyed red while bran parts only seldom acquire a faint red color. By a microscopic examination of the reddish parts, sawdust will be readily recognized.




Magic Bottles.


The mystery of the "wonderful bottle," from which can be poured in succession port wine, sherry, claret, water, champagne, or ink, at the will of the operator, is easily explained. The materials consist of an ordinary dark-colored pint wine bottle, seven wine glasses of different patterns, and the chemicals described below:


Solution A: A mixture of tincture of ferric chloride, drachms vi; hydrochloric acid, drachms ii.  


Solution B: Saturated solution of ammonium sulphocyanide, drachm i.    


Solution C: Strong solution of ferric chloride, drachm i.  


Solution D: A weak solution of ammonium sulphocyanide.


Solution E: Concentrated solution of lead acetate.


Solution F: Solution of ammonium sulphide, drachm i; or pyrogallic acid, drachm i. 


Package G: Pulverized potassium bicarbonate, drachm iss.


Having poured two teaspoonfuls of solution A into the wine bottle, treat the wine glasses with the different solutions, noting and remembering into which glasses the several solutions are placed, into No. 1 wine glass pour one or two drops of solution B; into No. 2 glass

pour one or two drops of solution C; into No. 3 one or two drops of Solution D; leave No. 4 glass empty; into No. 5 glass pour a few drops of Solution E; into No. 6 glass place a few grains of Package G; into No. 7 glass pour a little of solutionº F. Request some one to bring you some cold drinking water, and to guarantee that it is pure show that your wine bottle is (practically) empty. Fill it up from the carafe, and having asked the audience whether you shall produce wine or water, milk or ink, etc., you may obtain any of these by pouring a little of

the water from the bottle into the prepared glass. Thus No. 1 glass gives a port-wine color; No. 2 gives a sherry color; No. 3 gives a claret color; No. 4 is left empty to prove that the solution in the bottle is colorless; No. 5 produces milk; No. 6, effervescing champagne: No. 7, ink.


Bottle-Capping Mixtures.


I.    Soak 7 pounds of good gelatin in 10 ounces of glycerine and 60 ounces of water, and heat over a water bath until dissolved, and add any desired color. Pigments may be used, and various tints can be obtained by the use of aniline colors. The resulting compound should be stored in jars. To apply liquefy the mass and dip the cork and portion of the neck of the bottle into the liquid; it sets very quickly.



Gelatin                             1 ounce

Gum arabic                          1 ounce

Boric acid                          20 grains

Starch                              1 ounce

Water                               16 fluidounces


Mix the gelatin, gum arabic, and boric acid with 14 fluidounces of cold water, stir occasionally until the gum is dissolved, heat the mixture to boiling, remove the scum, and strain. Also mix the starch intimately with the remainder of the water, and stir this mixture into the hot gelatin mixture until a uniform product results. As noted above, the composition may be tinted with any suitable dye. Before using, it must be softened by the application of heat. 






Shellac                             3 ounces

Venice turpentine                   1 1/2 ounces

Boric acid                          72 grains

Powdered talcum                     3 ounces

Ether                               6 fluidrams

Alcohol                             12 1/2 fluidounces


Dissolve the shellac, turpentine, and boric acid in the mixed alcohol and ether, color with a spirit-soluble dye, and add the talcum. During use the mixture must be agitated frequently.


Show Bottles.


I.    Place in a cylindrical bottle the following liquids in the order named:


First, sulphuric acid, tinted blue with indigo; second, chloroform; third, glycerine, slightly tinted with caramel; fourth, castor oil, colored with alkanet root; fifth, 40-per-cent alcohol, slightly tinted with aniline green; sixth, codliver oil, containing 1 per cent of oil of turpentine. The liquids are held in place by force of gravity, and alternate with fluids which are not miscible, so that the strata of layers are clearly defined and do not mingle by diffusion.



Chromic acid                        1 drachm

Commercial "muriatic" acid          2 ounces

Nitric acid                         2 ounces

Water,                              enough to make 3 gallons


The color is magenta. The following makes a fine pink for show carboys:



Cobalt oxide                        2 parts

Nitric acid, c. p                   1 part

Hydrochloric acid                   1 part


Mix and dissolve, and to the solution add:


Strongest water of ammonia          6 parts

Sulphuric acid                      1 part

Water, distilled, q. s.             to make 400 parts


This should be left standing in a dark, cool place for at least a month before putting in the window.


IV.   Green. Copper sulphate, 300 parts, by weight; hydrochloric acid, 450 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, by weight.


V.    Blue. Copper sulphate, 480 parts, by weight; sulphuric acid, 60 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 450 parts, by weight.


VI.   Yellowish Brown. Potassium dichromate, 120 parts, by weight; nitric acid, 150 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, by weight.


VII.  Yellow. Potassium dichromate, 30 parts, by weight; sodium bicarbonate, 225 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, by weight.


VIII. Red. Liquid ferric chloride, officinal, 60 parts, by weight: concentrated ammonium-acetate solution, 120 parts, by weight; acetic acid, 30 per cent, 30 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 9,000 parts, by weight.


IX.   Crimson. Potassium iodide, 7.5 parts, by weight; iodine, 7.5 parts, by weight; hydrochloric acid, 60 parts, by weight; distilled water, to 4,500 parts, by weight.


All the solutions IV to IX should be filtered. If distilled water be used these solutions should keep for five to ten years. In order to prevent them from freezing, either add 10 per cent of alcohol, or reduce the quantity of water by 10 per cent.


A Cheap and Excellent Warming Bottle. Mix sodium acetate and sodium

hyposulphate in the proportion of 1 part of the former to 9 parts of the latter, and with the mixture fill an earthenware bottle about three-quarters full. Close the vessel well with a cork and place it either in hot water or in the oven, and let remain until the salts within melt. For at least a half day the jug will radiate its heat, and need only be well shaken from time to time to renew its heat-giving energy.


Bottle Deodorizer. Powdered black mustard seed is successfully mployed.

Pour a little of it with some lukewarm water into the receptacle, rinsing it afterwards with water. If necessary, repeat the process.



See Wines and Liquors.




Formulas for the making of Brass will be found under Alloys.


Colors for Polished Brass. The brass objects are put into boiling solutions composed of different salts, and the intensity of the shade obtained is dependent upon the duration of the immersion. With a solution composed of:


Sulphate of copper                  120 grains

Hydrochlorate of ammonia            30 grains

Water                               1 quart


greenish shades are obtained. With the following solution all the shades of brown from orange brown to cinnamon are obtained:






Chlorate of potash                  150 grains

Sulphate of copper                  150 grains

Water                               1 quart


The following solution gives the brass first a rosy tint and then colors it violet and blue:


Sulphate of copper                  435 grains

Hyposulphite of soda                300 grains

Cream of tartar                     150 grains

Water                               1 pint


Upon adding to the last solution


Ammoniacal sulphate of iron         300 grains

Hyposulphite of soda                300 grains


there are obtained, according to the duration of the immersion, yellowish, orange, rosy, then bluish shades. Upon polarizing the ebullition the blue tint gives way to yellow, and finally to a pretty gray. Silver, under the same circumstances, becomes very beautifully colored. After a long ebullition in the following solution we obtain a yellow-brown shade, and then a remarkable fire red:


Chlorate of potash                  75 grains

Carbonate of nickel                 30 grains

Salt of nickel                      75 grains

Water                               16 ounces


The following solution gives a beautiful, dark-brown color:


Chlorate of potash                  75 grains

Salt of nickel                      150 grains

Water                               10 ounces


The following gives, in the first place a red, which passes to blue, then to pale lilac, and finally to white:


Orpiment                            75 grains

Crystallized sal sodae              150 grains

Water                               10 ounces


The following gives a yellow brown:


Salt of nickel                      75 grains

Sulphate of copper                  75 grains

Chlorate of potash                  75 grains

Water                               10 ounces


On mixing the following solutions, sulphur separates and the brass becomes covered with iridescent crystallizations:



Cream of tartar                     75 grains

Sulphate of copper                  75 grains

Water                               10 ounces



Hyposulphite of soda                225 grains

Water                               5 ounces


Upon leaving the brass objects immersed in the following mixture contained in corked vessels they at length acquire a very beautiful blue color:


Hepar of sulphur                    15 grains

Ammonia                             75 grains

Water                               4 ounces


Miscellaneous Coloring of Brass. Yellow to bright red: Dissolve 2 parts native copper carbonate with 1 part caustic soda in 10 parts water. Dip for a few minutes into the liquor, the various shades desired being obtained according to the length of time of the immersion. Green: Dissolve 1 part copper acetate (verdigris), 1 part blue vitriol, and 1 part alum in 10 parts of water and boil the articles therein. Black: For optical articles, photographic apparatus, plates, rings, screws, etc., dissolve 45 parts of malachite (native copper carbonate) in 1,000 parts of sal ammoniac. For use clean and remove the grease from the article by pickling and dip it into the bath until the coating is strong enough. The bath operates better and quicker if heated. Should the oxidation be a failure it should be removed by dipping into the brass pickle.


A verdigris color on brass is produced by treating the articles with dilute acids, acetic acid, or sulphuric acid, and drying.


Brown in all varieties of shades is obtained by immersing the metal in solutions of nitrates or ferric chloride after it has been corroded with dilute nitric acid, cleaned with sand and water, and dried. The strength of the solutions governs the deepness of the resulting color.


Violet is caused by immersing the thoroughly cleaned objects in a solution of ammonium chloride.


Chocolate color results if red ferric oxide is strewn on and burned off, followed by polishing with a small quantity of galena.


Olive green is produced by blackening the surface with a solution of iron in hydrochloric acid, polishing with galena, and coating hot with a lacquer composed of 1 part varnish, 4 parts cincuma, and 1 part gamboge.


A steel-blue coloring is obtained by means of a dilute boiling solution of chloride of arsenic, and a blue one by a treatment with strong hyposulphite of soda. Another formula for bluing brass is: Dissolve 10 parts of antimony chloride in 200 parts of water, and add 30 parts of pure hydrochloric acid. Dip the article until it is well blued, then wash and dry in sawdust.


Black is much used for optical brass articles and is produced by coating with a solution of platinum or auric chloride mixed with nitrate of tin.


Coloring Unpolished Brass. A yellow color of handsome effect is obtained on






unpolished brass by means of antimony-chloride solution. This is produced by finely powdering gray antimony and boiling it with hydrochloric acid. With formation of hydrogen sulphide a solution of antimony results, which must not be diluted with water, since a white precipitate of antimony oxychloride is immediately formed upon admixture of water. For dilution, completely saturated cooking-salt solution is employed, using for 1 part of antimony chloride 2 parts of salt solution.


Coloring Fluid for Brass. Caustic soda, 33 parts; water, 24 parts; hydrated carbonate of copper, 5.5 parts.


Dissolve the salt in water and dip the metal in the solution obtained. The intensity of the color will be proportional to the time of immersion. After removing the object from the liquid, rinse with water and dry in sawdust.


Black Color on Brass. A black or oxidized surface on brass is produced by a solution of carbonate of copper in ammonia. The work is immersed and allowed to remain until the required tint is observed. The carbonate of copper is best used in a plastic condition, as it is then much more easily dissolved. Plastic carbonate of copper may be mixed as follows: Make a solution of blue vitriol (sulphate of copper) in hot water, and add a strong solution of common washing soda to it as long as any precipitate forms. The precipitate is allowed to settle, and the clear liquid is poured off. Hot water is added, and the mass stirred and again allowed to settle. This operation is repeated six or eight times to remove the impurities. After the water has been removed during the last pouring, and nothing is left but an emulsion of the thick plastic carbonate in a small quantity of water, liquid ammonia is added until everything is dissolved and a clear, deep-blue liquid is produced. If too strong, water may be added, but a strong solution is better than a weak one. If it is desired to make the solution from commercial plastic carbonate of copper the following directions may be followed: Dissolve 1 pound of the plastic carbonate of copper in 2 gallons of strong ammonia. This gives the required strength of solution.


The brass which it is desired to blacken is first boiled in a strong potash solution to remove grease and oil, then well rinsed and dipped in the copper solution, which has previously been heated to from 150 to 175º F. This solution, if heated too hot, gives off all the ammonia.


The brass is left in the solution until the required tint is produced. The color produced is uniform, black, and tenacious. The brass is rinsed and dried in sawdust. A great variety of effects may be produced by first finishing the brass before blackening, as the oxidizing process does not injure the texture of the metal. A satisfactory finish is produced by first rendering the surface of the brass matt, either by scratch-brush or similar methods, as the black finish thus produced by the copper solution is dead one of the most pleasing effects of an oxidized surface. Various effects may also be produced by coloring the entire article and then buffing the exposed portions.


The best results in the use of this solution are obtained by the use of the so-called red metals i.e, those in which the copper predominates. The reason for this is obvious. Ordinary sheet brass consists of about 2 parts of copper and 1 part of zinc, so that the large quantity of the latter somewhat hinders the production of a deep-black surface. Yellow brass is colored black by the solution, but it is well to use some metal having a reddish tint, indicating the presence of a large amount of copper. The varieties of sheet brass known as gilding or bronze work well. Copper also gives excellent results. Where the best results are desired on yellow brass a very light electroplate of copper before the oxidizing works well and gives an excellent black. With the usual articles made of yellow brass this is rarely done, but the oxidation carried out directly.


Black Finish for Brass.


I.    A handsome black finish may be put on brass by the following process: Dissolve in 1,000 parts of ammonia water 45 parts of natural malachite, and in the solution put the object to be blackened, after first having carefully and thoroughly cleaned the same. After letting it stand a short time gradually warm the mixture, examining the article from time to time to ascertain if the color is deep enough. Rinse and let dry.


II.   The blacking of brass may be accomplished by immersing it in the following solution and then heating over a Bunsen burner or a spirit flame: Add a saturated solution of ammonium carbonate to a saturated copper sulphate solution, until the precipitate resulting in the beginning has almost entirely dissolved. The immersion and heating are repeated until the brass turns dark; then it is brushed and dipped in negative varnish or dull varnish.






To Give a Brown Color to Brass.


I.    In 1.000 parts of rain or distilled water dissolve 5 parts each of verdigris (copper acetate) and ammonium chloride. Let the solution stand 4 hours, then add 1,500 parts of water. Remove the brass to be

browned from its attachment to the fixtures and make the surface perfectly bright and smooth and free from grease. Place it over a charcoal fire and heat until it "sizzes" when touched with the dampened finger. The solution is then painted over the surface with a brush or swabbed on with a rag. If one swabbing does not produce a sufficient depth of color, repeat the heating and the application of the liquid until a fine durable brown is produced. For door plates, knobs, and ornamental fixtures generally, this is one of the handsomest as well as the most durable surfaces, and is easily applied.


II.   A very handsome brown may be produced on brass castings by immersing the thoroughly cleaned and dried articles in a warm solution of 15 parts of sodium hydrate and 5 parts of cupric carbonate in 100 parts of water. The metal turns dark yellow, light brown, and finally dark brown, with a greenish shimmer, and, when the desired shade is reached, is taken out of the bath, rinsed, and dried.


III.  Paint the cleaned and dried surface uniformly with a dilute solution of ammonium sulphide. When this coating is dry, it is rubbed over, and then painted with a dilute ammoniacal solution of arsenic sulphide, until the required depth of color is attained. If the results are not satisfactory the painting can be repeated after washing over with ammonia. Prolonged immersion in the second solution produces a grayish-green film, which looks well, and acquires luster when polished with a cloth.


Refinishing Gas Fixtures. Gas fixtures which have become dirty or tarnished from use may be improved in appearance by painting with bronze paint and then, if a still better finish is required, varnishing after the paint is thoroughly dry with some light-colored varnish that will give a hard and brilliant coating.


If the bronze paint is made up with ordinary varnish it is liable to become discolored from acid which may be present in the varnish. One method proposed tor obviating this is to mix the varnish with about five times its volume of spirit of turpentine, add to the mixture dried slaked lime in the proportion of about 40 grains to the pint, agitate well, repeating the agitation several times, and finally allowing the suspended matter to settle and decanting the clear liquid. The object of this is to neutralize any acid which may be present. To determine how effectively this has been done the varnish may be chemically tested.


Steel Blue and Old Silver on Brass. For the former dissolve 100 parts of carbonic carbonate in 750 parts of ammonia and dilute this solution with distilled water, whereupon the cleaned articles are dipped into the liquid by means of a brass wire. After two to three minutes take them out, rinse in clean water, and dry in sawdust. Old silver on brass is produced as follows: The articles are first silvered and next painted with a thin paste consisting of graphite, 6 parts; pulverized hematite, 1 part; and turpentine. Use a soft brush and dry well; then brush off the powder. Oxidized silver is obtained by dipping the silvered goods into a heated solution of liver of sulphur, 5 parts; ammonia carbonate, 10 parts; and water, 10, 000 parts. Only substantially silvered objects are suited for oxidation, as a weak silvering is taken cff by this solution. Unsatisfactory coloring is removed with potassium-cyanide solution. It is advisable to lay the articles in hydrogen sulphide-ammonia solution diluted with water, wherein they acquire a blue to a deep-black shade.


Tombac Color on Brass. This is produced by immersion in a mixture of copper carbonate, 10 parts; caustic soda, 30 parts; water, 200 parts. This layer will only endure wiping with a cloth, not vigorous scouring with sand.


Graining of Brass. Brass parts of timepieces are frequently provided with a dead grained surface. For this purpose they are fastened with flat-headed pins on cork disks and brushed with a paste of water and finest powdered pumice stone. Next they are thoroughly washed and placed in a solution of 10 quarts of water, 30 grains of mercuric nitrate, and 60 grains of sulphuric acid. In this amalgamating solution the objects become at once covered with a layer of mercury, which forms an amalgam with the copper, while the zinc passes into solution. After the articles have again been washed they are treated with graining powder, which consists of silver powder, tartar, and cooking salt. These substances must be pure, dry, and very finely pulverized. The mixing is done with moderate heat. According






to whether a coarser or finer grain is desired, more cooking salt or more tartar must be contained in the powder. The ordinary proportions are:




Silver powder



28 parts




85 parts

Cooking salt



900 parts



This powder is moistened with water and applied to the object. Place the article with the cork support in a flat dish and rub on the paste with a stiff brush while turning the dish incessantly. Gradually fresh portions of graining powder are put on until the desired grain is obtained. These turn out the rounder the more the dish and brush are turned. When the right grain is attained, rinse off with water, and treat the object with a scratch brush, with employment of a decoction of saponaria. The brushes must be moved around in a circle in brushing with the pumice stone, as well as in rubbing on the graining powder and in using the scratch brush. The required silver powder is produced by precipitating a diluted solution of silver nitrate with some strips of sheet copper. The precipitated silver powder is washed out on a paper filter and dried at moderate heat.


The Dead, or Matt, Dip for Brass.


The dead dip is used to impart a satiny or crystalline finish to the surface. The bright dip gives a smooth, shiny, and perfectly even surface, but the dead dip is the most pleasing of any dip finish, and can be used as a base for many secondary finishes.


The dead dip is a mixture of oil of vitriol (sulphuric acid) and aqua fortis (nitric acid) in which there is enough sulphate of zinc (white vitriol) to saturate the solution. It is in the presence of the sulphate of zinc tnat the essential difference between the bright and the dead dip exists. Without it the dead or matt surface cannot be obtained.


The method generally practiced is to add the sulphate of zinc to the mixed acids (sulphuric and nitric), so that some remains undissolved in the bottom of the vessel. It is found that the sulphate of zinc occurs in small crystals having the appearance of very coarse granulated sugar. These crystals readily settle to the bottom of the vessel and do not do the work of matting properly. If they are finely pulverized the dip is slightly improved, but it is impossible to pulverize such material to a fineness that will do the desired work. The use of sulphate of zinc, then, leaves much to be desired.


The most modern method of making up the dead dip is to produce the sulphate of zinc directly in the solution and in the precipitated form. It is well known that the most finely divided materials are those which are produced by precipitation, and in the dead dip it is very important that the sulphate of zinc shall be finely divided so that it will not immediately settle to he bottom. Therefore it should be precipitated so that when it is mixed with the acids it will not settle immediately. The method of making the sulphate of zinc directly in the solution is as follows:


Take 1 gallon of yellow aqua fortis (38º F.) and place in a stone crock which is surrounded with cold water. The cold water is to keep the heat, formed by the reaction, from evaporating the acid. Add metallic zinc in small pieces until the acid will dissolve no more. The zinc may be in any convenient form sheet clippings, lumps, granulated, etc., that may be added little by little. If all is added at once it will boil over. When the acid will dissolve no more zinc it will be found that some of the acid has evaporated by the heat, and it will be necessary to add enough fresh acid to make up to the original gallon.

When this is done add 1 gallon of strong oil of vitriol. The mixture should be stirred with a wooden paddle while the oil of vitriol is being added.


As the sulphuric acid is being added the solution begins to grow milky, and finally the whole has the consistency of thick cream. This is caused by the sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) precipitating out the sulphate of zinc. Thus the very finely divided precipitate of sulphate of zinc is formed. If one desires to use known quantities of acid and zinc the following amounts may be taken: Oil of vitriol, 1 gallon; aqua fortis (38º F.), 1 gallon; metallic zinc, 6 ounces.


In dissolving the zinc in the aqua fortis it is necessary to be sure that none remains undissolved in the bottom.


The dead or matt dip is used hot, and therefore, is kept in a stone crock surrounded with hot water. The articles to be matted are polished and cleaned, and the dip thoroughly stirred with a wooden paddle, so as to bring up the sulphate of zinc which has settled. Dip the work in the solution and allow it to remain until the matt is obtained. This is a point which can be learned only by experience. When the brass article is first introduced there is a rapid action on the surface, but in a few seconds this slows down. Remove the article and rinse and immediately dip into the usual bright dip. This






is necessary for the reason that the dead dip produces a dark coating upon the surface, which, were it left on, would not show the real effect or the color of the metal. The bright dip, however, removes this and exposes the true dead surface.


The usual rule for making up the dead dip is to use equal parts of oil of vitriol and aqua fortis; but these may be altered to suit the case. More oil of vitriol gives a finer matt, while a larger quantity of aqua fortis will give a coarser matt. When the dip becomes old it is unneces

sary to add more zinc, as a little goes into the solution each time anything is dipped. After a while, however, the solution becomes loaded with copper salts, and should be thrown away.


A new dip does not work well, and will not give good results when used at once. It is usual to allow it to remain over night, when it will be found to be in a better working condition in the morning. A new dip will frequently refuse to work, and the addition of a little water will often start it. The water must be used sparingly, however, and only when necessary. Water, as a usual thing, spoils a dead dip, and must be avoided. After a while it may be necessary to add a little more aqua fortis, and this may be introduced as desired. Much care is needed in working the dead dip, and it requires constant watching and experience. The chief difficulty in working the dead dip is to match a given article. The only way that it can be done is to "cut and try," and add aqua fortis or oil of vitriol as the case requires.


The dead or matt dip can be obtained only upon brass or German silver; in other words, only on alloys which contain zinc. The best results are obtained upon yellow brass high in zinc.


To Improve Deadened Brass Parts. Clock parts matted with oilstone and oil, such as the hour wheels, minute wheels, etc., obtain, by mere grinding, a somewhat dull appearance, with a sensitive surface which readily takes spots. This may be improved by preparing the following powder, rubbing a little of it on a buff stick, and treating the deadened parts, which have been cleansed with benzine, by rubbing with slight pressure on cork. This imparts to the articles a handsome, permanent, metallic matt luster. The smoothing powder consists of 2 parts of jewelers' red and 8 parts of lime carbonate, levigated in water, and well dried. Jewelers' red alone may be employed, but this requires some practice and care, especially in the treatment of wheels, because rays are liable to form from the teeth toward the center.


Pickle for Brass. Stir 10 parts (by weight) of shining soot or snuff, 10 parts of cooking salt, and 10 parts of red tartar with 250 parts of nitric acid, and afterwards add 250 parts of sulphuric acid; or else mix 7 parts of aqua fortis (nitric acid) with 10 parts of English sulphuric acid. For the mixing ratio of the acid, the kind and alloy of the metal should be the guidance, and it is best found out by practical trials. The better the alloy and the less the percentage of zinc or lead, the handsomer will be the color. Genuine bronze, for instance, acquires a golden shade. In order to give brass the appearance of handsome gilding it is often coated with gold varnish by applying same thinly with a brush or sponge and immediately heating the metal over a coal fire.


Pickling Brass to Look Like Gold. To pickle brass so as to make it resemble gold allow a mixture of 6 parts of chemically pure nitric acid and 1 part of English sulphuric acid to act for some hours upon the surface of the brass; then wash with a warm solution, 20 parts of tartar in 50 parts of water, and rub off neatly with dry sawdust. Then coat the article with the proper varnish.


Pickle for Dipping Brass. To improve the appearance of brass, tombac, and copper goods, they are usually dipped. For this purpose they are first immersed in diluted oil of vitriol (brown sulphuric acid), proportion, 1 to 10; next in a mixture of 10 parts of red tartar; 10 parts of cooking salt; 250 parts of English sulphuric acid, as well as 250 parts of aqua fortis (only for a moment), rinsing off well in water and drying in sawdust. For obtaining a handsome matt gold color 1/20 part of zinc vitriol (zinc sulphate) is still added to the pickle.


Restoration of Brass Articles. The brass articles are first freed from adhering dirt by the use of hot soda lye; if bronzed they are dipped in a highly dilute solution of sulphuric acid and rinsed in clean water. Next they are yellowed in a mixture of nitric acid, 75 parts; sulphuric acid, 100 parts; shining lampblack, 2 parts; cooking salt, 1 part; then rinsed and polished and, to prevent oxidation, coated with a colorless spirit varnish, a celluloid varnish being best for this purpose.


Tempering Brass. If hammered too brittle brass can be tempered and made






of a more even hardness throughout by warming it, as in tempering steel; but the heat must not be nearly so great. Brass, heated to the blue heat of steel, is almost soft again. To soften brass, heat it nearly to a dull red and allow it to cool, or, if time is an object, it may be cooled by plunging into water.


Drawing Temper from Brass. Brass is rendered hard by hammering or rolling, therefore when a brass object requires to be tempered the material must be prepared before the article is shaped. Temper may be drawn from brass by heating it to a cherry red and then simply plunging it into water, the same as though steel were to be tempered.



See Adhesives.



See Polishes.



See Solders.



See Plating.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Plating.



See Castings.



See Plating.



See Dog Biscuit.



See also Dentifrices.


Remedies for Fetid Breath. Fetid breath may be due to the expelled air

(i.e, to disease of the respirational tract), to gases thrown off from the digestive tract, or to a diseased mouth. In the first two cases medication must be directed to the causative diseases, with the

last, antisepsis principally arid the neutralization of the saliva, also the removal of all residual food of dental caries.



Potassium permanganate              1 part

Distilled water                     10 parts


Mix and dissolve. Add from 5 to 8 drops of this solution to a glass of water and with it gargle the mouth.



Infusion of salvia                  250 parts

Glycerine                           30 parts

Tincture of myrrh                   12 parts

Tincture of lavender                12 parts

Labarraque's solution               30 parts


Mix.  Rinse the mouth frequently with this mixture.



Decoction of chamomile              30 parts

Glycerine                           80 parts

Chlorinated water                   15 parts


Mix.  Use as a gargle and mouth wash.



Peppermint water                    500 parts

Cherry-laurel water                 60 parts

Borax                               25 parts


Mix and dissolve. Use as gargle and mouth wash.



Thymol                              3 parts

Spirit of cochlearia                300 parts

Tincture of rhatany                 100 parts

Oil of peppermint                   15 parts

Oil of cloves                       10 parts


Mix.  Gargle and wash mouth well with 10 drops in a glass of water.



Salol                               5 parts

Alcohol                             1,000 parts

Tincture of white canella           30 parts

Oil of peppermint                   1 part


Mix.  Use as a dentifrice.



Hydrogen peroxide                   25 parts

Distilled water                     100 parts


Mix.  Gargle the mouth twice daily with 2 tablespoonfuls of the mixture in a glass of water.



Sodium bicarbonate                  2 parts

Distilled water                     70 parts

Spirit of cochlearia                30 parts


Mix a half-teaspoonful in a wineglassful of water. Wash mouth two or three times daily.




To stain brick flat the color of brownstone, add black to Venetian red until the desired shade is obtained. If color ground in oil is used, thin with turpentine, using a little japan as a drier. If necessary to get the desired shade add yellow ocher to the mixture of red and black. If the work is part old and part new, rub the wall down, using a brick






for a rubber, until the surface is uniform, and keep it well wet while rubbing with cement water, made by stirring Portland cement into water until the water looks the color of the cement. This operation fills the pores of the brick and makes a smooth, uniform surface to paint on.

Tinge the wash with a little dry Venetian red and lampblack. This will help bring the brick to a uniform color, so that an even color can be obtained with one coat of stain.



See Ceramics.



See Stone, Artificial.



See Polishes.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods and Household Formulas.



See Waterproofing.



See Ceramics.



See Paint.



See Hair Preparations.



See Pyrotechnics.



See Roots.



See Alloys.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Plating.



See Antiseptics.




Bromoform is insoluble in dilute alcohol, but may be dissolved by the aid of glycerine. The following formula has been devised:


Bromoform                           1 part

Alcohol                             2 parts

Compound tincture of cardamon       2 parts

Glycerine                           1 1/2 parts


Some other formulas are:


Syrup of Bromofcrm. Bromoform, 5 parts; alcohol (95 per cent), 45 parts; glycerine, 150 parts; syrup, 800 parts. Mix in the order given and place the container in warm water until the syrup becomes perfectly clear.


Emulsion of Bromoform. Add 3 parts of bromoform to 20 parts of expressed oil of almond; emulsify this mixture in the usual manner with 2 parts of powdered tragacanth, 4 parts of powdered acacia, and sufficient water, using for the completed emulsion a total of 120 parts of water, and add, finally, 4 parts of cherry-laurel water.


Bromoform Rum. Bromoform, 1.2 parts; chloroform, 0.8 parts; rum, sufficient to make 120 parts. Claimed to be an effective remedy in the treatment of whooping cough.



See Alloys.



See Casting.



See Plaster.



See Polishes.



See Cleaning Compounds.


Bronze Powders, Liquid Bronzes,

Bronze Substitutes, and Bronzing




Gold bronze is a mixture of equal parts of oxide of tin and sulphur, which are heated for some time in an earthen retort. Silver bronze is a mixture of equal parts of bismuth, tin, and mercury, which are fused in a crucible, adding the mercury only when the tin and the bismuth are in fusion. Next reduce to a very fine powder. To apply these bronzes, white of egg, gum arabic, or varnish is used. It is preferable to apply them dry upon one of the above-named mediums serving as size, than to mix them with the liquids themselves, for in the latter case their luster is impaired.


Simple Coloring of Bronze Powder. In order to impart different colors to






bronze powders, such as pale yellow, dark yellow to copper red. the powder is heated with constant stirring in flat iron pans until through the oxidation of the copper the bronzes consist of the brass powder of an alloy from which the so-called Dutch gold is produced the desired shade of color is reached. As a rule a very small quantity of fat, wax, or even paraffine is added in this operation. The bronze powders are employed to produce coatings or certain finishes on metals themselves or to give articles of wood, stone, pasteboard, etc., a metallic appearance.


General Directions for Bronzing. The choice of bronze powders is determined by the degree of brilliancy to be obtained. The powder is mixed with strong gum water or isinglass, and laid on with a brush or pencil, almost but not absolutely dry. A piece of soft leather, wrapped around the finger, is dipped into the powder and rubbed over the work; when all this has been covered with the bronze it must be left to dry, and the loose powder is then cleared away with a hair pencil.




Liquid Bronzes.


I.    For the production of liquid bronze, acid-free varnish should be used, as bronze ground with ordinary varnish will form verdigris. For the deacidification of dammar rosin pour 1,000 parts of petroleum benzine over 350 parts of finely ground dammar rosin, and dissolve by repeated shaking. Next add to the solution 250 parts of a 10-per-cent aqueous solution of caustic soda and shake up well for 10 minutes. After standing for a short time two strata will have formed, the upper one consisting of benzine-rosin solution and the lower, aqueous one containing the resinic acid dissolved as soda salts. Pour off the benzine layers and agitate again assiduously with 250 parts of the 10-per-cent caustic-soda solution. Now set aside for a complete classification and separation of the two liquids. The dammar solution siphoned off will be perfectly free from acid. To obtain gold-

Bronze varnish add to the deacidified dammar solution about 250 parts of bronze or brocade per liter.


II.   Or else carefully mix 100 parts of finely ground dammar rosin with 30 parts of calcined soda and heat to fusion, in which state it is maintained 2 or 3 hours with frequent stirring. Let cool, grind the turbid mass obtained, and pour a little coal benzine or petroleum benzine over it in a flask. By repeated shaking of the flask the soluble portion of the molten mass is dissolved; filter after allowing to settle; into the filtrate put 300 to 400 parts of bronze powder of any desired shade, the brocades being especially well adapted for this purpose. If the metallic powder remains distributed over the mass for a long time it is of the right consistency; if it deposits quickly it is too thin and a part of the solvent must be evaporated before stirring in the bronze powder.


III.  A liquid bronze, which, while it contains no metallic constituent, yet possesses a metallic luster and a bronze appearance, and answers excellently for many purposes, is made as follows: Dissolve by the aid of gentle heat 10 parts of aniline red and 5 parts of aniline purple in 100 parts of alcohol. When solution is complete, add 5 parts of benzoic acid, raise the heat, and let boil from 5 to 10 minutes, or until the greenish color of the mixture passes over to a clear bronze brown. For "marbling" or bronzing paper articles, this answers particularly well.


Incombustible Bronze Tincture. Finely pulverize 5 parts, by weight, of prime Dammar rosin and 1.5 parts of ammonia soda. Heat gently, and stir frequently, until no more carbonic acid bubbles up. Cool and pulverize again. Put the powder into a glass carboy, and pour over it 50 parts of carbon tetrachloride; let 'this stand for 2 days, stirring frequently. Then filter. Ten parts of the fluid are mixed with 5 parts of metallic bronze of any desired shade, and put into bottles. Shake well before using.


General Formulas for Bronzing Preparations.


I.    Take 240 parts subacetate of copper, 120 parts oxide of zinc in powder form, 60 parts borax, 60 parts saltpeter, and 3.5 parts corrosive sublimate.

Prepare a paste from it with oil, stir together, and continue working with boiled linseed oil and turpentine.


II.   Dissolve 120 parts sulphate of copper and add 120 parts chipping of tin; stir well and gather the precipitating copper. After complete drying, grind very finely in boiled linseed oil and turpentine.


III.  Melt in a crucible 60 parts sulphur and 60 parts stannic acid; stir with a clay tube until the mixture takes on the appearance of Dutch gold and pour out. When cold mix the color with boiled linseed oil and turpentine, adding a small quantity of drier. These three bronzes must be covered with a pale, resistant






lacquer, otherwise they will soon tarnish in rooms where gas is burned,


Florentine Bronzes. I.  To produce a Florentine bronzing, apply to the articles, which must have previously been dipped, a varnish composed of cherry gum lac dissolved in alcohol. This varnish is put on with a brush, and after that the bronzed piece is passed through the stove.


II.   If the article is of brass it must be given a coat of copper by means of the battery. Next dip a brush in olive oil and brush the piece uniformly; let dry for 5 or 6 hours and place in sawdust. Then heat the article on a moderate charcoal dust fire.


Preparation of French Bronze. French bronze may be prepared by reducing to a powder hematite, 5 parts, and plumbago, 8 parts, and mixing into a paste with spirit of wine. Apply the composition with a soft brush to the article to be bronzed and set it aside for some hours. By polishing with a tolerably hard brush the article will assume the beautiful appearance of real bronze. The desired tint may be regulated by the proportions of the ingredients.


How to Bronze Metals. Prepare a solution of 1 1/2 ounces of sodium hyposulphite in 1 pint of water and add to the same a solution of 1 1/2 ounces of lead acetate dissolved in 1 pint of water.


If, instead of lead acetate, an equal weight of sulphuric acid (1 1/2 ounces) is added to the sodium hyposulphite and the process carried on as before, the brass becomes coated with a very beautiful red, which changes to green, and finally a splendid brown with a green and red iridescence. This last is a very durable coating and may be especially recommended. It is very difficult to obtain exact shades by this process without some experience. The thorough cleansing of all articles from grease by boiling in potash is absolutely necessary to success. By substituting other metal salts for the lead acetate many changes in tints and quality of the coatings can also be effected.


When this mixture is heated to a temperature a little below the boiling point it precipitates sulphide of lead in a state of fine division. If some metal is present some of the lead is precipitated on the surface and, according to the thickness of the layer, different colors are produced. To produce an even color the articles must be evenly heated. By immersion of brass articles for 5 minutes the same may be coated with colors varying from gold to copper red, then to carmine, dark red, and from light blue to blue white, and at last a reddish white, depending on the time the metal remains in the solution and the temperature used. Iron objects treated in this solution take a steel-blue color, zinc a brown color. In the case of copper objects a golden yellow cannot be obtained.


New Bronzing Liquid. Dissolve 10 parts of fuchsine and 5 parts of aniline purple in 100 parts of alcohol (95 percent) and add to the solution 5 parts of benzoic acid. Boil the whole for 10 minutes until the color turns bronze brown. This liquid can be applied to all metals and dries quickly.


A Bronze for Brass. Immerse the articles, freed from dirt and grease, in a cold solution of 10 parts of potassium permanganate, 50 parts of iron sulphate, 5 parts of hydrochloric acid in 1,000 parts of water. Let remain 30 seconds, then withdraw, rinse, and let dry in fine, soft sawdust. If the articles have become too dark, or if a reddish-brown color be desired, immerse for about 1 minute in a warm (140º F.) solution of chromic acid, 10 parts; hydrochloric acid, 10 parts; potassium permanganate, 10 parts; iron sulphate, 50 parts; water, 1,000 parts. Treat as before. If the latter solution alone be used the product will be a brighter dark-yellow or reddish-brown color. By heating in a drying oven the tone of the colors is improved. 


To Bronze Copper. This process is analogous to the one practiced at the Mint of Paris for bronzing medals.


Spread on the copper object a solution composed of:


Acetate or chlorhydrate of

  ammonia                           30 parts

Sea salt                            10 parts

Cream of tartar                     10 parts

Acetate of copper                   10 parts

Diluted acetic acid                 100 parts


Let dry for 24 to 48 hours at an ordinary temperature. The surface of the metal will become covered with a series of varying tints. Brush with a waxed brush. The green portions soaked with chlorhydrate of ammonia will assume a blue coloring, and those treated with carbonate will be thick and darkened.


Bronzing and Patinizing of Small Zinc Articles. Coatings of bronze tones and patina shades may be produced on zinc by means of various liquids, but the






articles, before being worked upon, should be rubbed down with very fine glass or emery paper, to make them not only perfectly metallic, but also somewhat rough, as a consequence of which the bronze or patina coatings will adhere much better. The best bronze or patina effects on bronze are obtained by electroplating the article with a fairly thick deposit of brass rich in copper and then treating it like genuine bronze. The solutions used, however, must always be highly diluted, otherwise they may eat entirely through the thin metallic coating.


Bronzing of Zinc. Mix thoroughly 30 parts of sal ammoniac, 10 parts of oxalate of potash, and 1,000 parts of vinegar. Apply with a brush or a rag several times, until the desired tint is produced.


Bronze Gilding on Smooth Moldings. A perfect substitute for dead ilding cannot be obtained by bronzing, because of the radically different reflection of the light, for the matt gilding presents to the light a perfectly smooth surface, while in bronzing every little scale of bronze reflects the light in a different direction. In consequence of this diffusion of light, all bronzing, even the best executed, is somewhat darker and dimmer than leaf gilding. This dimness, it is true, extends over the whole surface, and therefore is not perceptible to the layman, and cannot be called an evil, as the genuine leaf gold is so spotted that a bronzed surface is cleaner than a gilt one. The following process is the best known at present: Choose only the best bronze, which is first prepared thick with pure spirit. Next add a quantity of water and stir again. After the precipitation, which occurs promptly, the water is poured off and renewed repeatedly by fresh water. When the spirit has been washed out again in this manner, the remaining deposit, i.e, the bronze, is thinned with clean, good gold size. The bronze must be thin enough just to cover. The moldings are coated twice, the second time commencing at the opposite end. Under no circumstances should the dry, dead gilding give off color when grasping it firmly. If it does that, either the size is inferior or the solution too weak or the mixture too thick.


Incombustible Bronze Tincture. Five parts of prime dammar rosin and 1.5 parts of ammonia soda, very finely pulverized. Heat gently, with frequent stirring, until the evolution of carbonic acid ceases. Then take from the fire, and when cool pulverize again. Put the powder into a glass carboy, and pour over it 50 parts of carbon tetrachloride; let this stand for 2 days, stirring frequently, then filter. Ten parts of the fluid are to be mixed with each 5 parts of metallic bronze of any desired shade, and put into bottles. Shake the tincture well before using.


Bronzing Engraved Ornaments. Take bronze and stir with it pale copal varnish diluted one-half with turpentine. With this paint the ornaments neatly. In hour the bronze will have dried. The places from which the bronze is to be removed, i.e, where the bronze has overrun the polished surface, are dabbed with a small rag soaked with kerosene, taking care that it is not too wet, so as to prevent the kerosene from running into the ornament. After a short while the bronze will have dissolved and can be wiped off with a soft rag. If this does not remove it entirely, dab and wipe again. Finally finish wiping with an especially soft, clean rag. Kerosene does not attack polish on wood. The bronze must become dull and yet adhere firmly, under which condition it has a hardened color. If it does not become dull the varnish is too strong and should be diluted with turpentine.


Durable Bronze on Banners. To render bronzes durable on banners, etc., the ground must be primed with gum arable and a little glycerine. Then apply the bronze solution, prepared with dammar and one-tenth varnish. Instead of gum arabic with glycerine, gelatine glue may also be mployed as an underlay.




The following recipe is used in making imitation gold bronzes:


Sandarac                            50 parts

Mastic                              10 parts

Venice turpentine                   5 parts

Alcohol                             135 parts


In the above dissolve:


Metanil yellow and gold orange      0.4 parts


and add


Aluminum, finely powdered           20 parts


and shake.


If a deeper shade is desired it is well to use ethyl orange and gold orange in the same proportion, instead of the dyes. For the production of imitation copper bronze take the above-mentioned rosin mixture and dissolve therein only gold






orange 0.8 parts, and add aluminum 20 parts, whereby a handsome copper color is produced. Metanil yellow 0.4 parts without gold orange gives with the same amount of lacquer a greenish tone of bronze. The pigments must not be made use of in larger quantities, because the luster of the bronze is materially affected. Only pigments of certain properties, such as solubility in alcohol, relative constancy to reductive agents, are suitable; unsuitable are, for instance, naphthol yellow, phenylene-diamin, etc. Likewise only a lacquer of certain composition is fit for use, other lacquers of commerce, such as zapon (celluloid) lacquer being unsuitable. The bronzes prepared in this manner excel in luster and color effect; the cost is very low. They are suitable for bronzing low-priced articles, as tinware, toys, etc. Under the action of sun and moisture the articles lose some of their luster, but objects kept indoors such as figures of plaster of Paris, inkstands, wooden boxes,

etc., retain their brilliancy for years.


Some use powdered aluminum and yellow organic dyestuffs, such as gold orange. These are employed together with a varnish of certain composition, which imparts the necessary gloss to the mixture.




To Color Bronze. Bronze articles acquire handsome tempering colors by heating. In order to impart an old appearance to new objects of bronze, they may be heated over a flame and rubbed with a woolen rag dipped in finely powdered graphite, until the desired shade is attained. Or else a paste is applied on the article, consisting of graphite 5 parts and bloodstone 15 parts, with a sufficient quantity of alcohol. After 24 hours brush off the dry powder. A hot solution composed of sal ammoniac 4 parts, sorrel salt 1 part, vinegar 200 parts, may also be brushed on. Another way is to dip the pieces into a boiling solution of cupric acetate 20 parts, and sal ammoniac 10 parts, dissolved in 60 to 100 parts of vinegar.


Patent bronzes (products colored by means of aniline dyes) have hitherto been used in the manufacture of toys and deluxe or fancy paper, but makers of wall or stained paper have recently given their attention to these products. Wall or moire paper prepared with these dyes furnishes covers or prints of silken gloss with a peculiar double-color effect in which the metallic brilliancy characteristic of bronze combines with the shades of the tar pigments used. Very beautiful reliefs, giving rise to the most charming play of colors in perpendicular or laterally reflected light, are produced by pressing the paper lengths or web painted with aniline-bronze dyes. The brass brocade and tin bronzes serve as bases for the aniline dyes; of the tar pigments only basic aniline dyes soluble in alcohol are used. In coloring the pulverized bronze care must be taken that the latter is as free as possible from organic fats. Tar dyes should be dissolved in as concentrated a form as possible in alcohol and stirred with the bronze, the pigment being then fixed on the vehicle with an alcoholic solution of tannin. The patent bronze is then dried by allowing the alcohol to evaporate. This method of coloring is purely mechanical, as the tar dyes do not combine with the metallic bronze, as is the case with pigments in which hydrate of alumina is used. A coating of aniline bronze of this kind is therefore very sensitive to moisture, unless spread over the paper surface with a suitable protective binding medium, or protected by a transparent coat of varnish, which of course must not interfere with the special color effect.


Pickle for Bronzes. Sulphuric acid, 1,000 parts; nitric acid, 500 parts; soot, 10 parts; sea salt, 5 parts.


Imitation Japanese Bronze. When the copper or coppered article is perfectly dry and the copper or copper coating made brilliant, which is produced by rubbing with a soft brush, put graphite over the piece to be bronzed so that the copper is simply dyed. Wipe off the raised portions with a damp cloth, so that the copper makes its appearance.

Next put on a thin coat of Japanese varnish; wipe the relief again and let dry. Apply 1 or 2 coats after the first is perfectly dry. Handsome smoked hues may be obtained by holding the bronze either over the dust of lighted peat or powdered rosin thrown on lighted coal, so as to obtain a smoke which will change the color of the varnish employed. The varnish must be liquid enough to be worked easily, for this style of bronzing is only applicable to brass.


Green Bronze on Iron. Abietate of silver, 1 part; essence of lavender, 19 parts. Dissolve the abietate of silver in the essence of lavender. After the articles have been well pickled apply the abietate-of-silver solution with a brush; next place the objects in a stove and let the temperature attain about 150 C.


Blue Bronze. Blue bronze is pro






duced by the wet process by coloring white bronze (silver composition) with aniline blue. A blue-bronze color can be produced in the ordinary way from white-bronze color, the product of pure English tin, and with an alum solution consisting of 20 parts of alum in 4,500 parts of water boiled for 5 hours and washed clean and dried. The bronze prepared in this manner is placed in a porcelain dish, mixed with a solution of 15 parts of aniline blue in 1,500 parts of alcohol, stirring the bronze powder and liquid until the alcohol has evaporated entirely and the bronze color becomes dry. This manipulation must be repeated 6 or 8 times, until the desired blue shade is reached. When the bronze is dark enough it is washed out in warm water, and before entirely dry 1 tablespoonful of petroleum is poured on 2 pounds of bronze, which is intimately mixed and spread out into a thin layer, exposed to the air, whereby the smell is caused to disappear in a few days.


Bronzing with Soluble Glass. To bronze wood, porcelain, glass, and metal by means of a water-glass solution, coat the article with potash water-glass of 30º Bé. and sprinkle on the respective bronze powder.


Brown Oxidation on Bronze. Genuine bronze can be beautifully oxidized by painting it with a solution of 4 parts of sal ammoniac and 1 part of oxalium (oxalate of potash) in 200 parts of vinegar, allowing it to dry, and repeating the operation several times. These articles, protected against rain, soon lose the unpleasant glaring metallic luster and assume instead a soft brown tint, which bronze articles otherwise acquire only after several years' exposure to the atmosphere. A beautiful bronze color which will remain unaffected by heat can be imparted to bronze articles by the following process: The object is first washed in a solution of 1 part of crystallized verdigris and 2 parts of sal ammoniac in 260 parts of water, and then dried before an open fire till the green color begins to disappear. The operation is repeated 10 to 20 times, but with a solution of 1 part of verdigris crystals and 2 parts of sal ammoniac in 600 parts of water. The color of the article, olive green at first, gradually turns to brown, which will remain unaltered even when exposed to strong heat.



See also Plating for general methods of bronzing, and Varnishes.


Gold and Silver Bronze Powders. Genuine gold bronze is produced from the waste and parings obtained in gold beating. The parings, etc., are ground with honey or a gum solution, upon a glass plate or under hard granite stones, into a very fine powder, which is repeatedly washed out with water and dried. There are various shades of gold bronze, viz., red, reddish, deep yellow, pale yellow, as well as greenish. These tints are caused by the various percentages of gold or the various mixtures of the gold with silver and copper.


By the use of various salt solutions or acidulated substances other shades can be imparted to bronze. In water containing sulphuric acid, nitric acid, or hydrochloric acid, it turns a bright yellow; by treatment with a solution of crystallized verdigris or blue vitriol in water it assumes more of a reddish hue; other tints are obtained with the aid of cooking salt, tartar, green vitriol, or saltpeter in water.


Gold bronze is also obtained by dissolving gold in aqua regia and mixing with a solution of green vitriol in water, whereupon the gold falls down as a metallic powder which may be treated in different ways. The green vitriol, however, must be dissolved in boiling water and mixed in a glass, drop by drop, with sulphuric acid and stirred until the basic iron sulphate separating in flakes has re-dissolved. Another way of producing gold bronze is by dissolving gold in aqua regia and evaporating the solution in a porcelain dish. When it is almost dry add a little pure hydrochloric acid and repeat this to drive out all the free chlorine and to produce a pure hydrochlorate of gold. The gold salt is dissolved in distilled water, taking 1/2 liter per ducat (3 1/2 grams fine gold); into this solution drop, while stirring by means of a glass rod, an 8 [degree] solution (by Beaume) of antimony chloride, as long as a precipitate forms. This deposit is gold bronze, which, dried after removal of all liquids, is chiefly employed in painting, for bronzing, and for china and glass decoration.


Metallic gold powder is, furthermore, obtained by dissolving pure and alloyed gold in aqua regia and precipitating it again by an electropositive metal, such as iron or zinc, which is placed in the liquid in the form of rods. The gold is completely separated thereby. The rods must be perfectly clean and polished bright. The color of the gold bronze depends upon the proportions of the gold. In order to further increase the brilliancy the dried substance may still be ground.






Mosaic Gold. Mosaic gold, generally a compound of tin, 64.63 parts, and sulphur, 35.37 parts, is odorless and tasteless, and dissolves only in chlorine solution, aqua regia, and boiling potash lye. It is employed principally for bronzing plaster-of-Paris figures, copper, and brass, by mixing it with 6 parts of bone ashes, rubbing it on wet, or applying it with varnish or white of egg in the preparation of gold paper or for gilding cardboard and wood. Mosaic gold of golden-yellow color is produced by heating 6 parts of sulphur and 16 parts of tin amalgam with equal parts of mercury and 4 parts of sulphur; 8 parts of precipitate from stannic muriate (stannic acid) and 4 parts of sulphur also give a handsome mosaic gold.


The handsomest, purest, and most gold-like mosaic gold is obtained by melting 12 parts of pure tin, free from lead, and mixing with 6 parts of mercury to an amalgam. This is mixed with 7 parts of flowers of sulphur and 6 parts of sal ammoniac, whereupon the mass is subjected for several hours to a heat which at first does not attain redness, but eventually when no more fumes are generated is increased to dark-red heat. This operation is conducted either in a glass retort or in an earthenware crucible. The sal ammoniac escapes first on heating, next vermilion sublimates and some stannic chloride, while the mosaic gold remains on the bottom, the upper layer, consisting of lustrous, golden, delicately translucent leaflets, being the handsomest mosaic gold.


Genuine Silver Bronze. This is obtained by the finely ground waste from beating leaf silver or by dissolving silver in aqua fortis. This solution is then diluted with water and brightly scoured copper plates are put in, whereby the silver precipitates as a metallic powder.


Imitation Silver Bronze. This is obtained through the waste in beating imitation leaf silver, which, finely ground, is then washed and dried. In order to increase the luster it is ground again in a dry condition.


Mosaic Silver. Mosaic silver is an amalgam of equal parts of mercury, bismuth, and tin. One may also melt 50 parts of good tin in a crucible, and as soon as it becomes liquid add 50 parts of bismuth, stirring all with an iron wire until the bismuth is fused as well. As soon as this occurs the crucible must be removed from the fire; then stir in, as long as the contents are still liquid, 25 parts of mercury and mix the whole mass evenly until it can be ground on a stone slab.



See Varnishes.



See Paints.



See Wood.



See Photography.



See Ointments.



See Plating.



See Brick Stain.



See Cosmetics.






It is a good plan to fill the varnish brush before putting it in the keeper.


Whitewash or kalsomine brushes should not be put into newly slaked lime or hot kalsomine.


Cement-set brushes should never be put in any alcohol mixture, such as shellacs and spirit stains.


Varnish brushes should be selected with a view to their possessing the following qualities: 1st, excellence of material; 2d, excellence of make, which includes fullness of hair or bristles and permanency of binding; 3d, life and spring, or elasticity sufficient to enable the varnisher to spread the varnish without reducing it with turpentine; and 4th, springing, when in use, to a true chisel edge.


Temperature for Brushes. The bristles of every brush are held in place by the handle. It passes through the shank of the brush and is kiln-dried to fit perfectly. If it shrinks, however, its outward tension is lost and the bristles loosened. For this reason the first principle in brush care is to keep the tool, when it is new or not soaking, in a cool place, out of hot rooms, and any temperature that would tend to shrink the wood of the handle.


Cleaning Paint Brushes. No new brush should be dipped in the paint and put to work without first being






cleaned. By working it with a brisk movement back and forth through the hand most of the dust and loose hairs will be taken out. A paint brush, when thus thoroughly dry cleaned, should be placed in water for a few minutes, not long enough to soak or swell it, but only until wet through, and then swung and shaken dry. It is then ready to dip in the paint, and although some of the hairs may still be loose, most of them will come out in the first few minutes' working and can be easily picked from the surface.


Cleaning Varnish Brushes. Varnish brushes, and brushes used in varnish stain, buggy paint, and all color in varnish require different handling than paint brushes. They should be more thoroughly dry cleaned, in order that all loose hairs may be worked out. After working them through the hand it is a good thing to pass the brush back and forth over a sheet of sandpaper. This rough surface will pull out the loose bristles and smooth down the rough ends of the chisel point. The brush should then be washed by working it for a few minutes in clean turpentine and swinging it dry. It should never be put in water. For carriage work and fine varnishing the brush should be broken in on the rubbing coat in order to work out all the dust particles before it is used on the finishing coats.


Setting the Paint Brush Bristles. For the first 2 or 3 days new brushes require special care while at rest. They should be dipped in raw oil or the paint itself and smoothed out carefully, then laid on their sides over night. The chisel-pointed brushes should be set at an incline, the handle supported just enough to allow the brush to lie along the point. This is done to prevent twisting of the bristles, and to keep the shape of the brush. It is necessary to do this only 2 or 3 times before the shape becomes set.


Paint Brushes at Rest. An important principle in brush care is never to leave the brush on end while at rest. Even for temporary rest during a job the brush should never stand on end. At night it should always be placed in a "brush-keeper" a water-tight box, or a paint keg, with nails driven through the sides on which the brushes can be suspended in water. Holes are bored in the handles so the brush will hang free of the bottom, but with the bristles entirely under water. Before placing them in water the brushes should be wiped so as not to be too full of paint, but not cleaned.


Varnish Brushes at Rest. Varnish brushes should be kept at rest in turpentine and varnish, or better, in some of the varnish that the brush is used for. They should preferably not be kept in turpentine, as that makes the brush “lousy" roughening the bristles.


Washing Brushes. All brushes should be washed in benzine or turpentine and shaken dry not whipped when it is desired to change from one color to another, or from one varnish to another.


To Restore Brushes. A good remedy to restore lettering brushes which have lost their elasticity and do not keep a point, is as follows: Put the pencil in oil and brush it several times over a hot iron in such a manner that the hairs touch the iron from each side; then dip the pencil quickly in cold water.


A Removable Binding. The bristle bunch of brushes is bound with rope so as to keep them together for use. Instead of the twine, a covering of rubber may be employed, which is easily slipped over the bristles and can be conveniently removed again. The cleaning of the brush is much facilitated thereby, and the breadth of the stripe to be drawn with the brush can be accurately regulated, according to how far the covering is slipped over the brush.


See also Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Gelatin.



See Soap Bubble Liquid.




Bubbles of air often adhere to molds immersed in depositing solutions. They may be prevented by previously dipping the object into spirits of wine, or be removed by the aid of a soft brush, or by directing a powerful current of the liquid against them by means of a vulcanized

india-rubber bladder, with a long and curved glass tube attached to it; but the liquid should be free from sediment.



See Insecticides.



See Corn Cures.






See also Ointments and Turpentine.


Mixture for Burns.


I.    A mixture of castor oil with the white of egg is recommended for burns. The eggs are broken into a bowl and the castor oil slowly poured in while the eggs are beaten. Enough oil is added to make a thick, creamy paste, which is applied to the burn. The applications are repeated often enough to prevent their becoming dry or sticky. Leave the surface uncovered.


II.   Put 27 parts, by measure, of menthol into 44 parts, by measure, of witch hazel (distillate) and apply freely. A good plan is to bandage the parts and wet the wrappings with this mixture.


III.  A very efficacious remedy for burns is a solution of cooking salt in water. It is best to immerse fingers, hands, and arms in the solution, which must be tolerably strong. For burns in the face and other parts of the body, salt water poultices are applied.



(See also Foods.)


Butter Color. Orlean, 80 parts, by weight; curcuma root (turmeric), 80 parts, by weight; olive oil, 240 parts, by weight; saffron, 1 part, by weight; alcohol, 5 parts, by weight. The orlean and turmeric are macerated with olive oil and expressed. The weight of the filtered liquid is made up again to 240 parts, by weight, with olive oil, next the filtered saffron-alcohol extract is added, and the alcohol is expelled again by heating the mixture.


Artificial Butter.


I.    Carefully washed beef suet furnishes a basis for the manufactures of an edible substitute for natural butter. The thoroughly washed and finely chopped suet is rendered in a steam-heated tank; 1,000 parts of fat, 300 parts of water, 1 part of potassium carbonate, and 2 stomachs of pigs or sheep, are taken. The temperature of the mixture is raised to 113º F. After 2 hours, under the influence of the pepsin in the stomachs, the membranes are dissolved and the fat is melted and rises to the top of the mixture. After the addition of a little salt the melted fat is drawn off, stood to cool so as to allow the stearine and palmitin to separate, and then pressed in bags in a hydraulic press. Forty to 50 per cent of solid stearine remains, while 50 to 60 per cent

of fluid oleopalmitin (so-called "oleomargarine”) is pressed out. The "oleo oil" is then mixed with 10 per cent of its weight of milk and a little butter color and churned. The product is then worked, salted, and constituted the "oleomargarine," or butter substitute. Leaf lard can be worked in the same way as beef suet, and will yield an oleopalmitin suitable for churning up into a butter substitute.


II.   Fat from freshly slaughtered cattle after thorough washing is placed in clean water and surrounded with ice, where it is allowed to remain until all animal heat has been removed. It is then cut into small pieces by machinery and cooked at a temperature of about 150º F. (65.6 C.) until the fat in liquid form has separated from the tissue, then settled until it is perfectly clear. Then it is drawn into the graining vats and allowed to stand for a day, when it is ready for the presses. The pressing extracts the stearine, leaving a product commercially known as oleo oil which, when churned with cream or milk, or both, and with usually a proportion of creamery butter, the whole

being properly salted, gives the new food product, oleomargarine.


III.  In making butterine use neutral lard, which is made from selected leaf lard in a very similar manner to oleo oil, excepting that no stearine is extracted. This neutral lard is cured in salt brine for from 48 to 70 hours at an ice-water temperature. It is then taken and, with the desired proportion of oleo oil and fine butter, is churned with cream and milk, producing an article which when properly salted and packed is ready for the market. In both cases coloring matter is used, which is the same as that used by dairymen to color their butter. At certain seasons of the year viz., in cold weather, a small quantity of sesame oil or salad oil made from cottonseed oil is used to soften the texture of the product.


IV.   "Ankara" is a substance which in general appearance resembles a good article of butter, being rather firmer at ordinary temperatures than that substance, approaching the consistency of cocoa butter. It is quite odorless, but in taste it resembles that of a fair article of butter and, what is more, its behavior under heat is very similar to that of butter it browns and forms a sort of spume like that of fat. Ankara consists of a base of cocoa butter, carrying about 10 per cent of milk, colored with yolk of egg. While not derived from milk, on the one hand, nor does it come from a single vegetable or animal fat on the other, an-






kara may be considered as belonging to the category of the margarines. Ankara is obtained in the market in the form of cakes or tablets of 2 pounds in weight.


V.    Fresh butter, 150 parts, by weight; animal fat, 80 parts, by weight; sunflower oil, 40 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 30 parts, by weight.


yI.   Fresh butter, 100 parts, by weight; animal fat, 100 parts, by weight; sunflower oil, 80 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 20 parts, by weight.


VII.  Fresh butter, 50 parts, by weight; animal fat, 150 parts, by weight; sunflower oil, 80 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 20 parts, by weight.


It is seen that these three varieties contain respectively 50, 33, and about 16 per cent of cow's butter. The appearance of the mixture is nearly perfect.


Formulas V to VII are for a Russian artificial butter called "Perepusk."


To Impart the Aroma and Taste of Natural Butter to Margarine. In order to give margarine the aroma and flavor of cow butter, add to it a fatty acid product, which is obtained by saponification of butter, decomposition of the soap, and distillation in the vacuum at about 140 º F. The addition of the product is made upon emulsification of the fats with milk. The margarine will keep for months.


Harmless Butter Color. Alum, pulverized finely, 30 parts; extract of turmeric, 1 part. With the extract dampen the powder as evenly as possible, then spread out and dry over some hot surface. When dry, again pulverize thoroughly. Protect the product from the light. As much of the powder as will lie on the point of a penknife is added to a churnful of milk, or cream, before churning, and it gives a beautiful golden color, entirely harmless. To make the extract of turmeric add 1 part of powdered turmeric to 5 parts of alcohol, and let macerate together for fully a week.


To Sweeten Rancid Butter.


I.    Wash the butter first with fresh milk and afterwards with spring water, carefully working out the residual water.


II.   Add 25 to 30 drops of lime chloride to every 2 pounds of butter, work the mass up thoroughly, then wash in plenty of fresh, cold water, and work out the residual water.


III.  Melt the butter in a water bath, along with some freshly burned animal charcoal, coarsely powdered and carefully sifted to free it from dust. After this has remained in contact for a few minutes, the butter is strained through a clean flannel. If the rancid odor is



not completely removed, complete the process.


An English Margarine. A mixture of edible fats of suitable consistency, e.g., oleo oil, 5 parts; neutral lard, 7 parts; and butter, 1 part; is mixed with albuminous "batter," 4 parts, with the addition of 1 part of salt as a preservative. If the albuminous constituent be composed of the whites and yolks of eggs beaten to a foam the product will have the consistency and color of butter. The molten fats are added to the egg batter and the whole is stirred at a temperature sufficient to produce coagulation of the albumen (150-200º F.). The mass is then cooled gradually with continuous stirring, and the salt is worked in.


Olive-Oil Paste. If an ounce of peeled garlic be rubbed up into a pulp, in a clean Wedgwood mortar, and to this be added from 3 to 4 ounces of good olive oil, with constant rubbing up with the pestle, the oil becomes converted into a pasty mass, like butter. It is possible that the mucilage obtainable from other bulbs of the Lilium tribe would prove equally efficient in conferring semisolidity on the oil, without imparting any strong smell. The above composition is largely used by the Spanish peasantry, instead of butter, which runs liquid in the Spanish summer. It is known as "aleolI. " The more easily solidified portion of olive oil is stearine, and this may be cheaply prepared from mutton fat. If added, in certain proportions, to olive oil, it would certainly raise its melting point.




Buttermilk powder, 10 parts; vinegar, 1 part; syrup of buckthorn, 1 part. Dissolve the powder in the water and add the vinegar and syrup. The powder is prepared as follows: Sodium chloride, 50 parts; milk sugar, 100 parts; potassium nitrate, 5 parts; alum, 5 parts. Mix.     



See Foods.



See Foods.



See Agate.



See Alloys.








Preservation and Use of Calcium Carbide. Calcium carbide is readily attacked by the air and the moisture contained in the generators and consequently decomposes during the storing, with formation of acetylene gas. Aside from the loss, this decomposition is also attended with dangers. One of the oldest methods of preservation is the saturation

of the carbide with petroleum. In using such carbide a layer of petroleum forms on the surface of the water in the generator, which prevents the water from evaporating, thus limiting the subsequent generation of acetylene from the remaining carbide. Instead of petroleum many other substances have been proposed which answer the purpose equally well, e. g., toluol, oils, solid bodies, which previously have to be liquefied, such as stearine, paraffine, rosin, etc.


Of a different nature is a medium offered by Letang of Paris. He employs sugar or saccharine bodies to which he adds, if necessary, a little petroleum, turpentine, vaseline, or varnish of any kind, as well as chalk, limestone, talc, sulphur, or sand. The carbide is coated with this mixture. The saccharine substances dissolve in the generating water, and also have a dissolving action on the slaked lime, which is formed by the decomposition of the carbide which admits of its easy removal.


According to another process carbide is put on the market in such a shape that, without weighing, merely by counting or measuring one is in a position to use equivalent quantities for every charge. Gearing casts molten carbide in the shape of bars, and pours a layer of gelatin, glue, and water soluble varnish over the carbide bars. Others make shells containing a certain quantity of reduced carbide. For this ordinary and varnished pasteboard, wax paper, tinfoil, thin sheet zinc, and similar substances may be used which ward off atmospheric moisture, thus protecting the carbide from premature decomposition. Before use, the cartridge-like shell is pierced or cut open, so that the water can get at the contents. The more or less reduced carbide is filled in the shell, either without any admixture or united into a compact mass by a binding agent, such as colophony, pitch, tar, sand, etc.


Deodorization of Calcium Carbide. Calcium carbide is known to possess a very unpleasant odor because It constantly develops small quantities of impure acetylene in contact with the moisture of the air. Le Roy, of Rouen, proposes for portable especially bicycle lamps, in which the evil is more noticeable than in large plants, simply to pour some petroleum over the carbide and to pour off the remainder not absorbed. The petroleum, to which it is well to add some nitro-benzol (mirbane essence), prevents the access of air to the carbide, but permits a very satisfactory generation of gas on admission of water.



See Paints.



See Leather.



See Photography.




Fragrant Naphthalene Camphor.


Naphthalene white, in scales 3,000 parts

Camphor                       1,000 parts


Melt on the steam bath and add to the hot mass:


Coumarin                      2 parts

Mirbane oil                   10 parts


Cast in plates or compressed tablets. The preparation is employed as a moth preventive.


Powdered Camphor in Permanent Form.


I.    Powder the camphor in the usual manner, with the addition of a little alcohol. When it is nearly reduced to the proper degree of fineness add a few drops of fluid petrolatum and immediately triturate again. In this manner a powder as fine as flour is obtained, which does not cake together. This powdered camphor may be used for all purposes except for solution in alcohol, as it will impart to the latter a faint opalescence, owing to the insolubility of the petrolatum.


II.   Take equal parts of strong ether and alcohol to reduce the camphor to powder. It is claimed for this method that it only takes one-half of the time required when alcohol alone is used, and that the camphor dries more quickly. Before sifting add 1 per cent of white vaseline and 5 per cent of sugar of milk. Triturate fairly dry, spread out in the air, say 15 minutes, then pass through a moderately fine wire sieve, using a stubby shaving brush to assist in working it through.






Camphor Pomade


Oil of bitter almonds               1 drachm

Oil of cloves                       20 drops

Camphor                             l 1/2 ounces

White wax                           4 ounces

Lard, prepared                      1 pound


Melt the wax and lard together, then add the camphor in saturated solution in spirit; put in the oils when nearly cold.


Camphor Ice.



White wax                           16 parts

Benzoated suet                      48 parts

Camphor, powdered                   8 parts

Essential oil, to perfume.


Melt the wax and suet together. When nearly cold, add the camphor and perfume, mix well, and pour into molds.



Oil of almond                       16 parts

White wax                           4 parts

Spermaceti                          4 parts

Paraffine                           8 parts

Camphor, powdered                   1 part

Perfume, quantity sufficient.


Dissolve the camphor in the oil by the aid of a gentle heat. Melt the solids together, remove, and let cool, but before the mixture begins to set add the camphorated oil and the perfume, mix, and pour into molds.



Stearine (stearic acid)             8 pounds

Lard                                10 pounds

White wax                           5 pounds

Spermaceti                          5 pounds


Melt on a water bath in an earthen or porcelain dish; strain into a similar vessel; add a solution of 2 ounces powdered borax in 1 pound of glycerine, previously warmed, to the melted substance when at the point of cooling; stir well; add camphor, 2 pounds, powdered by means of alcohol, 3 ounces; stir well and pour into molds.



See Celluloid.



See Cholera Remedies.



See Varnishes.




The following is a formula much used by German canary-bird raisers:


Sweet almonds           blanched 16 parts

Pea meal                32 parts

Butter, fresh

(unsalted)              3 parts

Honey,                  quantity sufficient to make a stiff paste.


The ingredients are worked into a stiff paste, which is pressed through a colander or large sieve to granulate the mass. Some add to every 5 pounds, 10 or 15 grains of saffron and the yolks of 2 eggs.



See Veterinary Formulas.




Coloring Ceresine Candles for the Christmas Tree. For coloring these candles only dye stuffs soluble in oil can be employed. Blue: 23-24 lavender blue, pale or dark, 100-120 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Violet: 26 fast violet R, 150 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Silver gray: 29 silver gray, 150 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Yellow and orange: 30 wax yellow, medium, 200 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine; 61 old gold, 200 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Pink and red: 27 peach-pink, or 29 chamois, about 100 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. Green: 16-17 brilliant green, 33 May green, 41 May green, 200-250 parts per 5,000 parts of ceresine. The above-named colors should be ground in oil and the ceresine tinted with them afterwards.


Manufacture of Composite Paraffine Candles. Three parts of hydroxystearic acid are dissolved in 1 part of a suitable solvent (e.g., stearic acid), and the solution is mixed with paraffine wax to form a stock for the manufacture of composite candles.


Transparent Candles. The following are two recipes given in a German patent specification. The figures denote parts by weight:


I.    Paraffine wax, 70; stearine, 15; petroleum, 15.


II.   Paraffine wax, 90; stearine, 5; petroleum, 5.


Recipe I of course gives candles more transparent than does recipe II.  The 15 per cent may be regarded as the extreme limit consistent with proper solidity of the candles.


To Prevent the Trickling of Burning Candles. Dip the candles in the following mixture:


Magnesium sulphate                  15 parts

Dextrin                             15 parts

Water                               100 parts


The solution dries quickly and does not affect the burning of the candle,






Candle Coloring. Candles are colored either throughout or they sometimes consist of a white body that is covered with a colored layer of paraffine wax. According to the material from which candles are made (stearine, paraffine, or ozokerite), the process of coloring varies.


Stearine, owing to its acid character, dissolves the coal-tar colors much more readily than do the perfectly neutral paraffine and ozokerite waxes. For coloring stearine the necessary quantity of the color is added to the melted mass and well stirred in; if the solution effected happens to be incomplete, a small addition of alcohol will prove an effective remedy. It is also an advantage to dissolve the colors previously in alcohol and add the concentrated solution to the melted stearine. The alcohol soon evaporates, and has no injurious effect on the quality of the stearine.


For a number of years there have been on the market so-called "fat colors," formed by making concentrated solutions of the color, and also special preparations of the colors in stearine. They are more easily applied, and are, therefore, preferred to the powdered aniline colors, which are apt to cause trouble by being accidentally distributed in soluble particles, where they are not wanted. Since paraffine and ozokerite dissolve comparatively little, they will not become colored, and so must be colored indirectly. One way is to dissolve the color in oleic acid or in stearine acid and add the solution to the wax to be colored. Turpentine may be employed for the same purpose. Concerning the colors suitable for candles, there are the cosine colors previously mentioned, and also chroline yellow, auramine, taniline blue, tartrazine, brilliant green, etc. The latter, however, bleaches so rapidly that it can hardly be recommended. An interesting phenomenon is the change some colors undergo in a warm temperature; for instance, some blues turn red at a moderate degree of heat (120º F.) and return to blue only when completely cooled off; this will be noticed while the candle mixture is being melted previous to molding into candles.



See Fumigants.



See Confectionery.



See Confectionery.



See Waterproofing.



See Rubber.



See Paint.



See Bottle-Capping Mixtures.



See Varnishes.




Cloudless Caramel Coloring.


I.    When it is perfectly understood that in the manufacture of caramel, sugar is to be deprived of the one molecule of its water of constitution, it will be apparent that heat must not be carried on to the point of carbonization. Cloudy caramel is due to the fact that part of the sugar has been dissociated and reduced to carbon, which is insoluble in water. Hence the cloudiness. Caramel may be made on a small scale in the following manner: Place 4 or 5 ounces of granulated sugar in a shallow porcelain-lined evaporating dish and apply either a direct heat or that of an oil bath, continuing the heat until caramelization takes place or until tumescence ceases and the mass has assumed a dark-brown color. Then carefully add sufficient water to bring the viscid mass to the consistence of a heavy syrup. Extreme care must be taken and the face and hands protected during the addition of the water, owing to the intensity of the heat of the mass, and consequent sputtering.


II.   The ordinary sugar coloring material is made from sugar or glucose by heating it, while being constantly stirred, up to a temperature of about 405º F. A metal pan capable of holding nearly ten times as much as the sugar used, is necessary so as to retain the mass in its swollen condition. As soon as it froths up so as nearly to fill the pan, an action which occurs suddenly, the fire must instantly be extinguished or removed. The finished product will be insoluble if more than about 15 per cent of its weight is driven off by the heat.



See Food.



See Confectionery.








Perfumed Carbolic Acid.



Carbolic acid (cryst.)        1 ounce

Alcohol                       1 ounce

Oil bergamot                  10 minims

Oil eucalyptus                10 minims

Oil citronella                3 minims

Tincture cudbear              10 minims

Water,                        to make 10 ounces


Set aside for several days, and then filter through fuller's earth.



Carbolic acid (cryst.)        4 drachms

Cologne water                 4 drachms

Dilute acetic acid            9 ounces


Keep in a cool place for a few days, and filter.


Treatment of Carbolic-Acid Burns. Thoroughly wash the hands with alcohol, and the burning and tingling will almost immediately cease. Unless employed immediately, however, the alcohol has no effect. When the time elapsed since the burning is too great for alcohol to be of value, brush the burns with a saturated solution of picric acid in water.


Decolorization of Carbolic Acid. To decolorize the acid the following simple method is recommended. For purifying carbolic acid which has already become quite brown-red on account of having been kept in a tin vessel, the receptacle is exposed for a short time to a temperature of 25 C. (77º F.), thus causing only a part of the contents to melt. In this state the acid is put into glass funnels and left to stand for 10 to 12 days in a room which is likewise kept at the above temperature. Clear white crystals form from the drippings, which remained unchanged, protected from air and light, while by repeating the same process more clear crystals are obtained from the solidified dark colored mother lye. In this manner 75 to 80 per cent of clear product is obtained altogether.


Disguising Odor of Carbolic Acid.- Any stronger smelling substance will disguise the odor of carbolic acid, to an extent at least, but it is a difficult odor to disguise on account of its persistence. Camphor and some of the volatile oils, such as peppermint, cajeput, caraway, clove, and wintergreen may be used.


To Restore Reddened Carbolic Acid. Demont's method consists in melting

the acid on the water bath, adding 12 per cent of alcohol of 95 per cent, letting cool down and, after the greater part of the substance has crystallized out, decanting the liquid residue. The crystals obtained in this manner are snowy white, and on being melted yield a nearly colorless liquid. The alcohol may be recovered by redistillation at a low temperature. This is a rather costly procedure.



See Soap.



See also Paints and Wood.


Preparation of Carbolineum.


I.    Melt together 50 parts of American rosin (F) and 150 parts of pale paraffine oil (yellow oil), and add, with stirring, 20 parts of rosin oil (rectified).


II.   Sixty parts, by weight, of black coal tar oil of a specific gravity higher than 1.10; 25 parts, by weight, of creosote oil; 25 parts, by weight, of beechwood tar oil of a higher specific weight than 0.9. Mix together and heat to about 347º F., or until the fumes given off begin to deposit soot. The resulting carbolineum is brown, and of somewhat thick consistency; when cool it is ready for use and is packed in casks. This improved carbolineum is applied to wood or masonry with a brush; the surfaces treated dry quickly, very soon loose the odor of the carbolineum, and are effectively protected from dampness and formation of fungI.     



See Photography.



See Photography.



See Wood.



See Boil Remedy.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Adhesives under Cements and Waterproof Glues.



See Waterproofing.



See Pain Killers.



See Household Formulas.



See Soap.








See Leather.



See Cosmetics.



See Steel.




Dried Casein, its Manufacture and Uses. For the production of casein, skimmed milk or buttermilk is used, articles of slight value, as they cannot be employed for feeding hogs or for making cheese, except of a very inferior sort, of little or no alimentive qualities. This milk is heated to from 70 to 90 C. (175-195º F.), and sulphuric or hydrochloric acid is added until it no longer causes precipitation. The precipitate is washed to free it from residual lactose, redissolved in a sodium carbonate solution, and again precipitated, this time by lactic acid. It is again washed, dried, and pulverized. It takes 8 gallons of skimmed milk to make 1 pound of dry casein.


In the manufacture of fancy papers, or papers that are made to imitate the appearance of various cloths, laces, and silks, casein is very widely used. It is also largely used in waterproofing tissues, for preparation of waterproof products, and various articles prepared from agglomeration of cork (packing boards, etc.). With lime water casein makes a glue that resists heat, steam, etc. It also enters into the manufacture of the various articles made from artificial ivory (billiard balls, combs, toilet boxes, etc.), imitation of celluloid, meerschaum, etc., and is finding new uses every day.


Casein, as known, may act the part of an acid and combine with bases to form caseinates or caseates; among these compounds, caseinates of potash, of soda, and of ammonia are the only ones soluble in water; all the others are insoluble and may be readily prepared by double decomposition. Thus, for example, to obtain caseinate of alumina it is sufficient to add to a solution of casein in caustic soda, a solution of sulphate of alumina; an insoluble precipitate of casein, or caseinate of alumina, is instantly formed.


This precipitate ought to be freed from the sulphate of soda (formed by double decomposition), by means of prolonged washing. Pure, ordinary cellulose may be incorporated with it by this process, producing a new compound, cheaper than pure cellulose, although possessing the same properties, and capable of replacing it in all its applications.


According to the results desired, in transparency, color, hardness, etc., the most suitable caseinate should be selected. Thus, if a translucent compound is to be obtained, the caseinate of alumina yields the best. If a white compound is desired, the caseinate of zinc, or of magnesia, should be chosen; and for colored products the caseinates of iron, copper, and nickel will give varied tints.


The process employed for the new products, with a base of celluloid and caseinate, is as follows: On one hand casein is dissolved in a solution of caustic soda (100 parts of water for 10 to 25 parts of soda), and this liquid is filtered to separate the matters not dissolved and the impurities. On the other hand, a salt of the base of which the caseinate is desired is dissolved, and the solution filtered. It is well not to operate on too concentrated a solution. The two solutions are mixed in a receptacle provided with a mechanical stirrer, in order to obtain the insoluble caseinate precipitate in as finely divided a state as possible. This precipitate should be washed thoroughly, so as to free it from the soda salt formed by double decomposition, but on account of its gummy or pasty state, this washing presents certain difficulties, and should be done carefully. After the washing the mass is freed from the greater part of water contained, by draining, followed by drying, or energetic pressing; then it is washed in alcohol, dried or pressed again, and is ready to be incorporated in the plastic mass of the celluloid.


For the latter immersion and washing it has been found that an addition of 1 to 5 per cent of borax is advantageous, for it renders the mass more plastic, and facilitates the operation of mixing. This may be conducted in a mixing apparatus; but, in practice, it is found preferable to effect it with a rolling mill, operating as follows:


The nitro-cellulose is introduced in the plastic state, and moistened with a solution of camphor in alcohol (40 to 50 parts of camphor in 50 to 70 of alcohol for 100 of nitro-cellulose) as it is practiced in celluloid factories.


This plastic mass of nitro-cellulose is placed in a rolling mill, the cylinders of which are slightly heated at the same time as the caseinate, prepared as above; then the whole mass is worked by the cylinders until the mixture of the two






is perfectly homogeneous, and the final mass is sufficiently hard to be drawn out in leaves in the same way as practiced for pure celluloid.


These leaves are placed in hydraulic presses, where they are compressed, first hot, then cold, and the block thus formed is afterwards cut into leaves of the thickness desired. These leaves are dried in an apparatus in the same way as ordinary celluloid. The product resembles celluloid, and has all its properties. At 90 to 100 C. (194 to 212º F.), it becomes quite plastic, and is easily molded. It may be sawed, filed, turned, and carved without difficulty, and takes on a superb polish. It burns less readily than celluloid, and its combustibility diminishes in proportion as the percentage of caseinate increases; finally, the cost price is less than that of celluloid, and by using a large proportion of caseinate, products may be manufactured at an extremely low cost.


Phosphate of Casein and its Production. The process is designed to produce a strongly acid compound of phosphoric acid and casein, practically stable and not hydroscopic, which may be employed as an acid ingredient in bakers' yeast and for other purposes.


The phosphoric acid may be obtained by any convenient method; for example, by decomposing dicalcic or monocalcic phosphate with sulphuric acid. The commercial phosphoric acid may also be employed.


The casein may be precipitated from the skimmed milk by means of a suitable acid, and should be washed with cold water to remove impurities. A caseinate may also be employed, such as a compound of casein and an alkali or an alkaline earth.


The new compound is produced in the following way: A sufficient quantity of phosphoric acid is incorporated with the casein or a caseinate in such a way as to insure sufficient acidity in the resulting compound. The employment of 23 to 25 parts by weight of phosphoric acid with 75 to 77 parts of casein constitutes

a good proportion.


An aqueous solution of phosphoric acid is made, and the casein introduced in the proportion of 25 to 50 per cent of the weight of the phosphoric acid present. The mixture is then heated till the curdled form of the casein disappears, and it assumes a uniform fluid form.

Then the mixture is concentrated to a syrupy consistency. The remainder of the casein or of the caseinate is added and mixed /with the solution until it is intimately incorporated and the mass becomes uniform. The compound is dried in a current of hot air, or in any other way that will not discolor it, and it is ground to a fine powder. The intimate union of the phosphoric acid and casein during the gradual concentration of the mixture and during the grinding and drying, removes the hydroscopic property of the phosphoric acid, and produces a dry and stable product, which may be regarded as a hyperphosphate of casein. When it is mixed with water, it swells and dissolves slowly.

When this compound is mingled with its equivalent of sodium bicarbonate it yields about 17 per cent of gas.



See Adhesives.



See Varnishes.




To Render Shrunken Wooden Casks Watertight. When a wooden receptacle has dried up it naturally cannot hold the water poured into it for the purpose of swelling it, and the pouring has to be repeated many times before the desired end is reached. A much quicker way is to stuff the receptacle full of straw or bad hay, laying a stone on top and then filling the vessel with water. Although the water runs off again, the moistened straw remains behind and greatly assists the swelling up of the wood.



See Gold.



See Castings.



See Plaster.



See Adhesives and Lutes.



See Modeling.




Castings Out of Various Metals. Until recent years metal castings were all made in sand molds; that is, the patterns were used for the impressions in the sand, the same as iron castings are produced to-day. Nearly all of the softer metals are now cast in brass, copper, zinc, or iron molds, and only the silver






and German silver articles, like wire real bronze, are cast the old way, in sand. Aluminum can be readily cast in iron molds, especially if the molds have been previously heated to nearly the same temperature as the molten aluminum, and after the molds are full the metal is cooled gradually and the casting taken out as soon as cooled enough to prevent breaking from the shrinkage. Large bicycle frames have been successfully cast in this manner.


The French bronzes, which are imitations, are cast in copper or brass molds. The material used is principally zinc and tin, and an unlimited number of castings can be made in the mold, but if a real bronze piece is to be produced it must be out of copper and the mold made in sand. To make the castings hollow, with sand, a core is required. This fills the inside of the figure so that the molten copper runs around it, and as the core is made out of sand, the same can be afterwards washed out. If the casting is to be hollow and is to be cast in a metal mold, then the process is very simple. The mold is filled with molten metal, and when the operator thinks the desired thickness has cooled next to the walls, he pours out the balance. An experienced man can make hollow castings in this way, and make the walls of any thickness.


Casket hardware trimmings, which are so extensively used on coffins, especially the handles, are nearly all cast out of tin and antimony, and in brass molds. The metal used is brittle, and requires strengthening at the weak portions, and this is mostly done with wood filling or with iron rods, which are secured in the molds before the metal is poured in.


Aluminum castings, which one has procured at the foundries, are usually alloyed with zinc. This has a close affinity with aluminum, and alloys readily; but this mixture is a detriment and causes much trouble afterwards. While this alloy assists the molder to produce his castings easily, on the other hand it will not polish well and will corrode in

a short time. Those difficulties may be avoided if pure aluminum is used.


Plaster of Paris molds are the easiest made for pieces where only a few castings are wanted. The only difficulty is that it requires a few days to dry the plaster thoroughly, and that is absolutely necessary to use them successfully. Not only can the softer metals be run into plaster molds, but gold and silver can be run into them. A plaster mold should be well smoked over a gaslight, or until well covered with a layer of soot, and the metal should be poured in as cool a state as it will run.


To Prevent the Adhesion of Modeling Sand to Castings. Use a mixture of finely ground coke and graphite. Although the former material is highly porous, possessing this quality even as a fine powder, and the fine pulverization is a difficult operation, still the invention attains its purpose of producing an absolutely smooth surface. This is accomplished by mixing both substances intimately and adding melted rosin, whereupon the whole mass is exposed to heat, so that the rosin decomposes, its carbon residue filling up the finest pores of the coke. The rosin, in melting, carries the fine graphite particles along into the pores. After cooling the mass is first ground in edge mills, then again in a suitable manner and sifted. Surprising results are obtained with this material. It is advisable to take proportionately little graphite, as the different co-efficients of expansion of the two substances may easily exercise a disturbing action. One-fifth of graphite, in respect to the whole mass, gives the best results, but it is advisable to add plenty of rosin. The liquid mixture must, before burning, possess the consistency of mortar.


Sand Holes in Cast-Brass Work. Cast-brass work, when it presents numerous and deep sand holes, should be well dipped into the dipping acid before being polished, in order thoroughly to clean these objectionable cavities; and the polishing should be pushed to an extent sufficient to obliterate the smaller sand holes, if possible, as this class of work looks very unsightly, when plated and finished, if pitted all over with minute hollows. The larger holes cannot, without considerable labor, be obliterated; indeed, it not infrequently happens that in endeavoring to work out such cavities they become enlarged, as they often extend deep into the body of the metal. An experienced hand knows how far he dare go in polishing work of this awkward character.


Black Wash for Casting Molds. Gumlac, 1 part; wood spirit, 2 parts; lampblack, in sufficient quantity to color.


How to Make a Plaster Cast of a Coin or Medal. The most exact observance of any written or printed directions is no guarantee of success. Practice alone can give expertness in this work


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