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Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

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Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 426-450






392º F. for 3 to 4 hours, and then add 1 part of linseed-oil varnish and oil of turpentine as required.


III.  Insulating Varnish for Dynamos and Conduits with Low Tension. Shellac, 4 parts; sandarac, 2 parts; linoleic acid, 2 parts; alcohol, 15 parts.


IV.   An insulating material which contains no caoutchouc is made by dissolving natural or coal-tar asphalt in wood oil, adding sulphur and vulcanizing at 572º F. The mixture of asphalt and wood oil may also be vulcanized with chloride of sulphur by the ordinary process used for caoutchouc. Before vulcanizing, a solution of rubber scraps in naphthalene is sometimes added and the naphthalene expelled by a current of steam. Substitutes for hard rubber are made of natural or artificial asphalt combined with heavy oil of tar and talc or

infusorial earth.


Most of the insulating materials advertised under alluring names consist of asphalt combined with rosin, tar, and an inert powder such as clay or asbestos. Some contain graphite, which is a good conductor and therefore a very undesirable ingredient in an insulator.




An asbestos jacket is the usual insulator for boilers, steampipes, etc. The thicker the covering around the steampipe, the more heat is retained. A chief requirement for such protective mass is that it contains air in fine channels, so that there is no connection with the closed-in air. Most substances suitable for insulating are such that they can only with difficulty be used for a protective mass. The most ordinary way is to mix infusorial earth, kieselguhr, slag-wool, hair, ground cork, etc., with loam or clay, so that this plastic mass may be applied moist on the pipes. In using such substances care should be taken carefully to clean and heat the surfaces to be covered. The mass for the first coating is made into a paste by gradual addition of water and put on thick with a brush. After drying each time a further coating is applied. This is repeated until the desired thickness is reached. The last layer put on is rubbed smooth with the flat hand. Finally, strips of linen are wound around, which is coated with tar or oil paint as a protection against outside injuries. Cork stones consist of crushed cork with a mineral binding agent, and are sold pressed into various shapes.


Leather Waste Insulation. Portions of leather, such as the fibers of sole leather of any size and form, are first rendered soft. The surface is then carded or the surface fibers scratched or raised in such a manner that when several pieces are pressed together their surface fibers adhere, and a compact, durable piece of leather is produced.

The carding can be done by an ordinary batting machine, the action of which is so regulated that not only are the pieces of leather softened, but the fibers on their surfaces raised. The structure of the separate pieces of leather remains essentially unaltered. The raised fibers give the appearance of a furry substance to the leather. The batted pieces of leather are well mixed with paste or some suitable gum, either in or outside of the machine, and are then put into specially shaped troughs, where they are pressed together into layers of the required size and thickness. The separate pieces of leather adhere and are matted together. An agglutinant, if accessible, will contribute materially to the strength and durability of the product. The layers are dried, rolled, and are then ready for use. The pieces need not be packed together promiscuously. If larger portions of waste can be secured, the separate pieces can be arranged one upon another in rows. The larger pieces can also, be used for the top and bottom of a leather pad, the middle portion of which consists of smaller pieces.




Experiments have shown that with the aid of red lead a very serviceable, resistive, and weatherproof insulation material may be produced from inferior fibers, to take the place, in many cases, of gutta-percha and other substances employed for insulating purposes, and particularly to effect the permanent insulation of aerial conductors exposed to the action of the weather. Hackethal used for the purpose any vegetable fiber which is wrapped around the conductors to be insulated. The fiber is then saturated with liquid red lead. The latter is accomplished in the proportion of 4 to 5 parts of red lead, by weight, to 1 part, by weight, of linseed oil, by the hot or cold process, by mere immersion or under pressure. All the three substances, fiber, oil, and red lead, possess in themselves a certain insulating capacity, but none of them is alone of utility for such purposes. Even the red lead mixed with linseed oil does not possess in the liquid state a high degree of insulating power,






Only when both substances, the ingredients of the linseed oil capable of absorbing oxygen and the lead oxide rich in oxygen, oxidize in the air, a new gummy product of great insulating capacity results.



See Photography.




Iodine is quickly dissolved in oils by first rubbing up the iodine with one fourth of its weight of potassium iodide and a few drops of glycerine, then adding a little oil and rubbing up again. The addition of the resultant liquid to the rest of the oil and a sharp agitation finishes the process.



See Soap.




Rub the part with about a teaspoonful of wine vinegar, after a previous thorough washing with soap.



(See also Metals and Steel.)


To Color Iron Blue. One hundred and forty parts of hyposulphite of soda are dissolved in 1,000 parts of water; 35 parts of acetate of lead are dissolved in 1,000 parts of water; the two solutions are mixed, boiled, and the iron is immersed therein. The metal takes a blue color, such as is obtained by heating.


To Distinguish Iron from Steel. The piece of metal to be tested is washed and then plunged into a solution of bichromate of potash, with the addition of considerable sulphuric acid. In half a minute or a minute the metal can be taken out, washed, and wiped. Soft steels and cast iron assume under this treatment an ash-gray tint. Tempered steels become almost black, without any metallic reflection. Puddled and refined irons remain nearly white and always have metallic reflections on the part of their surface previously filed, the remainder of the surface presenting irregular blackish spots.


Another method is to apply a magnet. Steel responds much more quickly and actively to the magnetic influence than does iron.


Powder for Hardening Iron and Steel. For wrought iron place in the charge 20 parts, by weight, of common salt; 2 parts, by weight, of potassium cyanide; 0.3 parts, by weight, of potassium bichromate; 0.15 parts, by weight, of broken glass; and 0.1 part, by weight, of potassium nitrate for case-hardening. For cooling and hardening cast iron: To 60 parts, by weight, of water add 2.5 parts, by weight, of vinegar; 3 parts, by weight, of common salt; and 0.25 parts, by weight, of hydrochloric acid.


Preventing the Peeling of Coatings for Iron. To obviate the scaling of coatings on iron, if exposed to the attacks of the weather, it is advisable to wash the iron thoroughly and to paint it next with a layer of boiling linseed oil. If thus treated, the paint never cracks off. If the iron objects are small and can be heated, it is advantageous to heat them previously and to dip them into linseed oil. The boiling oil enters all the pores of the metal and drives out the moisture. The coating adheres so firmly that frost, rain, nor wind can injure it.


To Soften Iron Castings. To soften hard iron castings, heat the object to a high temperature, cover it over with fine coal dust or some similar substance, and allow it to cool gradually. When the articles are of small size, a number of them are packed in a crucible with substances yielding carbon to iron at a glowing heat. The crucible is then tightly closed, and placed in a stove or on an open fire. It is gradually heated and kept at a red heat for several hours, and then allowed to cool slowly. Cast-iron turnings, carbonate of soda, and unrefined sugar are recommended as substances suitable for packing in the crucible with the castings. If unrefined sugar alone is added, the quantity must not be too small. By this process the iron may be rendered extremely soft.


To Whiten Iron. Mix ammoniacal salt in powder with an equal volume of mercury. This is dissolved in cold water and mixed thoroughly. Immerse the metal, heated to redness, in this bath and it will come out possessing the whiteness and beauty of silver. Care should be taken not to overheat the article and thus burn it.



See Pyrotechnics.



See Adhesives.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Adhesives. 







See Adhesives, under Rubber Cements.



See Photography.



See Solders.



See Laundry Preparations.



See Varnishes.



See Ointments.



(See also Bones, Shell, and Horn.)




Red. The article is placed for 24 hours in water, 1,000 parts of which carry 100 parts of vinegar (acetic acid, 6 per cent), and from 1 to 5 parts of aniline red. As soon as it acquires the desired color pour off the liquid, let the ivory dry, and polish with Vienna lime.


Black. Wash the article first in potash or soda lye and then put into a neutral solution of silver nitrate. Drain off the liquid and lay in the direct sunshine.


Red-Purple. Put the article in a weak solution of triple gold chloride and then into direct sunshine.


Red. For a different shade of red (from the first given), place the article for a short time in water weakly acidified with nitric acid and then in a solution of cochineal in ammonia.


Yellow. Leave for several hours in a solution of lead acetate, rinse and dry. When quite dry place in a solution of potassium chromate.


To Color Billiard Balls Red.


Fiery Red. Wash the article first in a solution of carbonate of soda, then plunge for a few seconds in a bath of equal parts of water and nitric acid. Remove, rinse in running water: then put in an alcoholic solution of fuchsine and let it remain until it is the required color.


Cherry Red. Clean by washing in the sodium carbonate solution, rinse and lay in a 2 per cent solution of tin chloride, for a few moments, then boil in a solution of logwood. Finally lay in a solution of potassium carbonate until it assumes the desired color.


Pale Red. Wash in soda solution, rinse and lay for 25 minutes in a 5 per cent solution of nitric acid, rinse, then lay for several minutes in a weak solution of tin chloride. Finally boil in the following solution: Carmine, 2 parts; sodium carbonate, 12 parts; water, 200 parts; acetic acid enough to saturate.


Brown. Apply several coats of an ammoniacal solution of potassium permanganate. Similar results are obtained if the solution is diluted with vinegar, and the ivory article allowed to remain in the liquid for some time.


Etching on Ivory (see also Etching). Although decorations on ivory articles, such as umbrella handles, cuff-buttons, fans, book-covers, boxes, etc., are generally engraved, the work is frequently done by etching. The patterns must be very delicate, and are executed in lines only. The simplest way is to cover the surface with a thin rosin varnish. Then transfer the pattern and scratch it out accurately ,with a pointed needle. Otherwise proceed same as in etching on metal and stone, making an edge of modeling wax around the surface to be etched and pouring on the acid, which consists, in this case, of sulphuric acid, 1 part, to which 5 to 6 parts of water are added. It acts very quickly. The lines turn a deep black. If brown lines are desired, dissolve 1 part of silver nitrate in 5 parts of water, etch for a short time, and expose the article for a few hours to the light, until the design turns brown. Very often etchings in ivory are gilded. For this purpose, fill the etched patterns accurately with siccatives, using a writing pen, dry, and dab on gold leaf. After a few hours remove the superfluous gold with wadding, and the design will be nicely gilded. Etched ivory articles present a very handsome appearance if they are first covered with a silvery gloss, the design being gilded afterwards. For the former purpose the etched object is laid in the above described solution of silver nitrate until it has acquired a dark yellow color. Then rinse it off in clean water and, while still moist, expose to direct sunlight. After 3 to 4 hours the surface becomes entirely black, but will take on a fine silvery luster if rubbed with soft leather.


Flexible Ivory. To soften ivory and render it flexible put pure phosphoric acid (specific gravity, 1.13) into a wide mouthed bottle or jar that can be covered, and steep the ivory in this until it partially loses its opacity; then wash the ivory in cold, soft water and dry, when the ivory will be found soft and flexible.






It regains its hardness in course of time when freely exposed to air, although its flexibility can be restored by immersing the ivory in hot water.


Another softening fluid is prepared by mixing 1 ounce of spirit of niter with 5 ounces of water and steeping the ivory in the fluid for 4 or 5 days.


Hardened Ivory. To restore the hardness to ivory that has been softened by the above methods, wrap it in a sheet of white writing paper, cover it with dry decrepitated salt, and let it remain thus covered for 24 hours. The decrepitated salt is prepared by strewing common kitchen salt on a plate or dish and standing same before a fierce fire, when the salt loses its crystalline appearance and assumes a dense opaque whiteness.



See also Casein and Plaster.


Manufacture of Compounds Imitating Ivory, Shell, etc. Casein, as known, may act the part of an acid and combine with bases to form caseinates or caseates; among these compounds, caseinates of potash, of soda, and of ammonia are the only ones soluble in water; all the others are insoluble and may be readily prepared by double decomposition. Thus, for example, to obtain caseinate of alumina, it is sufficient to add to a solution of casein in caustic soda a solution of sulphate of alumina; an insoluble precipitate of casein, or caseinate of alumina, is instantly formed. This precipitate ought to be freed from the sulphate of soda (formed by double decomposition) by means of prolonged



When pure, ordinary cellulose may be incorporated with it by this process, producing a new compound, cheaper than pure cellulose, although possessing the same properties, and capable of replacing it in all its applications. According to the results desired, in transparency, color, hardness, etc., the most suitable caseinate should be selected. Thus, if a translucent compound is to be obtained, the caseinate of alumina yields the best. If a white compound is desired, the caseinate of zinc or of magnesia should be chosen; and for colored products the caseinates of iron, copper, and nickel will give varied tints.


The process employed for the new products, with a base of celluloid and

caseinate, is as follows: On one hand casein is dissolved in a solution of caustic soda (100 of water for 10 to 25 of soda), and this liquid is filtered, to separate the matters not dissolved and the impurities.


On the other hand, a salt (of the base of which the caseinate is desired) is dissolved, and the solution filtered. It is well not to operate on too concentrated a solution. The two solutions are mixed in a reservoir furnished with a mechanical stirrer, in order to obtain the insoluble caseinate precipitate in as finely divided a state as possible. This precipitate should be washed thoroughly so as to free it from the soda salt formed by double decomposition, but on account of its gummy or pasty state, this washing presents certain difficulties, and should be done carefully. After the washing it should be freed from the greater part of water contained by draining, followed by drying, or energetic pressing; then it is washed in alcohol, dried or pressed again, and is ready to be incorporated in the mass of the celluloid.


For the latter immersion and washing, it has been found that an addition of 1 to 5 per cent of borax is advantageous, for it renders the mass more plastic, and facilitates the operation of mixing. This may be conducted in a mixing apparatus; but, in practice, it is found preferable to effect it with a rolling mill, operated as follows:


The nitro-cellulose is introduced in the plastic state, and moistened with a solution of camphor in alcohol (40 to 50 parts of camphor in 50 to 70 parts of alcohol for 100 parts of nitro-cellulose) as it is practiced in celluloid factories.


This plastic mass of nitro-cellulose is placed in a rolling mill, the cylinders of which are slightly heated at the same time as the caseinate, prepared as above; then the whole mass is worked by the cylinders until the mixture of the two is perfectly homogeneous, and the final mass is sufficiently hard to be drawn out in leaves in the same way as practiced for pure celluloid. These leaves are placed in hydraulic presses, where they are compressed, first hot, then cold, and the block thus formed is afterwards cut into leaves of the thickness desired. These leaves are dried in an apparatus in the same way as ordinary celluloid. The product resembles celluloid, and has all its properties. At 195º to 215º F. it becomes quite plastic, and is easily molded. It may be sawed, filed, turned, and carved without difficulty, and takes on a superb polish. It burns less readily than celluloid, and its combustibility diminishes in proportion as the percentage of caseinate increases; finally, the cost price is less than that of celluloid,






and by using a large proportion of caseinate, products may be manufactured at an extremely low cost.




If simply dirty, scrub with soap and tepid water, using an old tooth or nail brush for the purpose. Grease stains may be sometimes removed by applying a paste of chalk or whiting and benzol, covering the article so that the benzol may not dry too rapidly. Carbon disulphide (the purified article) may be used in place ot benzol. When dry, rub off with a stiff brush. If not removed with the first application, repeat the process. Delicately carved articles that show a tendency to brittleness should be soaked for a short time in dilute phosphoric acid before any attempt to clean them is made. This renders the minuter portions almost ductile, and prevents their breaking under cleaning.


The large scratched brush should be treated as follows: If the scratches are deep, the surface may be carefully rubbed down to the depth of the scratch, using the finest emery cloth, until the depth is nearly reached, then substituting crocus cloth.


To restore the polish nothing is superior to the genuine German putz pomade, following by rubbing first with chamois and finishing off with soft old silk. The more "elbow grease" put into the rubbing the easier the task, as the heat generated by friction seems to lend a sort of ductility to the surface. To remove the yellow hue due to age, proceed as follows: Make a little tripod with wire, to hold the object a few inches above a little vessel containing lime chloride moistened with hydrochloric acid; put the object on the stand, cover the whole with a bell glass, and expose to direct sunlight. When bleached, remove and wash in a solution of sodium bicarbonate, rinse in clear water and dry.


Like mother-of-pearl, ivory is readily cleaned by dipping in a bath of oxygenized water or immersing for 15 minutes in spirits of turpentine, and subsequently exposing to the sun for 3 or 4 days. For a simple cleaning of smooth articles, wash them in hot water, in which there has been previously dissolved 100 parts (by weight) of bicarbonate of soda per 1,000 parts of water. To clean carved ivory make a paste of very fine, damp sawdust, and put on this the juice of 1 or 2 lemons, according to the article to be treated. Now apply a layer of this sawdust on the ivory, and when dry brush it off and rub the object with a chamois.




Many years ago an article was introduced in the industrial world which in contradistinction to the genuine animal ivory, has its origin in the vegetable kingdom, being derived from the nut of a palm-like shrub called phytelephasma crocarpa, whose fruit reaches the size of an apple. This fruit has a very white, exceedingly hard kernel which can be worked like ivory. A hundred of these fruits only costing about $1, their use offers great advantages. Worked on the lathe this ivory can be passed off as the genuine article, it being so much like it that it is often sold at the same price. It can also be colored just like genuine ivory.


To distinguish the two varieties of ivory, the following method may be

employed: Concentrated sulphuric acid applied to vegetable ivory will cause a pink coloring in about 10 or 12 minutes, which can be removed again by washing with water. Applied on genuine ivory, this acid does not affect it in any manner.



See Bone Black.



See Adhesives.



See Plating.



See Polishes.



See Paints.



See Varnishes.



See Cosmetics.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Adhesives.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.


Jewelers’ Formulas

(See also Gems, Gold, and Watchmakers' Recipes.)


Coloring Gold Jewelry. Following are several recipes for coloring: Saltpeter, 40 parts; alum, 30 parts; sea salt, 30 parts; or, liquid ammonia, 100 parts; sea salt, 3 parts; water, 100 parts. Heat without allowing to boil and plunge






the objects into it for 2 or 3 minutes, stirring constantly; rinse in alum water and then in clean water. Another recipe: Calcium bromide, 100 parts; bromine, 5 parts. Place the articles in this solution, with stirring, for 2 to 3 minutes; next wash in a solution of hyposulphite of sodium and rinse in clean water. Another: Verdigris, 30 parts; sea salt, 30 parts; blood stone, 30 parts; sal ammoniac, 30 parts; alum, 5 parts. Grind all and stir with strong vinegar; or, verdigris, 100 parts; hydrochlorate of ammonia, 100 parts; saltpeter, 65 parts; copper filings, 40 parts. Bray all and mix with strong vinegar.


To Widen a Jewel Hole. Chuck the hole in a lathe with cement. Place a spirit lamp underneath to prevent the cement from hardening. Hold the pointed bit against the hole, while the lathe is running, until the hole is true, when the lamp should be removed. The broach to widen the hole should be made of copper, of the required size and shape, and the point, after being oiled, should be rolled in diamond dust until it is entirely covered. The diamond dust should then be beaten in with a burnisher, using very light blows so as not to bruise the broach. After the hole is widened as desired, it requires polishing with a broach made of ivory and used with oil and the finest diamond dust, loose, not driven into the broach.


To Clean Jet Jewelry. Reduce bread crumbs into small particles, and introduce into all the curves and hollows of the jewelry, while rubbing with a flannel.


Coloring Common Gold. In coloring gold below 18 carat, the following mixture may be used with success, and if carefully employed, even 12 carat gold may be colored by it: Take nitrate of potassa (saltpeter), 4 parts, by weight; alum, 2 parts; and common salt, 2 parts. Add sufficient warm water to mix the ingredients into a thin paste; place the mixture in a small pipkin or crucible and allow to boil. The article to be colored should be suspended by a wire and dipped into the mixture, where it should remain from 10 to 20 minutes. The article should then be removed and well rinsed in hot water, when it must be scratch brushed, again rinsed and returned to the coloring salts for a few minutes; it is then to be again rinsed in hot water, scratch brushed, and finally brushed with soap and hot water, rinsed in hot water, and placed in boxwood sawdust. The object being merely to remove the alloy, as soon as the article has acquired the proper color of fine gold it may be considered sufficiently acted upon by the above mixture. The coloring salts should not be used for gold of a lower standard than 12 carat, and, even for this quality of gold, some care must be taken when the articles are of a very slight make.


Shades of Red, etc., on Matt Gold Bijouterie. For the production of the

red and other shades on matt gold articles, the so-called gold varnishes are employed, which consist of shellac dissolved in alcohol and are colored with gum rosins. Thus a handsome golden yellow is obtained from shellac, 35 parts; seed-lac, 35 parts; dragon's blood, 50

parts; gamboge, 50 parts; dissolved in 400 parts of alcohol; the clear solution is decanted and mixed with 75 parts of Venice turpentine. By changing the amounts of the coloring rosins, shades from bright gold yellow to copper color are obtained. The varnish is applied evenly and after drying is wiped off from the raised portions of the article by means of a pad of wadding dipped into alcohol, whereby a handsome patination effect is produced, since the lacquer remains in the cavities. Chased articles are simply rubbed with earth colors ground into a paste with turpentine oil, for which purpose burnt sienna, fine

ochers of a golden color, golden yellow, and various shades of green are employed.



Yellow wax                          32 parts

Red bole                            3 parts

Crystallized verdigris              2 parts

Alum                                2 parts



Yellow wax                          95 parts

Red bole                            64 parts

Colcothar                           2 parts

Crystallized verdigris              32 parts

Copper ashes                        20 parts

Zinc vitriol                        32 parts

Green vitriol                       16 parts

Borax                               1 part


The wax is melted and the finely powdered chemicals are stirred in, in rotation. If the gilt bronze goods are to obtain a lustrous orange shade, apply a mixture of ferric oxide, alum, cooking salt, and vinegar in the heated articles by means of a brush, heating to about 266º F. until the shade commences to turn black and water sprinkled on will evaporate with a hissing sound, then cool in water, dip in a mixture of 1 part of nitric acid with 40 parts of water, rinse






thoroughly, dry, and polish. For the production of a pale-gold shade use a wax preparation consisting of:



Yellow wax                          19 parts

Zinc vitriol                        10 parts

Burnt borax                         3 parts


Green-gold color is produced by a mixture of:



Saltpeter                           6 parts

Green vitriol                       2 parts

Zinc vitriol                        1 part

Alum                                1 part


To Matt Gilt Articles. If it is desired to matt gilt articles partly or entirely, the portions which are to remain burnished are covered with a mixture of chalk, sugar, and mucilage, heating until this "stopping-off" covering shows a black color. On the places not covered apply a matting powder consisting of:


Saltpeter                           40 parts

Alum                                25 parts

Cooking salt                        35 parts


Heat the objects to about 608º F., whereby the powder is melted and acquires the consistency of a thin paste, n case of too high a temperature decomposition will set in.


To Find the Number of Carats. To find the number of carats of gold in an object, first weigh the gold and mix with seven times its weight in silver. This alloy is beaten into thin leaves, and nitric acid is added; this dissolves the silver and copper. The remainder (gold) is then fused and weighed; by comparing the first and last weights the number of carats of pure gold is found. To check repeat several times.


Acid Test for Gold. The ordinary ready method of ascertaining whether a piece of jewelry is made of gold consists in touching it with a glass stopper wetted with nitric acid, which leaves gold untouched, but colors base alloys blue from the formation of nitrate of copper.


Imitation Diamonds.


I.    Minium, 75 parts (by weight); washed white sand, 50 parts; calcined potash, 18 parts; calcined borax, 6 parts: binoxide of arsenic, 1 part. The sand must be washed in hydrochloric acid and then several times in clean water. The specific gravity of this crystal glass is almost the same as that of the diamond.


II.   Washed white sand, 100 parts (by weight): minium, 35 parts; calcined potash, 25 parts; calcined borax, 20 parts; nitrate of potash (crystals), 10 parts; peroxide of manganese, 5 parts. The sand must be washed as above stated.


Diamantine. This substance consists of crystallized boron, the basis of borax.      By melting 100 parts of boracic acid and 80 parts of aluminum crystals is obtained the so-called bort, which even attacks diamond. The diamantine of commerce is not so hard.


To Refine Board Sweepings. The residue resulting from a jobbing jeweler's business, such as board sweepings and other residuum, which is continually accumulating and which invariably consists of all mixed qualities of standard, may have the precious metals recovered therefrom in a very simple manner, as follows: Collect the residue and burn it in an iron ladle or pan, until all grease or other organic matter is destroyed. When cool mix with 1/5 part soda-ash, and melt in a clay crucible. When the metal is thoroughly melted it will leave the flux and sink to the bottom of the crucible; at this stage the flux assumes the appearance of a thin fluid, and then is the time to withdraw the pot from the fire. The metal in the crucible but not the flux may now be poured into a vessel of water, stirring the water in a circular direction while the metal is being poured in, which causes it to form into small grains, and so prepares it for the next process. Dissolve the grains in a mixture of nitric acid and water in equal quantities. It takes about four times the quantity of liquid as metal to dissolve. The gold remains undissolved in this mixture, and may be recovered by filtering or decanting the liquid above it in the dissolving vessel; it is then dried, mixed with a little flux, and melted in the usual manner, whereupon pure gold will be obtained. To recover the silver, dilute the solution which has been withdrawn from the gold with six times its bulk of water, and add by degrees small quantities of finely powdered common salt, and this will throw down the silver into a white, curdy powder of chloride of silver. Continue to add salt until no cloudiness is observed in the solution, when the water above the sediment may be poured off; the sediment is next well washed with warm water several times, then dried and melted in the same manner as the gold, and you will have a lump of pure silver.


Restoration of the Color of Turquoises. After a certain time turquoises lose a part of their fine color. It is easy to restore the color by immersing them in a solution of carbonate of soda. But it seems that the blue cannot be restored anew after this operation, if it again becomes dull. The above applies to






common turquoises, and not to those of the Orient, of which the color does not change.


Colorings for Jewelers' Work.


I.    Take 40 parts of saltpeter; 30 parts of alum; 30 parts of sea salt; or 100 grams of liquid ammonia; 3 parts sea salt; and 100 parts water. This is heated without bringing it to a boil, and the articles dipped into it for from 2 to 3 minutes, stirring the liquid constantly; after this bath they are dipped in alum water and then thoroughly rinsed in clean water.


II.   One hundred parts of calcium bromide and 2 parts of bromium. The objects are allowed to remain in this solution (which must be also constantly stirred) for from 2 to 3 minutes, then washed in a solution of sodium hyposulphite, after which they must be rinsed in clean water.


III.  Thirty parts of verdigris; 30 parts of sea salt; 30 parts of hematite; 30 parts of sal ammoniac, and 5 parts of alum. This must be all ground up together and mixed with strong vinegar; or we may also use 100 parts of verdigris; 100 parts of hydrochlorate of ammonia; 65 parts of saltpeter, and 40 parts of copper filings, all of which are to be well mixed with strong vinegar.


22-Carat Solder. Soldering is a process which, by means of a more fusible compound, the connecting surfaces of metals are firmly secured to each other, but, for many practical purposes, it is advisable to have the fusing point of the metal and solder as near each other as possible, which, in the majority of cases, preserves a union more lasting, and the joint less distinguishable, in consequence of the similarity of the metal and solder in color, which age does not destroy, and this is not the case with solders the fusible points of which are very low. The metal to be soldered together must have an affinity for the solder, otherwise the union will be imperfect; and the solder should likewise act upon the metal, partly by this affinity or chemical attraction, and partly by cohesive force, to unite the connections soundly and firmly together. Solders should therefore be prepared suitable to the work in hand, if a good and lasting job is to be made. It should always be borne in mind that the higher the fusing point of the gold alloy - and this can be made to vary considerably, even with any specified quality - the harder solder must be used, for in the case of a more fusible mixture of gold, the latter would melt before the solder and cause the work to be destroyed. A very good formula for the first, or ordinary, 22-carat alloy is this:


dwts.       grs.

Fine gold                           1           0

Fine silver                         0           3

Fine copper                         0           2    


                                    1           5


This mixture will answer all the many purposes of the jobber; for soldering high quality gold wares that come for repairs, particularly wedding rings, it will be found admirably suited. If an easier solder is wanted, and such is very often the case with jobbing jewelers, especially where several solderings have to be accomplished, it is as well to have at hand a solder which will not disturb the previous soldering places, for if this is not prevented a very simple job is made very difficult, and a lot of time and patience wholly wasted. To guard against a thing of this kind the following solder may be employed on the top of the previous one:


dwts.       grs.

Fine gold                           1           0

Fine silver                         0           3

Yellow brass                        0           2


1           5


This solder is of the same value as the previous one, but its melting point is lower, and it will be found useful for many purposes that can be turned to good account in a jobbing jeweler's business.



See also Alloys and Solders.


18-Carat Gold for Rings. Gold coin, 19 1/2 grains; pure copper, 3 grains; pure silver, 1 1/2 grains.


Cheap Gold, 12 Carat. Gold coin, 25 grains; pure copper, 13 1/2 grains; pure silver, 7 1/3 grains.


Very Cheap 4-Carat Gold. Copper, 18 parts; gold, 4 parts; silver, 2 parts.


Imitations of Gold.


I.    Platina, 4 pennyweights; pure copper, 2 1/4 pennyweights; sheet zinc, 1 pennyweight; block tin, 1 3/4 pennyweights: pure lead, 1 1/2 pennyweight. If this should be found too hard or brittle for practical use, remelting the composition with a little sal ammoniac will generally render it malleable as desired.


II.   Platina, 2 parts: silver, 1 part; copper, 3 parts. These compositions, when properly prepared, so nearly resemble pure gold that it is very difficult to






distinguish them therefrom. A little powdered charcoal, mixed with metals while melting, will be found of service.


Best Oreide of Gold. Pure copper, 4 ounces; sheet zinc, 1 3/4 ounces; magnesia, 5/8 ounce; sal ammoniac, 11/32 ounce; quicklime, 9/32 ounce; cream tartar, 7/8 ounce. First melt the copper at as low a temperature as it will melt; then add the zinc, and afterwards the other articles in powder, in the order named. Use a charcoal fire to melt these metals.


Bushing Alloy for Pivot Holes, etc. Gold coin, 3 pennyweights; silver, 1 pennyweight, 20 grains; copper, 3 pennyweights, 20 grains; palladium, 1 pennyweight. The best composition known for the purpose named.


Gold Solder for 14- to 16-Carat Work. Gold coin, 1 pennyweight; pure silver, 9 grains; pure copper, 6 grains; brass, 3 grains.


Darker Solder. Gold coin, 1 pennyweight; pure copper, 8 grains; pure silver, 5 grains; brass, 2 grains. Melt together in charcoal fire.


Solder for Gold. Gold, 6 pennyweights; silver, 1 pennyweight; copper, 2 pennyweights.


Soft Gold Solder. Gold, 4 parts; silver, 1 part; copper, 1 part.


Solders for Silver (for the use of jewelers). Fine silver, 19 pennyweights; copper, 1 pennyweight; sheet brass, 10 pennyweights.


White Solder for Silver. Silver, 1 ounce; tin, 1 ounce.


Silver Solder for Plated Metal. Fine silver, 1 ounce; brass, 10 pennyweights.


Solders for Gold.


I.    Silver, 7 parts; copper, 1 part; with borax.   


II.   Gold, 2 parts; silver, 1 part; copper, 1 part.


III.  Gold, 3 parts; silver, 3 parts; copper, 1 part; zinc, 1/2 part.


For Silver. Silver, 2 parts; brass, 1 part; with borax; or, silver, 4 parts; brass, 3 parts; zinc, 1/18 part; with borax. 


Gold Solders (see also Solders).


I.    Copper, 24.24 parts; silver, 27.57 parts; gold, 48.19 parts.


II.   Enamel Solder. Copper, 25 parts; silver, 7.07 parts; gold, 67.93 parts.


III.  Copper, 26.55 parts; zinc, 6.25 parts; silver, 31.25 parts; gold, 36 parts.


IV.   Enamel Solder. Silver, 19.57 parts; gold, 80.43 parts,


Solder for 22-Carat Gold. Gold of 22 carats, 1 pennyweight; silver, 2 grains; copper, 1 grain.


For 18-Carat Gold. Gold of 18 carats, 1 pennyweight; silver, 2 grains; copper, 1 grain.


For Cheaper Gold.


I.    Gold, 1 pennyweight; silver, 10 grains; copper, 8



II.   Fine gold, 1 pennyweight; silver, 1 pennyweight; copper, 1 pennyweight.


Silver Solders (see also Solders).


I.    (Hard.) Copper, 30 parts; zinc, 12.85 parts; silver, 57.15 parts.


II.   Copper, 23.33 parts; zinc, 10 parts; silver, 66.67 parts.


III.  Copper, 26.66 parts; zinc, 10 parts; silver, 63.34 parts.


IV.   (Soft.) Copper, 14.75 parts; zinc, 8.50 parts; silver, 77.05 parts.


V.    Copper, 22.34 parts; zinc, 10.48 parts; silver, 67.18 parts.


VI.   Tin, 63 parts; lead, 37 parts.




I.    Sterling Silver. Fine silver, 11 ounces, 2 pennyweights; fine copper, 18 pennyweights.


II.   Equal to Sterling. Fine silver, 1 ounce; fine copper, 1 pennyweight, 12 grains. 


III.  Fine silver, 1 ounce; fine copper, 5 pennyweights.


IV.   Common Silver for Chains. Fine silver, 6 pennyweights; fine copper, 4 pennyweights.


V.    Solder. Fine silver, 16 pennyweights; fine copper, 12 grains; pin brass, 3 pennyweights, 12 grains.


VI.   Alloy for Plating. Fine silver, 1 ounce; fine copper, 10 pennyweights.


VII.  Silver Solder. Fine silver, 1 ounce; pin brass, 10 pennyweights; pure spelter, 2 pennyweights.


VIII. Copper Solder for Plating. Fine silver, 10 pennyweights; fine copper, 10 pennyweights.


IX.   Common Silver Solder. Fine silver, 10 ounces; pin brass, 6 ounces,

12 pennyweights; spelter, 12 pennyweights.


X.    Silver Solder for Enameling. Fine silver, 14 pennyweights; fine copper, 8 pennyweights.


XI.   For Filling Signet Rings. Fine silver, 10 ounces; fine copper, 1 ounce, 16 pennyweights; fine pin brass, 6 ounces, 12 pennyweights; spelter, 12. pennyweights,






XII.  Silver Solder for Gold Plating. Fine silver, 1 ounce; fine copper, 5 pennyweights; pin brass, 5 pennyweights.


XIII. Mercury Solder. Fine silver, 1 ounce; pin brass, 10 pennyweights; bar tin, 2 pennyweights.


XIV.  Imitation Silver. Fine silver, 1 ounce; nickel, 1 ounce, 11 grains; fine copper, 2 ounces, 9 grains.


XV.   Fine silver, 3 ounces; nickel, 1 ounce, 11 pennyweights; fine copper, 2 ounces, 9 grains; spelter, 10 pennyweights.


XVI.  Fine Silver Solder for Filigree Work. Fine silver, 4 pennyweights,

6 grains; pin brass, 1 pennyweight.


Bismuth Solder. Bismuth, 3 ounces; lead, 3 ounces, 18 pennyweights; tin, 5 ounces, 6 pennyweights.




I.    Yellow Brass for Turning. (Common article.) Copper, 20 pounds; zinc,

10 pounds; lead, 4 ounces.


II.   Copper, 32 pounds; zinc, 10 pounds; lead, 1 pound.


III.  Red Brass Free, for Turning. Copper, 100 pounds; zinc, 50 pounds; lead, 10 pounds; antimony, 44 ounces.


IV.   Best Red Brass for Fine Castings. Copper, 24 pounds; zinc, 5 pounds; bismuth, 1 ounce.


V.    Red Tombac. Copper, 10 pounds; zinc, 1 pound.


VI.   Tombac. Copper, 16 pounds; tin, 1 pound; zinc, 1 pound.


VII.  Brass for Heavy Castings. Copper, 6 to 7 parts; tin, 1 part; zinc, 1 part.


VIII. Malleable Brass. Copper, 70.10 parts; zinc, 29.90 parts.


IX.   Superior Malleable Brass. Copper, 60 parts; zinc, 40 parts.


X.    Brass. Copper, 73 parts; zinc, 27 parts.


XI.   Copper, 65 parts; zinc, 35 parts.


XII.  Copper, 70 parts; zinc, 30 parts.


XIII. German Brass. Copper, 1 pound; zinc, 1 pound.


XIV.  Watchmakers' Brass. Copper, 1 part; zinc, 2 parts.


XV.   Brass for Wire. Copper, 34 parts; calamine. 56 parts.


XVI.  Brass for Tubes. Copper, 2 parts; zinc, 1 part.


XVII. Brass for Heavy Work. Copper, 100 parts; tin, 15 parts; zinc,

15 parts,


XVIII.      Copper, 112 parts; tin, 13 parts; zinc, 1 part.


XIX.  Tombac or Red Brass. Copper, 8 parts; zinc, 1 part.


XX.   Brass. Copper, 3 parts; melt, then add zinc, 1 part.


XXI.  Buttonmakers' Fine Brass. Brass, 8 parts; zinc, 5 parts.


XXII. Buttonmakers' Common Brass. Button brass, 6 parts; tin, 1

part; lead, 1 part. Mix.     


XXIII.      Mallet's Brass. Copper, 25.4 parts; zinc, 74.6 parts. Used to preserve iron from oxidizing.


XXIV. Best Brass for Clocks. Rose copper, 85 parts; zinc, 14 parts; lead, 1 part.



See also Gold Alloys, under Alloys.


Gold of 22 carats fine being so little used is intentionally omitted.


I.    Gold of 18 Carats, Yellow Tint. Gold, 15 pennyweights; silver, 2 pennyweights, 18 grains; copper, 2 pennyweights, 6 grains.


II.   Gold of 18 Carats, Red Tint. Gold, 15 pennyweights; silver, 1 pennyweight, 18 grains; copper, 3 pennyweights, 6 grains.


III.  Spring Gold of 16 Carats. Gold, 1 ounce, 16 pennyweights; silver,

6 pennyweights; copper, 12 pennyweights. This when drawn or rolled very hard makes springs little inferior to steel.


IV.   Jewelers' Fine Gold, Yellow Tint, 16 Carats Nearly. Gold, 1 ounce;

silver, 7 pennyweights; copper, 5 pennyweights.


V.    Gold of Red Tint, 16 Carats. Gold, 1 ounce; silver, 2 pennyweights; copper, 8 pennyweights.


Sterling Gold Alloys.


I.    Fine gold, 18 pennyweights, 12 grains; fine silver, 1 pennyweight; fine copper, 12 grains.


II.   Dry Colored Gold Alloys, 17 Carat. Fine gold, 15 pennyweights;

fine silver, 1 pennyweight, 10 grains;

fine copper, 4 pennyweights, 17 grains.


III.  18 Carat. Fine gold, 1 ounce; fine silver, 4 pennyweights, 10 grains; fine copper, 2 pennyweights, 5 grains.


IV.   18 Carat. Fine gold, 15 pennyweights; fine silver, 2 pennyweights, 4 grains; fine copper, 2 pennyweights, 19 grains.


V.    18 Carat. Fine gold, 18 pennyweights; fine silver, 2 pennyweights, 18






grains; fine copper, 3 pennyweights, 18 grains.


VI.   19 Carat. Fine gold, 1 ounce; fine silver, 2 pennyweights, 6 grains; fine copper, 3 pennyweights, 12 grains.


VII.  20 Carat. Fine gold, 1 ounce; fine silver, 2 pennyweights; fine copper, 2 pennyweights, 4 grains.


VIII. 22 Carat. Fine gold, 18 pennyweights; fine silver, 12 grains; fine copper, 1 pennyweight, 3 grains.


IX.   Gold Solder for the Foregoing Alloys. Take of the alloyed gold you are using, 1 pennyweight; fine silver, 6 grains.


X.    Alloy for Dry Colored Rings. Fine gold, 1 ounce; fine silver, 4 pennyweights, 6 grains; fine copper, 4 pennyweights, 6 grains.


XI.   Solder. Scrap gold, 2 ounces; fine silver, 3 pennyweights; fine copper, 3 pennyweights.


XII.  Dry Colored Scrap Reduced to 35s. Gold. Colored scrap, 1 ounce, 9 pennyweights, 12 grains; fine silver, 2 pennyweights; fine copper, 17 pennyweights, 12 grains; spelter, 4 pennyweights.


To Quickly Remove a Ring from a Swollen Finger. If the ring is of gold, pull the folds of the swollen muscles apart, so that it can be seen, then drop on it a little absolute alcohol and place the finger in a bowl of metallic mercury. In a very few minutes the ring will snap apart. If the ring is of brass, scrape the surface slightly, or put on a few drops of a solution of oxalic acid, or even strong vinegar, let remain in contact for a moment or two, then put into the mercury, and the result will be as before.


Soldering a Jeweled Ring. In order to prevent the bursting of the jewels of a ring while the latter is being soldered, cut a juicy potato into halves and make a hollow in both portions in which the part of the ring having jewels may fit exactly. Wrap the jeweled portion in soft paper, place it in the hollow, and bind up the closed potato with binding wire. Now solder with easy-flowing gold solder, the potato being held in the hand. Another method is to fill a small crucible with wet sand, bury the jeweled portion in the sand, and solder in the usual way.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.




Sodium carbonate                    8 parts

Linseed oil                         32 parts

Hot water                           8 parts

White glue                          12 parts

Whiting                             160 parts


Dissolve the sodium carbonate in the hot water, add the oil and saponify by heating and agitation. Cover the glue, broken into small pieces, with cold water and let soak overnight. In the morning pour the whole on a stout piece of stuff and let the residual water drain off, getting rid of as much as possible by slightly twisting the cloth. Throw the swelled glue into a capsule, put on the water bath, and heat gently until it is melted. Add the saponified oil and mix well; remove from the bath, and stir in the whiting, a little at a time, adding hot water as it becomes necessary. When the whiting is all stirred in, continue adding hot water, until a liquid is obtained that flows freely from the kalsomining brush.


The addition of a little soluble blue to the mixture increases the intensity of the white.


Sizing Walls for Kalsomine. A size to coat over "hot walls" for the reception of the kalsomine is made by using shellac, 1 part; sal soda, 1/2 part. Put these ingredients in 1/2 gallon of water and dissolve by steady heat. Another size is made of glue size prepared in the usual way, and alum. To 1/2 pound of white glue add 3/4 pound of alum, dissolving the alum in hot water before adding it to the glue size.



See Jewelers' Formulas.



See Ceramics.



See Rubber.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See also Benzine, Oils, and Petroleum.


Various processes have been recommended for masking the odor of kerosene such as the addition of various essential






oils, artificial oil of mirbane, etc., but none of them seems entirely satisfactory. The addition of amyl acetate in the proportion of 10 grams to the liter (1 per cent) has also been suggested, several experimenters reporting very successful results therefrom. Some years ago Beringer proposed a process for removing sulphur compounds from benzine, which would presumably be equally applicable to kerosene. This process is as follows:


Potassium permanganate              1 ounce

Sulphuric acid                      1/2 pint

Water                               3 1/2 pints


Mix the acid and water, and when the mixture has become cold pour it into a 2-gallon bottle. Add the permanganate and agitate until it is dissolved. Then add benzine, 1 gallon, and thoroughly agitate. Allow the liquids to remain in contact for 24 hours, frequently agitating the mixture. Separate the benzine and wash in a similar bottle with a mixture of


Potassium permanganate              1/4 ounce

Caustic soda                        1/2 ounce

Water                               2 pints


Agitate the mixture frequently during several hours; then separate the benzine and wash it thoroughly with water. On agitating the benzine with the acid permanganate solution an emulsion-like mixture is produced, which separates in a few seconds, the permanganate slowly subsiding and showing considerable reduction. In the above process it is quite probable that the time specified (24 hours) is greatly in excess of what is necessary, as the reduction takes place almost entirely in a very short time. It has also been suggested that if the process were adopted on a manufacturing scale, with mechanical agitation, the time could be reduced to an hour or two.



See Cleaning Preparations, under Miscellaneous Methods.



See Petroleum.



See Foods.



See Dyes.



See Leather.



See Salts (Effervescent).



See Waters.



See Razor Pastes.



See Adhesives.



See Paint.



See Wines and Liquors.



See also Beverages.


To prepare a substitute for koumiss from cow's milk: Dissolve 1/2 ounce grape sugar in 3 fluid ounces water. Mix 18 grains well washed and pressed beer yeast with 2 fluid ounces of cow's milk. Mix the two liquids in a champagne bottle, fill with milk, stopper securely, and keep for 3 to 4 days at a temperature not exceeding 50º F., shaking frequently. The preparation does not keep longer than 4 to 5 days.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Beverages.



See Adhesives.



See Varnishes.



See Leather.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Laundry Preparations.



(See also Enamels, Glazes, Paints, Varnishes, and Waterproofing.)




The art of lacquering includes various steps, which are divulged as little as possible. Without them nothing but a varnish of good quality would be realized Thus in Tonkin, where the abundant






production is the object of an important trade with the Chinese, it is so used only for varnishing, while in China the same product from the same sources contributes to most artistic applications.


When the Annamites propose to lacquer an object, a box, for example, they first stop up the holes and crevices, covering all the imperfections with a coating of diluted lac, by means of a flat, close, short brush. Then they cover the whole with a thick coating of lac and white clay. This clay, oily to the touch, is found at the bottom of certain lakes in Tonkin; it is dried, pulverized, and sifted with a piece of fine silk before being embodied with the lac. This operation is designed to conceal the inequalities of the wood and produce a uniform surface which, when completely dry, is rendered smooth with pumice stone.


If the object has portions cut or sunk the clayey mixture is not applied, for it would make the details clammy, but in its place a single, uniform layer of pure lac.


In any case, after the pumicing, a third coating, now pure lac, is passed over the piece, which at this time has a mouse-gray color. This layer, known under tne name of sou lot, colors the piece a brilliant black. As the lac possesses the remarkable property of not drying in dry air, the object is left in a damp place. When perfectly dried the piece is varnished, and the desired color imparted by a single operation. If the metallic applications are excepted, the lac is colored only black, brown, or red.


The following formulas are in use:


Black. One part of turpentine is warmed for 20 minutes beyond the fusing point; then poured into 3 parts of lac; at the same time pheu deu (copperas) is added. The mixture is stirred for at least a day, sometimes more, by means of a large paddle.


Maroon. This is prepared by a process similar to the preceding, replacing half of the copperas by an equal quantity of China vermilion.


Red. The lac, previously stirred for 6 hours, is mixed with hot oil of trau, and the whole is stirred for a day, after which vermilion is added. The latter should be of good quality, so as to have it brilliant and unchangeable.


The operation of lacquering is then ended, but there are parts to be gilded. These are again covered with a mixture of lac and oil of trau. When this layer is dry the metallic leaves are applied, which are themselves protected by a coating, composed also of lac and oil of

trau. All these lac and oil of trau mixtures are carefully filtered, which the natives effect by pressing the liquid on a double filtering surface formed of wadding and of a tissue on which it rests. It can only be applied after several months when the metallic leaf is of gold. In the case of silver or tin the protecting coat can be laid on in a few days. It favorably modifies the white tints of these two metals by communicating a golden color. The hue, at first reddish, gradually improves and acquires its full brilliancy in a few months.


Little information is procurable concerning the processes employed by the Chinese. The wood to be lacquered should be absolutely dry. It receives successive applications, of which the number is not less than 33 for perfect work. When the lac coating attains the thickness of 1/4 of an inch it is ready for the engravers. The Chinese, like the inhabitants of Tonkin, make use of oil of trau to mix with the lac, or oil of aleurites, and the greatest care is exercised in the drying of the different layers. The operation is conducted in dim-lighted rooms specially fitted up for the purpose; the moisture is maintained to a suitable extent by systematically watering the earth which covers the walls of this "cold stove."


Lacquer for Aluminum. Dissolve 100 parts of gum lac in 300 parts of ammonia, and heat the solution for about 1 hour moderately on the water bath. After cooling, the mixture is ready for use. The aluminum to be coated is cleaned in the customary manner. After it has been painted with the varnish, it is heated in the oven to about 572º F. The coating and heating may be repeated.


Lacquer for Brass.


Annatto                             1/4 ounce

Saffron                             1/4 ounce

Turmeric                            1 ounce

Seed lac in coarse powder           3 ounces

Alcohol                             1 pint


Digest the annatto, saffron, and turmeric in the alcohol for several days, then strain into a bottle containing the seed lac; cork and shake until dissolved.


Lacquer for Bronze.


I.    The follow-

ing process yields a protective varnish for bronze articles and other metallic objects in various shadings, the lacquer produced excelling in high luster and permanency: Fill 40 parts of best pale shellac; 12 parts of pulverized Florentine






lake; 30 parts gamboge; and 6 parts of dragon's blood, likewise powdered, into a bottle and add 400 parts of spirit. Allow this mixture to form a solution preferably by heating the flask on the water bath, to nearly the boiling point of the water, and shaking now and then until all has dissolved. After the cooling pour off the liquid from the sediment, if any is present; this liquid constitutes a lacquer of dark-red color. In a second bottle dissolve in the same manner 24 parts of gamboge in 400 parts of spirit, which affords a lacquer of golden yellow color. According to the desired shade, the red lacquer is now mixed with the yellow one, thus producing any hue required from the deepest red to a golden tone. If necessary, thin with spirit of wine. The varnish is applied, as usual, on the somewhat warmed article, a certain temperature having to be adhered to, which can be ascertained by trials and is easily regulated by feeling.


II.   The following is equally suitable for boots and leather goods as for application on iron, stone, glass, paper, cloth, and other surfaces. The inexperienced should note before making this liquid that it does not give a yellowish bronze like gold paint, but a darkish iridescent one, and as it is a pleasing variation in aids to home decoration, it would doubtless sell well. Some pretty effects are obtained by using a little phloxine instead of part of the violet aniline, or phloxine alone will produce a rich reddish bronze, and a lustrous peacock green is obtained with brilliant aniline green



Quantities: Flexile methylated collodion, 1 gallon; pure violet aniline, 1 pound. Mix, stand away for a few days to allow the aniline to dissolve and stir frequently, taking care to bung down securely, as the collodion is a volatile liquid, then strain and bottle off. It is applied with a brush, dries rapidly, and does not rub off or peal.


Celluloid Lacquer. -Dissolve uncolored celluloid in a mixture of strong alcohol and ether. The celluloid first swells up in the solvent, and after vigorous shaking, the bottle is allowed to stand quietly for the undissolved portion to settle, when the clear, supernatant fluid is poured off. The latter may be immediately used; it yields a colorless glossy lacquer, or may be colored, as desired, with aniline colors.


Colored Lacquer. Make a strong solution of any coloring matter which is soluble in methylated spirit, such as cochineal, saffron, the aniline dyes, etc. Filter through fine cambric, and to this filtered solution add brown shellac in flakes in the proportion of 4 to 5 ounces of shellac to each pint of methylated spirit. Shake once a day for about 8 days. If too thick it may be thinned by adding more colored spirit or plain spirit as required, and any lighter shade can be obtained by mixing with plain lacquer mixed in the above proportions. Lacquer works best in a warm, dry place, and the process is improved by slightly warming the articles, which must be absolutely free from grease, dirt, or moisture. The best results are obtained by applying many coats of thin, light-colored lacquer, each coat to be thoroughly dry before applying the next. Apply with a soft camel's-hair brush; it is better to use too small a brush than too large. When complete, warm the articles for a few seconds before a clear fire; the hotter the better; if too hot, however, the colors will fade. This makes the lacquer adhere firmly, especially to metallic surfaces. Aniline green works very well.


Lacquer for Copper. A lacquer which to a certain degree resists heat and acid liquids, but not alkaline ones, is obtained by heating fine, thickly liquid amber varnish, whereby it is rendered sufficiently liquid to be applied with the brush. The copper article is coated with this and left to stand until the lacquer has dried perfectly. Next, the object is heated until the lacquer commences to smoke and turns brown. If the operation is repeated twice, a coating is finally obtained, which, as regards resisting qualities to acid bodies, excels even enamel, but which is strongly attacked even by weakly alkaline liquids.


Ebony Lacquer. The ebony lacquer recommended by the well-known English authority, Mr. H. C. Standage, consists of 1/3 ounce aniline hydrochloride, 1/3 ounce alcohol, 1 part sulphate of copper, 100 parts of water. The aniline dye is dissolved in the alcohol and the copper sulphate in the water. The wood is first coated with the copper sulphate solution, and after this coating has been given plenty of time to dry the aniline salt tincture is applied. Shortly the copper salt absorbed by the wood will react on the aniline hydrochloride, developing a deep, rich black which acids or alkalies are powerless to destroy. Coat with shellac and give a French polish, thus bringing the ebony finish up to a durable and unsurpassed luster.








I.    For Brassware. A gold lacquer to improve the natural color of brassware is prepared from 16 parts gum lac, 4 parts dragon's blood, and 1 part curcuma powder dissolved in 320 parts spirits of wine in the warmth and filtered well. The articles must be thoroughly cleaned by burning, grinding, or turning either dull or burnished, and then coated with a thin layer of the above mixture, applied with a soft hair brush or a pad of wadding. If the objects are colored the lacquer must be laid on by stippling. Should the color be too dark, it may be lightened by reduction with a little spirit until the correct shade is produced. The most suitable temperature for the metal during the work is about the warmth of the hand; if too hot or too cold, the lacquer may smear, and will then have to be taken off again with spirit or hot potash lye, the goods being dried in sawdust or recleaned as at first, before applying the lacquer again. Round articles may be fixed in the lathe and the lacquer laid on with a pad of wadding. In order to color brassware, a solution of 30 parts caustic soda; 10 parts cupric carbonate; 200 parts water (or 200 parts ammonia neutralized by acetic acid); 100 parts verdigris, and 60 parts sal ammoniac is employed, into which the warmed articles are dipped. After having dried they are coated with colorless shellac varnish.


II.   For Tin. Transparent gold lacquer for tin (all colors) may be made as follows: Take 1/2 pint of alcohol, add 1 ounce gum shellac; 1/2 ounce turmeric; 1 1/4 ounce red sanders. Set the vessel in a warm place and shake frequently for half a day. Then strain off the liquor, rinse the bottle and return it, corking tightly for use. When this is used, it must be applied to the work freely and flowed on full, or if the work admits it, it may be dipped. One or more coats may be given as the color is required light or dark. For rose color substitute 1/4 ounce of finely ground lake in place of the turmeric. For blue, substitute Prussian blue. For purple, add a little of the blue to the turmeric.


For Bottle Caps, etc.



Gum gutta                           10 parts

Shellac                             100 parts

Turpentine                          10 parts

Alcohol                             450 parts



Gum gutta                           40 parts

Dragon's blood                      5 parts

Alcoholic extract of sandal wood    5 parts

Sandarac                            75 parts

Venice turpentine                   25 parts

Alcohol, 95 per cent                900 parts


Mix and dissolve by the aid of a gentle heat.


Liquid Bottle Lac. Into a half-gallon bottle put 8 ounces of shellac, and pour over it 1 1/2 pints of alcohol of 94 per cent, and 2 1/2 ounces of sulphuric ether. Let stand, with occasional shaking, until the shellac is melted, and then add 4 ounces of thick turpentine and 1/2 ounce of boric acid. Shake until dissolved. To color, use the aniline colors soluble in alcohol for red, eosine; blue, phenol blue; black, negrosin; green, aniline green; violet, methyl violet, etc. If it is desired to have the lac opaque, add 8 ounces of pulverized steatite, but remember to keep the lac constantly stirred while using, as otherwise the steatite falls to the bottom.


Lithographic Lacquer. Dissolve 15 parts, by weight, of red lithol R or G in paste of 17 per cent, in 150 parts, by weight, of hot water. Boil for 2 minutes, shaking with 2.5 parts, by weight, of barium chloride. Dissolve in 25 parts, by weight, of water. Add to the mixture 100 parts, by weight, of aluminum hydrate of about 4 per cent. Cool, filter, and dry.


Lacquer for Microscopes, Mathematical Instruments, etc. Pulverize 160 parts, by weight, turmeric root, cover it with 1,700 parts alcohol, digest in a warm place for 24 hours, and then filter. Dissolve 80 parts dragon's blood, 80 parts sandarac, 80 parts gum elemi, 50 parts gum gutta, and 70 parts seed lac, put in a retort with 250 parts powdered glass, pour over them the colored alcohol first made, and hasten solution by warming in the sand or water bath. When completely dissolved, filter.


To Fix Alcoholic Lacquers on Metallic Surfaces. Dissolve 0.5 parts of crystallized boracic acid in 100 parts of the respective spirit varnish whereby the latter after being applied forms so hard a coating upon a smooth tin surface that it cannot be scratched off even with the finger-nails. The aforementioned percentage of boracic acid should not be exceeded in preparing the solution; otherwise the varnish will lose in intensity of color.


Lacquer for Oil Paintings. Dilute 100 parts of sulphate of baryta with 600 parts of water containing in solution 60 parts of red lithol R or G in paste of 17






per cent. Boil the mixture for several minutes in a solution of 10 parts of barium chloride in 100 parts of water. After cooling, filter and dry.


Lacquers for Papers.


I.    With base of baryta: Dissolve 30 parts of red lithol R or G in paste of 17 per cent, in 300 parts of hot water. Add an emulsion obtained by mixing 10 parts of sulphate of alumina in 100 parts of water and 5 parts of calcined soda dissolved in 50 parts of water. Precipitate with a solution of 17.5 parts of barium chloride in 125 parts of water. Cool and filter.


II.   With base of lime: Dissolve 30 parts red lithol R or G in paste of 17 per cent, in 300 parts of hot water. Boil for a few minutes with an emulsion prepared by mixing 10 parts sulphate of alumina with 100 parts of water and 2.5 parts of slaked lime in 100 parts of water. Filter after cooling.


Lacquer for Stoves and other Articles to Withstand Heat. This is not altered by heat, and does not give off disagreeable odors on heating: Thin 1 part of sodium water glass with 2 parts of water in order to make the vehicle. This is to be thickened with the following materials in order to get the desired color: White, barium sulphate or white lead; yellow, baryta chromate, ocher, or uranium yellow; green, chromium oxide or ultramarine green; brown, cadmium oxide, manganese oxide, or sienna brown; red, either iron or chrome red. The coloring materials must be free from lumps, and well ground in with the vehicle. Bronze powders may also be used either alone or mixed with other coloring stuffs, but care must be taken, in either instance, to secure a sufficient quantity. The colors should be made up as wanted, and no more than can conveniently be applied at the time should be prepared. An excellent way to use the bronze powders is to lay on the coloring matter, and then to dust on the powder before the glass sets. Lines or ornamentation of any sort may be put on by allowing the coating of enamel to dry, and then drawing the lines or any desired design with a fresh solution of the water glass colored to suit the taste, or dusted over with bronze.




Russian Polishing Lac.



Sticklac                            925 parts

Sandarac                            875 parts

Larch turpentine                    270 parts

Alcohol, 96 per cent                3,500 parts


The sticklac is broken up and mixed with the sandarac, put into a suitable container with a wide mouth, the spirit poured over it and set aside. After standing for a week in a warm place, frequently stirring in the meantime (best with a glass rod) and fully dissolving, stir in the turpentine. Let stand 2 or 3 days longer, then filter through glass wool. The sandarac dissolves completely in the spirit, but the stick leaves a slight residue which may be added to the next lot of lac made up and thus be treated to a fresh portion of spirit. The larch turpentine should be of the best quality. This lac is used by woodcarvers and turners and is very much prized by them.


Mastic Lac.



Mastic, select                      150 parts

Sandarac                            400 parts

Camphor                             15 parts

Alcohol, 96 per cent                1,000 parts


Prepare as directed in the first recipe.


Leather Polish Lac.



Shellac                             16 parts

Venice turpentine                   8 parts

Sandarac                            4 parts

Lampblack, Swedish                  2 parts

Turpentine oil                      4 parts

Alcohol, 96 per cent                960 parts


The alcohol and turpentine oil are mixed and warmed under constant stirring in the sand or water bath. The shellac and sandarac are now stirred in, the stirring being maintained until both are dissolved. Finally add the turpentine and dissolve. Stir the lampblack with a little vinegar and then add and stir in. Instead of lampblack 125 to 150 parts of nigrosin may be used. This lac should be well shaken before application.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Dyes.




Production of Lampblack. The last oil obtained in the distillation of coal tar, and freed from naphthalene as far as possible, viz., soot oil, is burned in a special furnace for the production of various grades of lampblack. In this furnace is an iron plate, which must always be kept glowing; upon this plate the soot oil trickles through a small tube fixed above it. It is decomposed and






the smoke (soot) rises into four chambers through small apertures. When the quantity of oil destined for decomposition has been used up, the furnace is allowed to stand undisturbed for a few days, and only after this time has elapsed are the chambers opened by windows provided for that purpose. In the fourth chamber is the very finest lampblack, which the lithographers use, and in the third the fine grade employed by manufacturers of printers' ink, while the first and second contain the coarser soot, which, well sifted, is sold as flame lampblack.


From grade No. 1 the calcined lampblack for paper makers is also produced. For preparing this black capsules of iron plate with closing lid are filled, the stuff is stamped firmly into them and the cover smeared up with fine loam. The capsules are next placed in a well drawing stove and calcined, whereby the empyreumatic oils evaporate and the remaining lampblack becomes odorless. Allow the capsules to cool for a few days before opening them, as the soot dries very slowly, and easily ignites again as soon as air is admitted if the capsules are opened before. This is semi-calcined lampblack.


For the purpose of preparing completely calcined lampblack, the semicalcined article is again jammed into fresh capsules, closing them up well and calcining thoroughly once more. After 2 days the capsules are opened containing the all-calcined lampblack in compact pieces.


For the manufacture of coal soot another furnace is employed. Asphalt or pitch is burned in it with exclusion of air as far as practicable. It is thrown in through the doors, and the smoke escapes through the chimney to the soot chambers, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, assorting itself there.


When the amount of asphalt pitch destined for combustion has burned up completely, the furnace is left alone for several days without opening it. After this time has elapsed the outside doors are slowly opened and some air is admitted. Later on they can be opened altogether after one is satisfied that the soot has cooled completely. Chamber 4 contains the finest soot black, destined for the manufacture of leather cloth and oil cloth. In the other chambers is fine and ordinary flame black, which is sifted and packed in suitable barrels. Calcined lampblack may also be produced from it, the operation being the same as for oil black.



See Household Formulas.




Coloring Incandescent Lamps. Incandescent light globes are colored by dipping the bulbs into a thin solution of collodion previously colored to suit with anilines soluble in collodion. Dip and rotate quickly, bulb down, till dry.


For office desks, room lights, and in churches, it appears often desirable to modify the glaring yellowish rays of the incandescent light. A slight collodion film of a delicate bluish, greenish, or pink shade will do that.


For advertising purposes the bulbs are often colored in two or more colors. It is also easy with a little practice to paint words or pictures, etc., on the bulbs with colored collodion with a brush.


Another use of colored collodion in pharmacy is to color the show globes on their inside, thus avoiding freezing and the additional weight of the now used colored liquids. Pour a quantity of col-

ored collodion into the clean, dry globe, close the mouth and quickly let the collodion cover all parts of the inside. Remove the balance of the collodion at once, and keep it to color electric bulbs for your trade.



See Cosmetics.



See Soap.



See Photography.




Detection of Cottonseed Oil in Lard. Make a 2 per cent solution of silver nitrate in distilled water, and acidify it by adding 1 per cent of nitrate acid, C.P. Into a test tube put a sample of the suspected lard and heat gently until it liquefies. Now add an equal quantity of the silver nitrate solution, agitate a little, and bring to a boil. Continue the boiling vigorously for about 8 minutes. If the lard remain clear and colorless, it may be accepted as pure. The presence of cottonseed oil or fat will make itself known by a coloration, varying from yellow, grayish green to brown, according to the amount present.



See Lubricants.







See Household Formulas.


Laundry Preparations




Laundry Blue. The soluble blue of commerce, when properly made, dissolves freely in water, and solutions so made are put up as liquid laundry blue. The water employed in making the solution should be free from mineral substances, especially lime, or precipitation may occur. If rain water or distilled water and a good article of blue be used, a staple preparation ought apparently to result; but whether time alone affects the matter of solubility it is impossible to state. As it is essential that the solution should be a perfect one, it is best to filter it through several thicknesses of fine cotton cloth before bottling; or if made in large quantities this method may be modified by allowing it to stand some days to settle, when the top portion can be siphoned off for use, the bottom only requiring filtration.


This soluble blue is said to be potassium ferri-ferrocyanide, and is prepared by gradually adding to a boiling solution of potassium ferricyanide (red prussiate of potash) an equivalent quantity of hot solution of ferrous sulphate, boiling for 2 hours and washing the precipitate on a filter until the washings assume a darkblue color; the moist precipitate can then at once be dissolved by the further addition of a sufficient quantity of water. About 64 parts of the iron salt are necessary to convert 100 parts of the potassium salt into the blue compound.


Leaf bluing for laundry use may be prepared by coating thick sized paper with soluble blue formed into a paste with a mixture of dextrin mucilage and glycerine. Dissolve a given quantity of dextrine in water enough to make a solution about as dense as ordinary syrup, add about as much glycerine as there was dextrine, rub the blue smooth with a sufficient quantity of this vehicle and coat the sheets with the paint. The amount of blue to be used will depend of course on the intended cost of the product, and the amount of glycerine will require adjustment so as to give a mixture which will not "smear" after the water has dried out and yet remain readily soluble.


Ultramarine is now very generally used as a laundry blue where the insoluble or "bag blue" is desired. It is mixed with glucose, or glucose and dextrine, and pressed into balls or cakes. When glucose alone is used, the product has a tendency, it is said, to become soft on keeping, which tendency may be counteracted by a proper proportion of dextrin. Bicarbonate of sodium is added as a "filler" to cheapen the product, the quantity used and the quality of the ultramarine employed being both regulated by the price at which the product is to sell.


The coal-tar or aniline blues are not offered to the general public as laundry blues, but laundry proprietors have them frequently brought under their notice, chiefly in the form of solutions, usually 1 to 1 1/2 per cent strong. These dyes are strong bluing materials, and, being in the form of solution, are not liable to speck the clothes. Naturally their properties depend upon the particular dye used; some are fast to acids and alkalies, others are fast to one but not to another; some will not stand ironing, while others again are not affected by the operation; generally they are not fast to light, but this is only of minor importance. The soluble, or cotton, blues are those most favored; these are made in a great variety of tints, varying from a reddish blue to a pure blue in hue, distinguished by such brands as 3R, 6B, etc. Occasionally the methyl violets are used, especially the blue tints.

Blackley blue is very largely used for this purpose, being rather faster than the soluble blues. It may be mentioned that a 1 per cent solution of this dye is usually strong enough. Unless care is taken in dissolving these dyes they are apt to produce specks. The heat to which the pure blues are exposed in ironing the clothes causes some kinds to assume a purple tinge.


The cheapest aniline blue costs about three times as much as soluble blue, yet the tinctorial power of the aniline colors is so great that possibly they might be cheapened.


Soluble Blue.


I.    Dissolve 217 parts of prussiate of potash in 800 parts of hot water and bring the whole to 1,000 parts. Likewise dissolve 100 parts of ferric chloride in water and bring the solution also to 1,000 parts. To each of these solutions add 2,000 parts of cooking salt or Glauber's salt solution saturated in the cold and mix well. The solutions thus prepared of prussiate of potash arid ferric chloride are now mixed together with stirring. Allow to settle and remove by suction the clear liquid containing undecomposed ferrocyanide of






potassium and Glauber's salt; this is kept and used for the next manufacture by boiling it down and allowing the salts to crystalline out. The percentage of ferrocyanide of potassium is estimated by analysis, and for the next production proportionally less is used, employing that obtained by concentration.


After siphoning off the solution the precipitate is washed with warm water, placed on a filter and washed out on the latter by pouring on cold water until the water running off commences to assume a strong blue color. The precipitate is then squeezed out and dried at a moderate heat (104º F.). The Paris blue thus obtained dissolves readily in water and can be extensively employed in a similar manner as indigo carmine.


II.   Make ordinary Prussian blue (that which has been purified by acids, chlorine, or the hypochlorites) into a thick paste with distilled or rain water, and add a saturated solution of oxalic acid sufficient to dissolve. If time be of no consequence, by leaving this solution exposed to the atmosphere, in the course of 60 days the blue will be entirely precipitated in soluble form. Wash with weak alcohol and dry at about 100º F. The resultant mass dissolves in pure water and remains in solution indefinitely. It gives a deep, brilliant blue, and is not injurious to the clothing or the hands of the washwoman.


The same result may be obtained by precipitating the soluble blue from its oxide solution by the addition of alcohol of 95 per cent, or with a concentrated solution of sodium sulphate. Pour off the mother liquid and wash with very dilute alcohol; or throw on a filter and wash with water until the latter begins to come off colored a deep blue.


Liquid Laundry Blue. This may be prepared either with liquid Prussian blue or indigo carmine. Make a solution of gum dragon (gum tragacanth) by dissolving 1 to 2 ounces of the powdered gum in 1 gallon of cold water in which 1/2 ounce oxalic acid has been dissolved. The gum will take several days to dissolve, and will require frequent stirring and straining before use. To the strained portion add as much Prussian blue in fine powder as the liquid will dissolve without precipitating, and the compound is ready for use.


Instead of powdered Prussian blue, soluble Prussian blue may be used.

This is made by dissolving solid Prussian blue in a solution of oxalic acid, but as the use of oxalic acid is to be deprecated for the use of laundresses, as it would set up blood poisoning should it get into any cuts in the flesh, it is best to prepare liquid blue by making a solution of yellow prussiate of potash (ferrocyanide of potassium) with water, and then by adding a sufficient quantity of chloride of iron to produce a blue, but not enough to be precipitated.


Ball Blue. The ball sold for laundry use consists usually, if not always, of ultramarine. The balls are formed by compression, starch or some other excipient of like character being added to render the mass cohesive. Blocks of blue can, of course, be made by the same process. The manufacturers of ultramarine prepare balls and cubes of the pigment on a large scale, and it does not seem likely that there would be a sufficient margin of profit to justify the making of them in a small way from the powdered pigment. Careful experiments, however, would be necessary to determine this positively. Ultramarine is of many qualities, and it may be expected that the balls will vary also in the amount of "filling" according to the price at which they are to be sold. Below is a "filled" formula:


Ultramarine                         6 ounces

Sodium carbonate                    4 ounces

Glucose                             1 ounce

Water,                              a sufficient quantity.


Make a thick paste, roll into sheets, and cut into tablets. The balls in bulk can be obtained only in large packages of the manufacturers, say barrels of 200 pounds; but put up in 1-pound boxes they can be bought in cases as small as 28 pounds.


Laundry Blue Tablets.


Ultramarine                         6 ounces

Sodium carbonate                    4 ounces

Glucose                             1 ounce

Water,                              a sufficient quantity.


Make a thick paste, roll into sheets, and cut into tablets.


Polishes or Glazes for Laundry Work.


I.    To a mixture of 200 parts each of Japan wax and paraffine, add 100 parts of stearic acid, melt together, and cast in molds. If the heated smoothing iron be rubbed with this wax the iron will not merely get over the surface much more rapidly, but will leave a handsome polish.


Laundry Gloss Dressing.


II.   Dissolve white wax, 5.0 parts, in ether, 20.5 parts, and add spirit, 75.0 parts. Shake before use.


Heat until melted, in a pot, 1,000 parts






of wax and 1,000 parts of stearine, as well as a few drops of an essential oil. To the hot liquid add with careful stirring 250 parts of ammonia lye of 10 per cent, whereby a thick, soft mass results immediately. Upon further heating same turns thin again, whereupon it is diluted with 20,000 parts of boiling water, mixed with 100 parts of starch and poured into molds.




Most laundry starches now contain some polishing mixture for giving a high luster.


I.    Dissolve in a vessel of sufficient capacity, 42 parts of crystallized magnesium chloride in 30 parts of water. In another vessel stir 12 parts of starch in 20 parts of water to a smooth paste. Mix the two and heat under pressure until the starch is fluidified.


II.   Pour 250 parts, by weight, of water, over 5 parts, by weight, of powdered gum tragacanth until the powder swells uniformly; then add 750 parts, by weight, of boiling water, dissolve 50 parts, by weight, of borax in it, and stir 50 parts, by weight, of stearine and 50 parts, by weight, of talcum into the whole. Of this fluid add 250 parts to 1,000 parts of boiled starch, or else the ironing oil is applied by means of a sponge on the starched wash, which is then ironed.




                                    By weight

Starch                              1,044 parts

Borax                               9 parts

Common salt                         1 part

Gum arabic                          8 parts

Stearine                            20 parts




Washing Fluids. Rub up 75 parts of milk of sulphur with 125 parts of glycerine in a mortar, next add 50 parts of camphorated spirit and 1 part of lavender oil, and finally stir in 250 parts of rose water and 1,000 parts of distilled water. The liquid must be stirred constantly when filling it into bottles, since the sulphur settles rapidly and would thus be unevenly distributed.


Grosser's Washing Brick.


Water                               54 parts

Sodium hydrate                      38.21 parts

Sodium biborate                     6.61 parts

Sodium silicate                     1.70 parts


Haenkel's Bleaching Solution.


Water                               36.15 parts

Sodium hydrate                      40.22 parts

Sodium silicate                     23.14 parts




Luhn's Washing Extract.


Water                               34.50 parts

Sodium hydrate                      25.33 parts

Soap                                39.40 parts


Washing Powders.



Sodium carbonate, partly

  effloresced.                      2 parts

Soda ash                            1 part



Sodium carbonate, partly

  effloresced                       6 parts

Soda ash                            3 parts

Yellow soap                         1 part



Sodium carbonate, partly

  effloresced                       3 parts

Soap bark                           1 part




Equal parts.


Sodium carbonate, partly effloresced


Yellow soap


V.    A good powder can be made from 100 parts of crystal soda, 25 parts of dark-yellow rosin-cured soap, and 5 parts of soft soap. The two latter are placed in a pan, along with one-half the soda (the curd soap being cut into small lumps), and slowly heated, with continual crutching, until they are thoroughly melted without, however, beginning to boil. The fire is then drawn and the remaining soda crutched in until it, too, is melted, this being effected by the residual heat of the mass and the pan. The mass will be fairly thick by the time the soda is all absorbed. After leaving a little longer, with occasional stirring, the contents are spread out on several thin sheets of iron in a cool room, to be then turned over by the shovel at short intervals, in order to further cool and break down the mixture. The soap will then

be in a friable condition, and can be rubbed through the sieve, the best results being obtained by passing through a coarse sieve first, and one of finer mesh afterwards. With these ingredients a fine yellow-colored powder will be obtained. White stock soap may also be used, and, if desired, colored with palm oil and the same colorings as are used for toilet soaps. The object of adding soft soap is to increase the solubility and softness of the powder, but the proportion used should not exceed one-third of the hard soap, or the powder will be smeary and handle moist. The quality of the foregoing product is good, the powder being stable and not liable to ball, even after prolonged storage; neither does it wet the paper in which it is packed, nor swell up, and therefore the packets retain their appearance.






In making ammonia-turpentine soap powder the ammonia and oil of turpentine are crutched into the mass shortly before removing it from the pan, and if the powder is scented for which purpose oil of mirbane is mostly used the perfume is added at the same stage.


To Whiten Flannels. Dissolve, by the aid of heat, 40 parts of white castile soap, shaved fine, in 1,200 parts of soft water, and to the solution, when cold, gradually add, under constant stirring, 1 part of the strongest water of ammonia. Soak the goods in this solution for 2 hours, then let them be washed as usual for fine flannels. A better process, in the hands of experts, is to soak the goods for an hour or so in a dilute solution of sodium hyposulphite, remove, add to the solution sufficient dilute hydrochloric acid to decompose the hyposulphite. Replace the goods, cover the tub closely, and let remain for 15 minutes longer. Then remove the running water, if convenient, and if not, wring out quickly, and rinse in clear water. One not an expert at such work must be very careful in the rinsing, as care must be taken to get out every trace of chemical. This is best done by a second rinsing.


Ink for the Laundry. The following is said to make a fine, jet-black laundry ink:



Copper chloride,crystals            85 parts

Sodium chlorate                     106 parts

Ammonium chloride                   53 parts

Water, distilled                    600 parts



Glycerine                           100 parts

Mucilage gum arabic

  (gum, 1 part; water, 2 parts)     200 parts

Aniline hydrochlorate               200 parts

Distilled water                     300 parts


Make solutions a and b and preserve in separate bottles. When wanted for use, mix 1 part of solution a with 4 parts of solution b.


Laces, Curtains, etc. I.      To give lace curtains, etc., a cream color, take 1 part of chrysoidin and mix with 2 parts of dextrin and dissolve in 250 parts of water. The articles to be washed clean are plunged in this solution. About an ounce of chrysoidin is sufficient for 5 curtains.


II.   Washing curtains in coffee will give them an ecru color, but the simplest way to color curtains is with "Philadelphia yellow" (G. or R. of the Berlin Aktiengesellschaft's scale).



See Soap.



See Household Formulas.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See also Metals.


Simple Test for Red Lead and Orange Lead. Take a little of the sample in a test tube, add pure, strong nitric acid and heat by a Bunsen burner until a white, solid residue is obtained. Then add water, when a clear, colorless solution will be obtained. A white residue would indicate adulteration with barytes, a red residue or a yellow solution with oxide of iron. The presence of iron may be ascertained by adding a few drops of a solution of potassium ferrocyanide (yellow prussiate of potash) to the solution, when a blue precipitate will be obtained if there be the least trace of iron present.



See Pyrotechnics.



See Alloys.



See Paper.



See Plating.



See Putties.




To Stop Leakage in Iron Hot-Water Pipes. Take some fine iron borings or filings and mix with them sufficient vinegar to form a sort of paste, though the mixture is not adhesive. With this mixture fill up the cracks where the leakage is found, having previously dried the pipe. It must be kept dry until the paste has become quite hard. If an iron pipe

should burst, or there should be a hole broken into it by accident, a piece of iron may be securely fastened over it, by bedding it on in paste made of the borings and vinegar as above, but the pipe should not be disturbed until it has become perfectly dry.


To Prevent Wooden Vessels from Leaking.

(See also Casks.) Wooden






vessels, such as pails, barrels, etc., often become so dry that the joints do not meet, thus causing leakage. In order to obviate this evil stir together 60 parts hog's lard, 40 parts salt, and 33 parts wax, and allow the mixture to dissolve slowly over a fire. Then add 40 parts charcoal to the liquid mass. The leaks in the vessels are dried off well and filled up with putty while still warm. When the latter has become dry, the barrels, etc., will be perfectly tight. If any putty is left, keep in a dry place and heat it to be used again.



(See also Shoes.)


Artificial Leather. Pure Italian hemp is cut up fine; 1 part of this and 1/2 part of coarse, cleaned wool are carded together and formed into wadding. This wadding is packed in linen and felted by treatment with hot acid vapors. The resulting felt is washed out, dried, and impregnated with a substance whose composition varies according to the leather to be produced. Thus, good sole leather, for instance, is produced according to a Danish patent, in the following manner: Mix together 50 parts of boiled linseed oil; 20 parts of colophony; 25 parts of French turpentine; 10 parts of glycerine, and 10 parts of vegetable wax, and heat over a water bath with some ammonia water. When the mass has become homogeneous, add 25 parts of glue, soaked in water, as well as a casein solution, which latter is produced by dissolving 50 parts, by weight, of moist, freshly precipitated casein in a saturated solution of 16 parts of borax and adding 10 parts of potassium bichromate, the last two also by weight. Finally, mineral dyestuffs as well as antiseptic substances may be added to the mass. The whole mixture is now boiled until it becomes sticky and the felt is impregnated with it by immersion. The impregnated felt is dried for 24 hours at an ordinary temperature; next laid into a solution of aluminum acetate and finally dried completely, dyed, and pressed between hot rollers.


Black Dye for Tanned Leather. This recipe takes the place of the ill-smelling iron blacking, and is not injurious to the leather. Gallnuts, pulverized, 150 parts; vitriol, green or black, 10 parts; rock candy, 60 parts; alum, 15 parts; vinegar, 250 parts; cooking salt, 20 parts. Dissolve with 4,000 parts of distilled water.


Boil this solution slowly and the blacking is done. When it has cooled and settled, pour through linen, thus obtaining a pure, good leather blacking.


Bronze Leather. All sorts of skins sheepskins, goatskins, coltskins, and light calfskins are adapted for the preparation of bronze leather. In this preparation the advantage lies not only in the use of the faultless skins, but scarified skins and those of inferior quality may also be employed. The dressing of the previously tanned skin must be carried out with the greatest care, to prevent the appearance of spots and other faults. After tanning, the pelts are well washed, scraped, and dried. Then they are bleached. For coloring, it is customary to employ methyl violet which has previously been dissolved in hot water, taking 100 parts, by weight, of the aniline color to 8,000 parts, by weight, of water. If in the leather-dressing establishment a line of steam piping be convenient, it is advisable to boil up all the coloring dyes, rather than simply to dissolve them; for in this way complete solution is effected. Where steam is used no special appliance is required for boiling up the dyes, for this may take place without inconvenience in the separate dye vats. A length of steam hose and a brass nozzle with a valve is all that is needed. It may be as well to add here that the violet color for dyeing may be made cheaper than as above described. To 3,000 parts, by weight, of pretty strong logwood decoction add 50 parts, by weight, of alum and 100 parts, by weight, of methyl violet. This compound is almost as strong as the pure violet solution, and instead of 8,000 parts, by weight, we now have 30,000 parts, by weight, of color.


The color is applied and well worked in with a stiff brush, and the skins allowed to stand for a short time, sufficient to allow the dye to penetrate the pores, when it is fulled. As for the shade of the bronze, it may be made reddish, bluish, or brownish, according to taste.


For a reddish or brownish ground the skins are simply fulled in warm water, planished, fulled again, and then dyed. According to the color desired, the skins are treated with cotton blue and methyl violet R, whereupon the application of the bronze follows.


The bronze is dissolved in alcohol, and it is usual to take 200 parts, by weight, of bronze to 1,000 of alcohol. By means of this mixture the peculiar component parts of the bronze are dissolved. For a fundamental or thorough






solution a fortnight is required. All bronze mixtures are to be well shaken or agitated before using. Skins may be bronzed, however, without the use of the bronze colors, for it is well known that all the aniline dyes present a bronze appearance when highly concentrated, and this is particularly the case with the violet and red dyes. If, therefore, the violet be applied in very strong solutions, the effect will be much the same as when the regular bronze color is employed.


Bronze color on a brown ground is the most beautiful of all, and is used to the greatest advantage when it is desirable to cover up defects. Instead of warm clear water in such a case, use a decoction of logwood to which a small quantity of alum has been added, and thus, during the fulling, impart to the skins a proper basic tint, which may, by the application of a little violet or bronze color, be converted into a most brilliant bronze. By no means is it to be forgotten that too much coloring matter will never produce the desired results, for here, as with the other colors, too much will bring out a greenish tint, nor will the gloss turn out so beautiful and clear. Next rinse the skins well in clean water, and air them, after which they may be dried with artificial heat. Ordinary as well as damaged skins which are not suitable for chevreaux (kid) and which it is desirable to provide with a very high polish, in order the more readily to conceal the defects in the grain, and other imperfections, are, after the drying, coated with a mixture, compounded according to the following simple formula: Stir well 1 pint of ox blood and 1 pint of unboiled milk in 10 quarts of water, and with a soft sponge apply this to the surface of the skin. The blood has no damaging effect upon the color. Skins thus moistened must not be laid one upon another, but must be placed separately in a thoroughly well-warmed chamber to dry. When dry they are glossed, and may then be pressed into shagreen or pebbled. The thin light goatskins are worked into kid or chevreauX. Properly speaking, they are only imitation chevreaux (kid), for although they are truly goatskins, under the term chevreaux one understands only such skins as have been cured in alum and treated with albumen and flour.


After drying, these skins are drawn over the perching stick with the round knife, then glossed, stretched, glossed again, and finally vigorously brushed upon the flesh side with a stiff brush. The brushing should be done preferably by hand, for the brushing machines commonly pull the skins out of all shape. Brushing is intended only to give the flesh side more of a flaky appearance.


During the second glossing care must be taken that the pressure is light, for the object is merely to bring the skin back into its proper shape, lost in the stretching; the glossing proper should have been accomplished during the first operation.


Cracked Leather. The badly cracked and fissured carriage surface greets the painter on every hand. The following is the recipe for filling up and facing over such a surface: Finest pumice stone, 6 parts; lampblack (in bulk), 1 part; common roughstuff filler, 3 parts. Mix to stiff paste in good coach japan, 5 parts; hard drying rubbing varnish, 1 part. Thin to a brushing consistency with turpentine, and apply 1 coat per day. Put on 2 coats of this filler and then 2 coats ofrdinary roughstuff. Rub with lump pumice stone and water. This process does not equal burning off in getting permanently rid of the cracks, but when the price of painting forbids burning off, it serves as an effective substitute. Upon a job that is well cared for, and not subjected to too exacting service, this filler will secrete the cracks and fissures for from 3 to 5 months.




For Carriage Tops.


I.    Here is an inexpensive and quickly prepared dressing for carriage tops or the like: Take 2 parts of common glue; soak and liquefy it over a fire. Three parts of castile soap are then dissolved over a moderate heat. Of water, 120 parts are added to dissolve the soap and glue, after which an intimate mixture of the ingredients is effected. Then 4 parts of spirit varnish are added; next, 2 parts of wheat starch, previously mixed in water, are thrown in. Lampblack in a sufficient quantity to give the mixture a good coloring power, without killing the gloss, is now added. This preparation may be used as above prepared, or it may be placed over a gentle fire and the liquid ingredients slowly evaporated. The evaporated mass is then liquefied with beer as shop needs demand.


II.   Shabby dark leather will look like new if rubbed over with either linseed oil or the well-beaten white of an egg mixed with a little black ink. Polish with soft dusters until quite dry and glossy.




I.    Dissolve sticklac, 25






parts; shellac, 20 parts; and gum benzoin, 4 parts, all finely powdered, in a rolling cask containing 100 parts of 96 per cent alcohol; perfume with 1 part of oil of rosemary. Upon letting stand for several days, filter the solution, whereupon a good glossy polish for leather, etc., will be obtained.


II.   Dissolve 2 pounds of borax in 4 gallons of water and add 5 pounds of shellac to the boiling liquid in portions, till all is dissolved. Then boil half an hour, and finally stir in 5 pounds of sugar, 2 1/2 pounds of glycerine, and 1 1/2 pounds of soluble nigrosin. When cold add 4 pounds of 95 per cent methylated spirit.



Ox blood, fresh, clean              1,000 parts

Commercial glycerine                200 parts

Oil of turpentine                   300 parts

Pine oil (rosin oil)                5,000 parts

Ox gall                             200 parts

Formalin                            15 parts


Mix in the order named, stirring in each ingredient. When mixed strain through linen.


Kid Leather Dressings. Creams for greasing fine varieties of leather, such as kid, patent leather, etc., are produced as follows, according to tried recipes:


White Cream.


Lard                                75 parts

Glycerine, technical                25 parts

Mirbane oil,                        ad libitum.


Black Cream.


Lard                                100 parts

Yellow vaseline                     20 parts

Glycerine, technical                10 parts

Castor oil, technical               10 parts


Dye black with lampblack and perfume with oil of mirbane.


Colored Cream.


Lard 100 parts

Castor oil                          20 parts

Yellow wax                          25 parts

White vaseline                      30 parts


Dye with any desired dyestuff, e.g., red with anchusine, green with chlorophyl. In summer it is well to add some wax to the first and second prescriptions.


These are for either Morocco or kid:



Shellac                             2 parts

Benzoin                             2 parts

Yellow wax                          5 parts

Soap liniment                       7 parts

Alcohol                             600 parts


Digest until solution is effected, then allow the liquid to stand in a cool place for 12 hours and strain. Apply with a bit of sponge or soft rag; spread thinly and evenly over the surface, without rubbing much. If dirty, the leather should first be washed with a little soft soap and warm water, wiped well, and allowed to dry thoroughly before the dressing is put on.



Oil of turpentine                   8 ounces

Suet                                2 pounds

Soft soap                           8 ounces

Water                               16 ounces

Lampblack                           4 ounces


Patent Leather Dressings.



Wax                                 22 parts

Olive oil                           60 parts

Oil turpentine, best                20 parts

Lavender oil                        10 parts


With gentle heat, melt the wax in the oil, and as soon as melted remove from the fire. Add the turpentine oil, incorporate, and when nearly cold, add and incorporate the lavender oil.



Wax                                 22 parts

Olive oil                           60 parts

Oil of turpentine                   30 parts


With gentle heat, melt the wax in the olive oil, and as soon as melted remove from the fire. When nearly cold stir in the turpentine.


Red Russia Leather Varnish.


Shellac                             1.20 parts

Dammar rosin, powdered              0.15 parts

Turpentine, Venice                  0.60 parts


Dissolve with frequent shaking in 12 parts of alcohol (95 per cent), add 1.8 parts of powdered red sanders wood, let stand for 3 days and filter. The object of this varnish is to restore the original color to worn Russia leather boots, previously cleaned with benzine.


Russet Leather Dressing. The following formulas are said to yield efficient preparations that are at once detersive and polishing, thus rendering the use of an extra cleaning liquid unnecessary.



Soft soap                           2 parts

Linseed oil                         3 parts

Annatto solution (in oil)           8 parts

Beeswax                             3 parts

Turpentine                          8 parts

Water                               8 parts


Dissolve the soap in the water, and add the annatto; melt the wax in the oil and turpentine, and gradually stir in the soap solution, stirring until cold.







Palm oil                            16 parts

Common soap                         48 parts

Oleic acid                          32 parts

Glycerine                           10 parts

Tannic acid                         1 part


Melt the soap and palm oil together at a gentle heat, and add the oleic acid; dissolve the tannic acid in the glycerine, add to the hot soap and oil mixture, and stir until perfectly cold.


Shoe Leather Dressing. Over a water bath melt 50 parts, by weight, of oil of turpentine; 100 parts, by weight, of olive oil; 100 parts, by weight, of train oil; 40 parts, by weight, of carnauba wax; 15 parts, by weight, of asphaltum; and 2 parts, by weight, of oil of bitter almonds.




In dyeing leather, aniline or coal-tar colors are generally used. These dyes, owing to their extremely rapid action on organic substances, such as leather, do not readily adapt themselves to the staining process, because a full brushful of dye liquor would give a much deeper coloration than a half-exhausted brush would give. Consequently, to alter and to color leather by the staining process results in a patchy coloration of the skin.  In the dyeing operation a zinc shallow trough, 4 to 6 inches deep, is used, into which the dye liquor is put, and to produce the best results the contents of the trough are kept at a uniform temperature by means of a heating apparatus beneath the trough, such as a gas jet or two, which readily allows of a heat being regulated. The skins to be dyed are spread out flat in the dye trough, one at a time, each skin remaining in the dye liquor the time prescribed by the recipe. The best coloration of the skin is produced by using 3 dye troughs of the same dye liquor, each of different strength, the skin being put in the weakest liquor first, then passed into the second, and from there into the third dye liquor, where it is allowed to remain until its full depth of color is obtained. Very great skill is required in the employment of aniline dyes, as if the heat be too great, or the skins remain too long in the final bath, "bronzing" of the color occurs. The only remedy for this (and that not always effectual) is to sponge the skin with plenty of cold, clean water, directly it is taken out of the final dye bath. The dyed skins are dried and finished as before.


Leather Brown.


Extract of fustic                   5 ounces

Extract of hypernic                 1 ounce

Extract of logwood                  1/2 ounce

Water                               2 gallons


Boil all these ingredients for 15 minutes, and then dilute with water to make 10 gallons of dye liquor. Use the dye liquor at a temperature of 110º F.


Mordant. Dissolve 3 ounces of white tartar and 4 ounces of alum in 10 gallons of water.


Fast Brown. Prepare a dye liquor by dissolving 1 1/2 ounces fast brown in 1 gallon of water, and make a 10-gallon bulk of this. Use at a temperature of 110º F., and employ the same mordanting liquor as in last recipe.


Bismarck Brown.


Extract of fustic                   4 ounces

Extract of hypernic                 1 ounce

Extract of logwood                  1/2 ounce

Water                               2 gallons


Preparation. Boil all together for 15 minutes.


Method of Dyeing. First mordant the skins with a mordanting fluid made by dissolving 3 ounces tartar and 1/2 ounce borax in 10 gallons of water. Then put the skins into the above foundation bath at a temperature of 100º F. Take them out, and then put in 1 ounce of Bismarck brown, dissolved in boiling water. Put the skins in again until colored deep enough, then lift out, drip and dry.




Blacking for Harness.


I.    In a water bath dissolve 90 parts of yellow wax in 900 parts of oil of turpentine; aside from this mix well together, all the ingredients being finely powdered, 10 parts of Prussian blue, 5 parts of indigo, 50 parts of bone black, and work this into a portion of the above-mentioned waxy solution. Now throw this into the original solution, which still remains in the water bath, and stir it vigorously until the mass becomes homogeneous, after which pour it into, any convenient earthenware receptacle.


II.   Best glue, 4 ounces; good vinegar, 1$ pints; best gum arabic, 2 ounces; good black ink, 1/2 pint; best isinglass, 2 drachms. Dissolve the gum in the ink, and melt the isinglass in another vessel in as much hot water as will cover it. Having first steeped the glue in the vinegar until soft, dissolve it completely by the aid of heat, stirring to prevent burning. The heat should not exceed 180º F. Add the gum and ink, and allow the mixture to rise again to the same temperature. Lastly mix the solution in isinglass, and remove from fire. When


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