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Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

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Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 501-525






tripoli, and oil, and polished by hand, like horn or ivory. This work can be done only in a room which is entirely free from dust. The greatest cleanliness must be observed.




Bathtub Paint. Take white keg lead, tint to any desired color and then add, say, 1/8 boiled oil (pure linseed) to 7/8 hard drying durable body varnish. Clean the surface of the tub thoroughly before applying the paint. Benzine or lime wash are good cleaning agents. Coat up until a satisfactorily strong, pure color is reached. This will give good gloss and will also wear durably.


Coating for Name Plates. A durable coating for name plates in nurseries is produced as follows: Take a woolen rag, saturate it with joiners' polish, lay it into a linen one, and rub the wooden surface with this for some time. Rub down with sandpaper and it can be written on almost like paper. When all is dry, coat with dammar lacquer for better protection. If the wood is to receive a color it is placed in the woolen rag before rubbing down, in this case chrome yellow.


To Keep Flies from Fresh Paint. For the purpose of keeping flies and other insects away from freshly painted surfaces mix a little bay oil (laurel oil) with the oil paint, or place a receptacle containing same in the vicinity of the painted objects. The pungent odor keeps off the flies.


Heat -Indicating Paint. A heat-indicating paint composed of a double iodide of copper arid mercury was first discovered years ago by a German physicist. At ordinary temperatures the paint is red, but when heated to 206º F. it turns black. Paper painted with this composition and warmed at a stove exhibits the change in a few seconds. A yellow double iodide of silver and mercury is even more sensitive to heat, changing from yellow to dark red.


To Keep Liquid Paint in Workable Condition. To prevent liquid paint which, for convenience sake, is kept in small quantities and flat receptacles, from evaporating and drying, give the vessels such a shape that they can be placed one on top of the other without danger "of falling over, and provide the under side with a porous mass felt or very porous clay, etc. which, if moistened, will retain the water for a long time. Thus, in placing the dishes one on top of the other, a moist atmosphere is created around them, which will inhibit evaporation and drying of the paint. A similar idea consists in producing covers with a tight outside and porous inside, for the purpose of covering up, during intermission in the work, clay models and like objects which it is desired to keep soft. In order to avoid the formation of fungous growth on the constantly wet bottom, it may be saturated with non-volatile disinfectants, or with volatile ones if their vapors are calculated to act upon the objects kept underneath the cover. If the cover is used to cover up oil paints, it is moistened on the inside with volatile oil, such as oil of turpentine, oil of lavender, or with alcohol.


Peeling of Paints. For the prevention of peeling of new coatings on old oil paintings or lakes, the latter should be rubbed with roughly ground pumice stone, wet by means of felt rags, and to the first new coat there should be added fine spirit in the proportion of about 1/10 of the thinning necessary for stirring (turpentine, oil, etc.). This paint dries well and has given good results, even in the most difficult cases. The subsequent coatings are put on with the customary paint. Fat oil glazes for graining are likewise mixed with spirit, whereby the cracking of the varnish coating is usually entirely obviated.


Polychroming of Figures. This paint consists of white wax, 1 part, and powdered mastic, 1 part, melted together upon the water bath and mixed with rectified turpentine. The colors to be used are first ground stiffly in turpentine on the grinding slab, and worked into consistency with the above solution.


Priming Coat for Water Spots. A very simple way to remove rain spots, or such caused by water soaking through ceilings, has been employed with good results. Take unslaked white lime, dilute with alcohol, and paint the spots with it. When the spots are dry which ensues quickly, as the alcohol evaporates and the lime forms a sort of insulating layer one can proceed painting with size color, and the spots will not show through again.



See Acid-Proofing.



See Cosmetics.







See Cleaning Compounds.



See Alloys.



See Plating.




Instead of washing the leaves of palms with water, many florists employ a mixture of milk and water, the object being to prevent the formation of disfiguring brown stains.




Paper Pads (see also Adhesives, under Glue).



Glue                                3 1/2 ounces

Glycerine                           8 ounces


Water, a sufficient quantity. Pour upon the glue more than enough water to cover it and let stand for several hours, then decant the greater portion of the water; apply heat until the glue is dissolved, and add the glycerine. If the mixture is too thick, add more water.



Glue                                6 ounces

Alum                                30 grains

Acetic acid                         1/2 ounce

Alcohol                             l 1/2 ounces

Water                               6 1/2 ounces


Mix all but the alcohol, digest on a water bath till the glue is dissolved, allow to cool, and add the alcohol.


Papier Maché. The following are the ingredients necessary to make a lump of papier maché a little larger than an ordinary baseball and weighing 17 ounces:


Wet paper pulp, dry paper, 1 ounce; water, 3 ounces; 4 ounces (avoirdupois); dry plaster Paris, 8 ounces (avoirdupois); hot glue, 1/2 gill, or 4 1/2 tablespoonfuls.


While the paper pulp is being prepared, melt some best Irish glue in the glue pot and make it of the same thickness and general consistency as that used by cabinet makers. On taking the paper pulp from the water squeeze it gently, but do not try to dry it. Put in a bowl, add about 3 tablespoonfuls of the hot glue, and stir the mass up into a soft and very sticky paste. Add the plaster of Paris and mix thoroughly.

By the time about 3 ounces of the plaster have been used, the mass is so dry and thick that it can hardly be worked. Add the remainder of the glue, work it up again until it becomes sticky once more, and then add the remainder of the plaster. Squeeze it vigorously through the fingers to thoroughly mix the mass, and work it until free from lumps, finely kneaded and sticky enough to adhere to the surface of a planed board.

If it is too dry to stick fast add a few drops of either glue or water, and work it up again. When the paper pulp is poor and the mache is inclined to be lumpy, lay the mass upon a smooth board, take a hammer and pound it hard to grind it up fine.


If the papier maché is not sticky enough to adhere firmly to whatever it is rubbed upon, it is a failure, and requires more glue. In using it the mass should be kept in a lump and used as soon as possible after making. Keep the surface of the lump moist by means of a wet cloth laid over it, for if you do not, the surface will dry rapidly. If it is to be kept overnight, or longer, wrap it up in several thicknesses of wet cotton cloth, and put under an inverted bowl. If it is desired, to keep a lump for a week, to use daily, add a few drops of glycerine when making, so that it will dry more slowly.


The papier maché made according to this formula has the following qualities: When tested by rubbing between the thumb and finger, it was sticky and covered the thumb with a fine coating. (Had it left the thumb clean, it would have been because it contained too much water.) When rubbed upon a pane of glass it sticks tightly and dries hard in 3 hours without cracking, and can only be removed with a knife.

When spread in a layer as thin as writing paper it dries in half an hour. A mass actually used dried hard enough to coat with wax in 18 hours, and, without cracking, became as hard as wood; yet a similar quantity wrapped in a wet cloth and placed under an inverted bowl kept soft and fit for use for an entire week.


Parchment Paper.


I.    Dip white unsized paper for half a minute in strong sulphuric acid, specific gravity, 1.842, and afterwards in water containing a little ammonia.


II.   Plunge unsized paper for a few seconds into sulphuric acid diluted with half to a quarter its bulk of water (this solution being of the same temperature as the air), and afterwards wash with weak ammonia.


Razor Paper.


I.    Smooth unsized paper, one of the surfaces of which, while in a slightly damp state, has been rubbed over with a mixture of calcined peroxide of iron and emery, both in impalpable powder. It is cut up into






pieces (about 5x3 inches), and sold in packets. Used to wipe the razor on, which thus does not require stropping.


II.   From emery and quartz (both in impalpable powder), and paper pulp

(estimated in the dry state), equal parts, made into sheets of the thickness of drawing paper, by the ordinary process. For use, a piece is pasted on the strop and moistened with a little oil.


Safety Paper. White paper pulp mixed with an equal quantity of pulp tinged with any stain easily affected by chlorine, acids, alkalies, etc., and made into sheets as usual, serves as a safety paper on which to write checks or the like. Any attempt to wash out the writing affects the whole surface, showing plainly that it has been tampered with.


Tracing Paper. Open a quire of smooth, unsized white paper, and place it flat upon a table. Apply, with a clean sash tool to the upper surface of the first sheet, a coat of varnish made of equal parts of Canada balsam and oil of turpentine, and hang the prepared sheet across the line to dry; repeat the operation on fresh sheets until the proper quantity is finished. If not sufficiently transparent, a second coat of varnish may be applied as soon as the first has become quite dry.


Strengthened Filter Paper. When ordinary filter paper is dipped into nitric acid (specific gravity, 1.42), thoroughly washed and dried, it becomes a tissue of remarkable properties, and one that deserves to be better known by chemists and pharmacists. It shrinks somewhat in size and in weight, and gives, on burning, a diminished ash. It yields no nitrogen, nor does it in the slightest manner affect liquids. It remains perfectly pervious to liquids, its filtering properties being in no wise affected, which, it is needless to say, is very different from the behavior of the same paper "parchmented" by sulphuric acid. It is as supple as a rag, yet may be very roughly handled, even when wet, without tearing or giving way. These qualities make it very valuable for use in filtration under pressure or exhaust. It fits closely to the funnel, upon which it may be used direct, without any supports, and it thus prevents undue access of air. As to strength, it is increased upward of 10 times. A strip of ordinary white Swedish paper, 1/5 of an inch wide, will sustain a load of from 1/2 to 3/4 of a pound avoirdupois, according to the quality of the paper. A similar strip of the toughened paper broke, in 3 trials, with 5 pounds, 7 ounces, and 3 drachms; 5 pounds, 4 ounces, and 36 grains; and 5 pounds, 10 ounces respectively. These are facts that deserve to be better known than they seem to be to the profession at large.


Blotting Paper. A new blotting paper which will completely remove wet as well as dry ink spots, after moistening the paper with water, is produced as follows: Dissolve 100 parts of oxalic acid in 400 parts of alcohol, and immerse porous white paper in this solution until it is completely saturated. Next hang the sheets up separately to dry over threads. Such paper affords great advantages, but in its characteristic application is serviceable for ferric inks only, while aniline ink spots cannot be removed with it, after drying.


Carbon Paper. Many copying papers act by virtue of a detachable pigment, which, when the pigmented paper is placed between two sheets of white paper, and when the uppermost paper is written on, transfers its pigment to the lower white sheet along lines which correspond to those traced on the upper paper, and therefore gives an exact copy of them on the lower paper.


The pigments used are fine soot or ivory black, indigo carmine, ultramarine, and Paris blue, or mixtures of them. The pigment is intimately mixed with grain soap, and then rubbed on to thin but strong paper with a stiff brush. Fatty oils, such as linseed or castor oil, may be used, but the grain soap is preferable. Graphite is frequently used for black copying paper. It is rubbed into the paper with a cotton pad until a uniform light-gray color results. All superfluous graphite is then carefully brushed off.


It is sometimes desired to make a copying paper which will produce at the same time a positive copy, which is not required to be reproduced, and a negative or reversed copy from which a number of direct copies can be taken. Such paper is covered on one side with a manifolding composition, and on the other with a simple copying composition, and is used between 2 sheets of paper with the manifolding side undermost.


The manifolding composition is made by mixing 5 ounces of printers' ink with 40 of spirits of turpentine, and then mixing it with a fused mixture of 40 ounces of tallow and 5 ounces of stearine. When the mass is homogeneous, 30 ounces of the finest powdered protoxide of iron, first mixed with 15 ounces of pyrogallic






acid and 5 ounces of gallic acid, are stirred in till a perfect mixture is obtained. This mass will give at least 50 copies on damp paper in the ordinary way. The copying composition for the other side of the prepared paper consists of the following ingredients:


Printers' ink                       5 parts

Spirits of turpentine               40 parts

Fused tallow                        30 parts

Fused wax                           3 parts

Fused rosin                         2 parts

Soot                                20 parts


It goes without saying that rollers or stones or other hard materials may be used for the purpose under consideration as well as paper. The manifolding mass may be made blue with indigotin, red with magenta, or violet with methyl violet, adding 30 ounces of the chosen dye to the above quantities of pigment. If, however, they are used, the oxide of iron and gallic acids must be replaced by 20 ounces of carbonate of magnesia.


Celloidin Paper. Ordinary polished celluloid and celloidin paper are difficult to write upon with pen and ink. If, however, the face is rubbed over with a chalk crayon, and the dust wiped off with a clean rag, writing becomes easy.


Cloth Paper. This is prepared by covering gauze, calico, canvas, etc., with a surface of paper pulp in a Foudrinier machine, and then finishing the compound sheet in a nearly similar manner to that adopted for ordinary paper.


Drawing Paper. The blue drawing paper of commerce, which is frequently employed for technical drawings, is not very durable. For the production of a serviceable and strong drawing paper, the following process is recommended. Mix a solution of


Gum arabic                          2 parts

Ammonia iron citrate                3 parts

Tartaric acid                       2 parts

Distilled water                     20 parts


After still adding 4 parts of solution of ammonia with a solution of


Potassium ferricyanide              2.5 parts

Distilled water                     10.0 parts


allow the mixture to stand in the dark half an hour. Apply the preparation on the paper by means of a soft brush, in artificial light, and dry in the dark. Next, expose the paper to light until it appears dark violet, place in water for 10 seconds, air a short time, wash with water, and finally dip in a solution of


Eau de javelle                      50 parts

Distilled water                     1,000 parts


until it turns dark blue.


Filter Paper. This process consists in dipping the paper in nitric acid of 1.433 specific gravity, subsequently washing it well and drying it. The paper thereby acquires advantageous qualities. It shrinks a little and loses in weight, while on burning only a small quantity of ash remains. It possesses no traces of nitrogen and does not in any way attack the liquid to be filtered. Withal, this paper remains perfectly pervious for the most varying liquids, and its filtering capacity is in no wise impaired. It is difficult to tear, and still elastic and flexible like linen. It clings completely to the funnel. In general it may be said that the strength of the filtering paper thus treated increases 100 per cent.


Fireproof Papers.


I.    Ammonium sulphate, 8 parts, by weight; boracic acid, 3 parts; borax, 2 parts; water, 100 parts. The temperature should be about 122º F.


II.   For paper, either printed or unprinted, bills of exchange, deeds, books, etc., the following solution is recommended: Ammonium sulphate, 8 parts; boracic acid, 3 parts; sodium borate, 1.7 parts; water, 10,000 parts. The solution is heated to 122º F., and may be used when the paper is manufactured. As soon as the paper leaves the machine it is passed through this solution, then rolled over a warm cylinder and dried.

If printed or in sheets, it is simply immersed in the solution, at a temperature of 122º F., and spread out to dry, finally pressed to restore the luster.


Hydrographic Paper. This is paper which may be written on with simple

water or with some colorless liquid having the appearance of water.


I.    A mixture of nut galls, 4 parts, and calcined sulphate of iron, 1 part (both perfectly dry and reduced to very fine powder), is rubbed over the surface of the paper, and is then forced into its pores by powerful pressure, after which the loose portion is brushed off. The writing shows black when a pen dipped in water is used.


II.   A mixture of persulphate of iron and ferrocyanide of potassium may be employed as in formula I.  This writes blue.


Iridescent Paper. Sal ammoniac and sulphate of indigo, of each 1 part;

sulphate of iron, 5 parts; nut galls, 8 parts; gum arabic, 1/8 part. Boil them in water, and expose the paper washed with the liquia to (the fumes of) ammonia.






Lithographic Paper.


I.    Starch, 6 ounces; gum arable, 2 ounces; alum, 1 ounce. Make a strong solution of each separately, in hot water, mix, strain through gauze, and apply it while still warm to one side of leaves of paper, with a clean painting brush or sponge; a second and a third coat must be given as the preceding one becomes dry. The paper must be, lastly, pressed, to make it smooth.


II.   Give the paper 3 coats of thin size, 1 coat of good white starch, and 1 coat of a solution of gamboge in water, the whole to be applied cold, with a sponge, and each coat to be allowed to dry before the other is applied. The solutions should be freshly made.


Lithographic paper is written on with lithographic ink. The writing is transferred simply by moistening the back of the paper, placing it evenly on the stone, and then applying pressure. A reversed copy is obtained, which, when printed from, yields corrected copies resembling

the original writing or drawing. In this way the necessity of executing the writing or drawing in a reversed direction is obviated.




Provide a wooden trough 2 inches deep and the length and width of any desired sheet; boil in a brass or copper pan a quantity of linseed and water until a thick mucilage is formed; strain it into a trough, and let cool; then grind on a marble slab any of the following colors in small beer:


For Blue. Prussian blue or indigo.


Red. Rose pink, vermilion, or drop lake.


Yellow. King's yellow, yellow ocher, etc.


White. Flake white.


Black. Burnt ivory or lampblack.


Brown. Umber, burnt; terra di sienna, burnt.


Black mixed with yellow or red also makes brown.


Green. Blue and yellow mixed.


Orange. Red and yellow mixed.


Purple. Red and blue mixed.


For each color have two cups, one for the color after grinding, the other to mix it with ox gall, which must be used to thin the colors at discretion. If too much gall is used, the colors will spread. When they keep their place on the surface of the trough, when moved with a quill, they are fit for use. All things in readiness, the colors are successively sprinkled on the surface of the mucilage in the trough with a brush, and are waved or drawn about with a quill or a stick, according to taste. When the design is just formed, the book, tied tightly between cutting boards of the same size, is lightly pressed with its edge on the surface of the liquid pattern, and then withdrawn and dried. The covers may be marbled in the same way, only letting the liquid colors run over them. In marbling paper the sides of the paper are gently applied to the colors in the trough. The film of color in the trough may be as thin as possible, and if any remains after the marbling it may be taken off by applying paper to it before you prepare for marbling again. To diversify the effects, colors are often mixed with a little sweet oil before sprinkling them on, by which means a light halo or circle appears around each spot.




I.    Wall papers may be easily rendered washable, either before or after they are hung, by preparing them in the following manner: Dissolve 2 parts of borax and 2 parts of shellac in 24 parts of water, and strain through a fine cloth. With a brush or a sponge apply this to he surface of the paper, and when it is dry, polish it to a high gloss with a soft brush. Thus treated the paper may be washed without fear of removing the colors or even smearing or blurring them.


II.   This is recommended for drawing paper. Any kind of paper is lightly primed with glue or a suitable binder, to which a finely powdered inorganic body, such as zinc white, chalk, lime, or heavy spar, as well as the desired coloring matter for the paper, are added. Next the paper thus treated is coated with soluble glass silicate of potash or of soda to which small amounts of magnesia have been admixed, or else it is dipped into this mixture, and dried for about 10 days in a temperature of 77º F. Paper thus prepared can be written or drawn upon with lead pencil, chalk, colored crayons, charcoal, India ink, and lithographic crayon, and the writing or drawing may be washed off 20 or more times, entirely or partly, without changing the paper materially. It offers the convenience that anything may be readily and quickly removed with a moist sponge and immediately corrected, since the washed places can be worked on again at once.


Wax Paper.


I.    Place cartridge paper or strong writing paper, on a hot iron






plate, and rub it well with a lump of beeswax.  Used to form extemporaneous steam or gas pipes, to cover the joints of vessels, and to tie over pots, etc.


II.   For the production of waxed or ceresine paper, saturate ordinary paper with equal parts of stearine and tallow or ceresine. If it is desired to apply a business stamp on the paper before saturation and after stamping, it should be dried well for 24 hours, so as to prevent the aniline color from spreading.


Wrapping Paper for Silverware. Make a solution of 6 parts of sodium hydrate in sufficient water to make it show about 20º B. (specific gravity, 1.60). To it add 4 parts zinc oxide, and boil together until the latter is dissolved. Now add sufficient water to reduce the specific gravity of the solution to 1.075 (10º B.). The bath is now ready for use. Dip each sheet separately, and hang on threads stretched across the room, to dry. Be on your guard against dust, as particles of sand adhering to the paper will scratch the ware wrapped in it. Ware, either plated or silver, wrapped in this paper, will not blacken.


Varnished Paper. Before proceeding to varnish paper, card-work, pasteboard, etc., it is necessary to give it 2 or 3 coats of size, to prevent the absorption of the varnish, and any injury to the color or design. The size may be made by dissolving a little isinglass in boiling water, or by boiling some clean parchment cuttings until they form a clear solution. This, after being strained through a piece of clean muslin, or, for very nice purposes, clarified with a little white of egg, is applied by means of a small clean brush called by painters a sash tool. A light, delicate touch must be adopted, especially for the first coat, lest the ink or colors be started or smothered. When the prepared surface is quite dry it may be varnished.


Impregnation of Papers with Zapon Varnish. For the protection of important papers against the destructive influences of the atmosphere, of water fungi, and light, but especially against the consequences of the process of molding, a process has been introduced under the name of zapon impregnation. The zaponizing may be carried out by dipping the papers in zapon or by coating them with it by means of a brush or pencil. Sometimes the purpose may also be reached by dripping or sprinkling it on, but in the majority of cases a painting of the sheets will be the simplest method.


Zapon in a liquid state is highly inflammable, for which reason during the application until the evaporation of the solvent, open flames and fires should be kept away from the vicinity. When the drying is finished, which usually takes a few hours where both sides are coated, the zaponized paper does not so easily ignite at an open flame any more or at least not more readily than non-impregnated paper. For coating with and especially for dipping in zapon, a contrivance which effects a convenient suspension and dripping off with collection of the excess is of advantage.


The zapon should be thinned according to the material to be treated. Feebly sized papers are coated with ordinary, i.e, undiluted zapon. For dipping purposes, the zapon should be mixed with a diluent, if the paper is hard and well sized. The weaker the sizing, the more careful should be the selection of the zapon.


Zapon to be used for coating purposes should be particularly thick, so that it can be thinned as desired. Unsized papers require an undiluted coating.


The thick variety also furnishes an excellent adhesive agent as cement for wood, glass, porcelain, and metals which is insoluble in cold and hot water, and binds very firmly. Metallic surfaces coated with zapon do not oxidize or alter their appearance, since the coating is like glass and only forms a very thin but firmly adhering film, which, if applied on pliable sheet metal, does not crack on bending.


For the preparation of zapon the following directions are given: Pour 20 parts of acetone over 2 parts of colorless celluloid waste obtainable at the celluloid factories and let stand several days in a closed vessel, shaking frequently, until the whole has dissolved into a clear, thick mass. Next admix 78 parts of amyl acetate and completely clarify the zapon varnish by allowing to settle for weeks. [four weeks?]


Slate Parchment. Soak good paper with linseed-oil varnish (boiled oil) and apply the following mass, mentioned below, several times in succession: Copal varnish, 1 part, by weight; turpentine oil, 2 parts; finest sprinkling sand, 1 part; powdered glass, 1 part; ground slate as

used for slates, 2 parts; and lampblack, 1 part, intimately mixed together, and repeatedly ground very fine. After drying and hardening, the plates can be written upon with lead or slate pencils.


Paper Floor Covering. The floor is carefully cleaned, and all holes and






cracks are filled up with a mass which is prepared by saturating newspapers with a paste that is made by mixing thoroughly 17 5/8 ounces wheat flour, 3.17 quarts water, and 1 spoonful of pulverized alum. The floor is coated with this paste throughout, and covered with a layer of manilla paper, or other strong hemp paper. If something very durable is desired, paint the paper layer with the same paste and put on another layer of paper, leaving it to dry thoroughly. Then apply another coat of paste, and upon this place wall paper of any desired kind. In order to protect the wall paper from wear, give it 2 or more coats of a solution of 8 4/5 ounces white glue in 2.11 quarts hot water, allow them to dry, and finish the job with a coating of hard oil varnish.




This paper, made by transferring, pasting, or painting a coating of metal on ordinary paper, retains a comparatively dull and dead appearance even after glazing or polishing with the burnisher or agate. Galvanized or electroplated metal paper, on the other hand, in which the metal has penetrated into the most minute pores of the paper, possesses an extraordinarily brilliant polish, fully equal to that of a piece of compact polished metal. It is much more extensively used than the kind first mentioned.


The following solutions are recommended for making "galvanized" metal paper:


I.    For silver paper: Twenty parts argento-cyanide of potassium; 13 parts cyanide of potassium; 980 parts water.


II.   For gold paper: Four parts aurocyanide of potassium; 9 parts cyanide of potassium; 900 parts water.


Moth Paper.


Naphthalene                         4 ounces

Paraffine wax                       8 ounces


Melt together and while warm paint unsized paper and pack away with the goods.


Lead Paper. Lay rough drawing paper (such as contains starch) on an 8

per cent potassium iodide solution. After a moment take it out and dry.

Next, in a dark room, float the paper face downward on an 8 per cent lead nitrate solution. This sensitizes the paper. Dry again. The paper is now ready for printing. This process should be carried on till all the detail is out in a grayish color. Then develop in a 10 per cent ammonium chloride solution. The tones obtained are of a fine blue black.


Aluminum Paper. Aluminum paper is not leaf aluminum, but real paper glazed with aluminum powder. It is said to keep food materials fresh. The basic material is artificial parchment, coated with a solution of rosin in alcohol or ether. After drying, the paper is warmed until the rosin has again softened to a slight degree. The aluminum powder is dusted on and the paper then placed under heavy pressure to force the powder firmly into it. The metallic coating thus formed is not affected by air or greasy substances.



See Rust Preventives.



See Adhesives.



See Disinfectants.



See Fireproofing.



See Glass (Frosted).



See Adhesives, under Water-Glass Cements.



See Pyrotechnics.



See Adhesives.



See Rust Preventives.



See Adhesives.



See Photography.



See Varnishes.



See Waterproofing.



See Paper.




Rendering Paraffine Transparent. A process for rendering paraffine and its mixtures with other bodies (ceresine, etc.) used in the manufacture of transparent candles consists essentially in adding a






naphthol, particularly beta-naphthol, to the material which is used for the manufacture of the candles, tapers, etc. The quantity added varies according to the material and the desired effect. One suitable mixture is mide by heating 100 parts of paraffine and 2 parts of beta-naphthol at 175º to 195º F. The material can be colored in the ordinary way.


Removal of Dirt from Paraffine. Filtration through felt will usually remove particles of foreign matter from paraffine. It may be necessary to use a layer of fine sand or of infusorial earth. If discolored by any soluble matter, try freshly heated animal charcoal. To keep the paraffine fluid, if a large quantity is to be handled, a jacketed funnel will be required, either steam or hot water being kept in circulation in the jacket.


Paraffine Scented Cakes.


Paraffine, 1 ounce; white petrolatum, 2 ounces; heliotropin, 10 grains; oil of bergamot, 5 drops; oil of lavender, 5 drops; oil of cloves, 2 drops. Melt the first two substances, then add the next, the oils last, and stir all until cool. After settling cut into blocks and wrap in tin foil. This is a disseminator of perfume. It perfumes where it is rubbed. It kills moths and perfumes the wardrobe. It is used by rubbing on cloth, clothes, and the handkerchief.



See Paper.



See Adhesives.



See Adhesives.



See Ice Creams.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Pigments.



See Polishes.



See Disinfectants.



See Adhesives.




It is hardly correct to call the passe-partout a frame, as it is merely a binding together of the print, the glass, and the backing with a narrow edge of paper. This simple arrangement lends to the picture when complete a much greater finish and a more important appearance than might be anticipated.


In regard to the making of a passé-partout frame, the first thing is to decide as to the width of the mount or matt to be used. In some cases, of course, the print is framed with no mount being visible; but, unless the picture is of large size, it will usually be found more becoming to have one, especially should the wall paper be of an obtrusive design. When the print and mount are both neatly trimmed to the desired size, procure a piece of clear white picture glass - most amateur framers will have discovered that there is a variance in the quality of this - and a piece of stout cardboard, both of exactly the same dimensions as the picture. Next prepare or buy the paper to be used for binding the edges together. This may now be bought at most all stationery stores in a great variety of colors. If it is prepared at home a greater choice of colors is available, and it is by no means a difficult task with care and sharp scissors. The tint should be chosen to harmonize with the print and the mount, taking also into consideration the probable surroundings brown for photographs of brown tone, dark gray for black, pale gray for lighter tones; dark green is also a good color. All stationers keep colored papers suitable for the purpose, while plain wall papers or thin brown paper answers equally well.


Cut the paper, ruling it carefully, into even strips an inch wide, and then into four pieces, two of them the exact length of the top and bottom of the frame, and the other two half an inch longer than the two sides. Make sure that the print is evenly sandwiched between the glass and the back. Cut some tiny strips of thin court-plaster, and with these bind the corners tightly together. Brush over the two larger pieces of paper with mountant, and with them bind tightly together the three thicknesses print, glass, and cardboard allowing the paper to project over about a third of an inch on the face side, and the ends which were left a little longer must be neatly turned over and stuck at the back. Then, in the same manner, bind the top and bottom edges together, mitering the corners neatly.


It should not be forgotten, before binding the edges together, to make two slits in the cardboard back for the pur-






pose of inserting little brass hangers, having flat ends like paper fasteners, which may be bought for the purpose; or, where these are not available, two narrow loops of tape may be used instead, sticking the ends firmly on the inside of the cardboard by means of a little strong glue.


These are the few manipulations necessary for the making of a simple passe-partout frame, but there are numberless variations of the idea, and a great deal of variety may be obtained by means of using different mounts. Brown paper answers admirably as a mount for some subjects, using strips of paper of a darker shade as binding. A not too obtrusive design in pen and ink is occasionally drawn on the mount, while a more ambitious scheme is to use paint and brushes in the same way. An ingenious idea which suits some subjects is to use a piece of hand-blocked wall paper as a mount.



See Polishes.



See Adhesives for Adhesive Purposes.


Pastes, Razor.


I.    From jewelers' rouge, plumbago, and suet, equal parts, melted together and stirred until cold.


II.   From prepared putty powder (levigated oxide of tin), 3 parts; lard,

2 parts; crocus martis, 1 part; triturated together.


III.  Prepared putty powder, 1 ounce; powdered oxalic acid, 1/4 ounce; powdered gum, 20 grains; make a stiff paste with water, quantity sufficient, and evenly and thinly spread it over the strop, the other side of which should be covered with any of the common greasy mixtures.

With very little friction this paste gives a fine edge to the razor, and its action is still further increased by slightly moistening it, or even breathing on it. Immediately after its use, the razor should receive a few turns on the other side of the strop.



See Paper.



See Soaps.



See Adhesives.



See Household Formulas.



See Fumigants.



See Bronzing and Plating.



See Leather.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.




Camphor, 100 parts; mastic, 100 parts; bleached shellac, 50 parts; gun cotton, 200 parts; acetone, 200 parts; acetic ether, 100 parts; ethylic ether, 50 parts.



See Alloys.



See Antiseptics.



See Etching, Frosted Glass, and Glass.



See Gold.



See Roots.




Multiply the percentage by 5; the product is the number of grains to be added to an ounce of water to make a solution of the desired percentage. This is correct for anything less than 15 per cent.






Sachet Powders.



Orris root                          6 ounces

Lavender flowers                    2 ounces

Talcum                              4 drachms

Musk                                20 grains

Terpinol                            60 grains



Orange peel                         2 ounces

Orris root                          1 ounce

Sandalwood                          4 drachms

Tonka                               2 drachms

Musk                                6 grains






Lavender Sachets.



Lavender flowers                    16 ounces

Gum benzoin                         4 ounces

Oil lavender                        2 drachms


II.   Lavender flowers, 150 parts; orris root, 150 parts; benzoin, 150 parts; Tonka beans, 150 parts; cloves, 100 parts; "Neugenwerz," 50 parts; sandalwood, 50 parts; cinnamon, 50 parts; vanilla, 50 parts; and musk, part. All is bruised finely and mixed.


Violet Sachet.


Powdered orris root                 500 parts

Rice flour                          250 parts

Essence bouquet                     10 parts

Spring flowers extract              10 parts

Violet extract                      20 parts

Oil of bergamot                     4 parts

Oil of rose                         2 parts


Borated Talcum.



Purified talcum, N.F.               2 pounds

Powdered boric acid                 1 ounce


To perfume add the following:


Powered orris root                  1 1/2 ounces

Extract jasmine                     2 drachms

Extract musk                        1 drachm


II.   A powder sometimes dispensed under this name is the salicylatea powder of talcum of the National Formulary, which contains in every 1,000 parts 30 parts of salicylic acid and 100 parts of boric acid.





Cornstarch                          9 pounds

Powdered talc                       1 pound

Oil of rose                         80 drops

Extract musk                        2 drachms

Extract jasmine                     6 drachms



Potato starch                       9 pounds

Powdered talc                       1 pound

Oil rose                            45 drops

Extract jasmine                     1/2 ounce


Rose Talc.



Powdered talc                       5 pounds

Oil rose                            50 drops

Oil wintergreen                     4 drops

Extract jasmine                     2 ounces



Powdered talc                       5 pounds

Oil rose                            32 drops

Oil jasmine                         4 ounces

Extract musk                        1 ounce


Violet Talc.



Powdered talc                       14 ounces

Powdered orris root                 2 ounces

Extract cassie                      1/2 ounce

Extract jasmine                     1/4 ounce

Extract musk                        1 drachm



Starch                              5,000 parts

Orris root                          1,000 parts

Oil of lemon                        14 parts

Oil of bergamot                     14 parts

Oil of clove                        4 parts


Smelling Salts.


I.    Fill small glasses having ground stopper with pieces of sponge free from sand and saturate with a mixture of spirit of sal ammoniac (0.910), 9 parts, and oil of lavender, 1 part. Or else fill the bottles with small dice of ammonium sesquicarbonate and pour the above mixture over them.



Essential oil of lavender           18 parts

Attar of rose                       2 parts

Ammonium carbonate                  480 parts


Violet Smelling Salts.


I.    Moisten coarsely powdered ammonia carbonate, contained in a suitable bottle, with a mixture of concentrated tincture of orris root, 2 1/2 ounces; aromatic spirit of ammonia, 1 drachm; violet extract, 3 drachms.


II.   Moisten the carbonate, and add as much of the following solution as it will absorb: Oil of orris, 5 minims; oil of lavender flowers, 10 minims; violet extract, 30 minims; stronger water of ammonia, 2 fluidounces.


To Scent Advertising Matter, etc. The simplest way of perfuming printed matter, such as calendars, cards, etc., is to stick them in strongly odorous sachet powder. Although the effect of a strong perfume is obtained thereby, there is a large loss of powder, which clings to the printed matter. Again, there are often little spots which are due to the essential oils added to the powder.


Another way of perfuming, which is used especially in France for scenting cards and other articles, is to dip them in very strong "extraits d'odeur," leaving them therein for a few days. Then the cards are taken out and laid between filtering paper, whereupon they are pressed vigorously, which causes them not only to dry, but also to remain straight. They remain under strong pressure until completely dry.


Not all cardboard, however, can be subjected to this process, and in its choice one should consider the perfuming operation to be conducted. Nor can the cards be glazed, since spirit dissolves the glaze. It is also preferable to have lithographed text on them, since in the case of ordinary printing the letters often partly disappear or the colors are changed.






For pocket calendars, price lists, and voluminous matter containing more leaves than one, another process is recommended. In a tight closet, which should be lined with tin, so that little air can enter, tables composed of laths are placed on which nets stretched on frames are laid. Cover these nets with tissue paper, and proceed as follows: On the bottom of the closet sprinkle a strongly odorous and reperfumed powder; then cover one net with the printed matter to be perfumed and shove it to the closet on the lath. The next net again receives powder, the following one printed matter, and so on until the closet is filled. After tightly closing the doors, the whole arrangement is left to itself. This process presents another advantage in that all sorts of residues may be employed for scenting, such as the filters of the odors and infusions, residues of musk, etc. These are simply laid on the nets, and will thus impart their perfume to the printed matter.


Such a scenting powder is produced as follows:


By weight

Iris powder, finely ground          5,000 parts

Residues of musk                    1,000 parts

Ylang-ylang oil                     10 parts

Bergamot oil                        50 parts

Artificial musk                     2 parts

Ionone                              2 to 5 parts

Tincture of benzoin                 100 parts


The powder may subsequently be employed for filling cheap sachets, etc.




Coloring Perfumes. Chlorophyll is a suitable agent for coloring liquid perfumes green. Care must be taken to procure an article freely soluble in the menstruum. As found in the market it is prepared (in form of solutions) for use in liquids strongly alcoholic; in water or weak alcohol; and in oils. Aniline greens of various kinds will answer the same purpose, but in a trial of any one of these it must be noted that very small quantities should be used, as their tinctorial power is so great that liquids in which they are incautiously used may stain the handkerchief.


Color imparted by chlorophyll will be found fairly permanent; this term is a relative one, and not too much must be expected. Colors which may suffer but little change by long exposure to diffused light may fade perceptibly by short exposure to the direct light of the sun.


Chlorophyll may be purchased or it may be prepared as follows: Digest leaves of grass, nettles, spinach, or other green herb in warm water until soft; pour off the water and crush the herb to a pulp. Boil the pulp for a short time with a half per cent solution of caustic soda, and afterwards precipitate the chlorophyll by means of dilute hydrochloric acid; wash the precipitate thoroughly with water, press and dry it, and use as much for the solution as may be necessary. Or a tincture made from grass as follows may be employed:


Lawn grass, cut fine                2 ounces

Alcohol                             16 ounces


Put the grass in a wide-mouthed bottle and pour the alcohol upon it. After standing a few days, agitating occasionally, pour off the liquid. The tincture may be used with both alcoholic and aqueous preparations.


Among the anilines, spirit soluble malachite green has been recommended.


A purple or violet tint may be produced by using tincture of litmus or ammoniated cochineal coloring. The former is made as follows:


Litmus                              2 1/2 ounces

Boiling water                       16 ounces

Alcohol                             3 ounces


Pour the water upon the litmus, stir well, allow to stand for about an hour, stirring occasionally, filter, and to the filtrate add the alcohol.


The aniline colors "Paris violet" or methyl violet B may be similarly employed. The amount necessary to produce a desired tint must be worked out by experiment. Yellow tints may best be imparted by the use of tincture of turmeric or saffron, fustic, quercitron, etc.


If a perfumed spirit, as, for instance, a mouth wash, is poured into a wineglassful of water, the oils will separate at once and spread over the surface of the water. This liquid being allowed to stand uncovered, one oil after another will evaporate, according to the degree of its volatility, until at last the least volatile remains behind.


This process sometimes requires weeks, and in order to be able to watch the separate phases of this evaporation correctly, it is necessary to use several glasses and to conduct the mixtures at certain intervals. The glasses must be numbered according to the day when set up, so that they may be readily identified.


If we assume, for example, that a mouth wash is to be examined, we may probably prepare every day for one week a mixture of about 100 grams of water and 10 drops of the respective liquid. Hence, after a lapse of 7 days






we will have before us 7 bouquets, of different odor, according to the volatility of the oils contained in them. From these different bouquets the qualitative composition of the liquid may be readily recognized, provided that one is familiar enough with the character of the different oils to be able to tell them by their odors.


The predominance of peppermint oil to continue with the above example will soon be lost and other oils will rise one after the other, to disappear again after a short time, so that the 7 glasses afford an entire scale of characteristic odors, until at last only the most lasting are perceptible. Thus it is possible with some practice to tell a bouquet pretty accurately in its separate odors.


In this manner interesting results are often reached, and with some perseverance even complicated mixtures can be analyzed and recognized in their distinctiveness. Naturally the difficulty in recognizing each oil is increased in the case of oils whose volatility is approximately the same. But even in this case changes, though not quite so marked, can be determined in the bouquet.


In a quantitative respect this method also furnishes a certain result as far as the comparison of perfumed liquids is concerned.


According to the quantity of the oils present the dim zone on the water is broader or narrower, and although the size of this layer may be changed by the admixture of other substances, one gains an idea regarding the quantity of the oils by mere smelling. It is necessary, of course, to choose glasses with equally large openings and to count out the drops of the essence carefully by means of a dropper.


When it is thought that all the odors have been placed, a test is made by preparing a mixture according to the recipe resulting from the trial.


Not pure oils, always alcoholic dilutions in a certain ratio should be used, in order not to disturb the task by a surplus of the different varieties, since it is easy to add more, but impossible to take away.


It is true this method requires patience, perseverance, and a fine sense of smell. One smelling test should not be considered sufficient, but the glasses should be carried to the nose as often as possible.


Fixing Agents in Perfumes. The secret of making perfumery lies mainly in the choice of the fixing agents i.e, those bodies which intensify and hold the floral odors. The agents formerly employed were musk, civet, and ambergris, all having a heavy and dull animal odor, which is the direct antithesis of a floral fragrance. A free use of these bodies must inevitably mean a perfume which requires a label to tell what it is intended for, to say nothing of what it is. Today there is no evidence that the last of these (ambergris) is being used at all in the newer perfumes, and the other two are employed very sparingly, if at all. The result is that the newer perfumes possess a fragrance and a fidelity to the flowers that they imitate which is far superior to the older perfumes. Yet the newer perfume is quite as prominent and lasting as the old, while it is more pleasing. It contains the synthetic odors, with balsams or rosinous bodies as fixatives, and employs musk and civet only in the most sparing manner in some of the more sensitive odors. As a fixing agent benzoin is to be recommended. Only the best variety should be used, the Siamese, which costs 5 or 6 times as much as that from Sumatra. The latter has a coarse pungent odor.


Musk is depressing, and its use in cologne in even the minutest quantity will spoil the cologne. The musk lingers after the lighter odors have disappeared, and a sick person is pretty sure to feel its effects. Persons in vigorous health will not notice the depressing effects of musk, but when lassitude prevails these are very unpleasant. Moreover, it is not a necessity in these toilet accessories, either as a blending or as a fixing agent. Its place is better supplied by benzoin for both purposes.


As to alcohol, a lot of nonsense has been written about the necessity of extreme care in selecting it, such as certain kinds requiring alcohol made from grapes and others demanding extreme purification, etc. A reasonable attention to a good quality of alcohol, even at a slight increase in cost, will always pay, but, other things being equal, a good quality of oils in a poor quality of alcohol will give far better satisfaction than the opposite combination. The public is not composed of exacting connoisseurs, and it does not appreciate extreme care or expense in either particular. A good grade of alcohol, reasonably free from heavy and lingering foreign odors, will answer practically all the requirements.


General Directions for Making Perfumes. It is absolutely essential for obtaining the best results to see that all vessels are perfectly clean. Always employ alcohol, 90 per cent, deodorized by






means of charcoal. When grain musk is used as an ingredient in liquid perfumes, first rub down with pumice stone, then digest in a little hot water for 2 or 3 hours; finally add to alcohol. The addition of 2 or 3 minims of acetic acid will improve the odor and also prevent accumulation of NH3. Civet and ambergris should also be thoroughly rubbed down with some coarse powder, and transferred directly to alcohol.


Seeds, pods, bark rhizomes, etc., should be cut up in small pieces or powdered.


Perfumes improve by storing. It is a good plan to tie over the mouth of the containing vessel some fairly thick porous material, and to allow the vessel to stand for a week or two in a cool place, instead of corking at once.


It is perhaps unnecessary to add that as large a quantity as possible should be decanted, and then the residue filtered. This obviously prevents loss by evaporation. Talc or kieselguhr (amorphous SiO2) are perhaps the best substances to add to the filter in order to render liquid perfumes bright and clear, and more especially necessary in the case of aromatic vinegars.


The operations involved in making perfumes are simple; the chief thing to be learned, perhaps, is to judge of the quality of materials.


The term "extract," when used in most formulas, means an alcoholic solution of the odorous principles of certain flowers obtained by enfluerage; that is, the flowers are placed in contact with prepared grease which absorbs the odorous matter, and this grease is in turn macerated with alcohol which dissolves out the odor. A small portion of the grease is taken up also at ordinary temperatures; this is removed by filtering the "extract" while "chilled" by a freezing mixture. The extracts can be either purchased or made directly from the pomade

(as the grease is called). To employ the latter method successfully some experience may be necessary.


The tinctures are made with 95 per cent deodorized alcohol, enough menstruum being added through the marc when filtering to bring the finished preparation to the measure of the menstruum originally taken.


The glycerine is intended to act as a "fixing" agent that is, to lessen the volatility of the perfumes.


Tinctures for Perfumes.


a. Ambergris, 1 part; alcohol, 96 per cent, 15 parts.


b. Benzoin, Sumatra, 1 part; alcohol, 96 per cent, 6 parts.


c. Musk, 1 part; distilled water, 25 parts; spirit, 96 per cent, 25 parts.


d. Musk, 1 part; spirit, 96 per cent, 50 parts; for very oleiferous compositions.


e. Peru balsam, 1 part in spirit, 96 per cent, 7 parts; shake vigorously.


f. Storax, 1 part in spirit, 96 per cent, 15 parts.


g. Powdered Tolu balsam, 1 part; spirit, 96 per cent, 6 parts.


h. Chopped Tonka beans, 1 part; spirit, 60 per cent, 6 parts; for compositions containing little oil.


I.    Chopped Tonka beans, 1 part; spirit, 96 per cent, 6 parts; for compositions containing much oil.


j. Vanilla, 1 part; spirit, 60 per cent, 6 parts; for compositions containing little oil.


k. Vanilla, 1 part; spirit, 96 per cent, 6 parts; for compositions containing much oil.


l. Vanillin, 20 parts; spirit, 96 per cent, 4,500 parts.


m. Powdered orris root, 1 part; spirit, 96 per cent, 5 parts.


n. Grated civet, 1 part in spirit, 96 per cent, 10 parts.


Bay Rum. Bay rum, or more properly bay spirit, may be made from the oil with weak alcohol as here directed:



Oil of bay leaves                   3 drachms

Oil of orange peel                  1/2 drachm

Tincture of orange peel             2 ounces

Magnesium carbonate                 1/2 ounce

Alcohol                             4 pints

Water                               4 pints


Triturate the oils with the magnesium carbonate, gradually adding the other ingredients previously mixed, and filter.


The tincture of orange peel is used chiefly as a coloring for the mixture.


Oil of bay leaves as found in the market varies in quality. The most costly will presumably be found the best, and its use will not make the product expensive. It can be made from the best oil and deodorized alcohol and still sold at a moderate price with a good profit.


Especial care should be taken to use only perfectly fresh oil of orange peel. As is well known, this oil deteriorates rapidly on exposure to the air, acquiring an odor similar to that of turpentine. The oil should be kept in bottles of such size that when opened the contents can be all used in a short time.





II.   Bay oil, 15 parts; sweet orange oil, 1 part; pimento oil, 1 part; spirit of wine, 1,000 parts; water, 750 parts; soap spirit or quillaia bark, ad libitum.


III.  Bay oil, 12.5 parts; sweet orange oil, 0.5 part; pimento oil, 0.5 part; spirit of wine, 200 parts; water, 2,800 parts; Jamaica rum essence, 75 parts; soap powder, 20 parts; quillaia extract, 5 parts; borax, 10 parts; use sugar color.


Colognes. In making cologne water, the alcohol used should be that obtained from the distillation of wine, provided a first class article is desired. It is possible, of course, to make a good cologne with very highly rectified and deodorized corn or potato spirits, but the product never equals that made from wine spirits. Possibly the reason for this lies in the fact that the latter always contains a varying amount of oenanthic ether.



Oil of bergamot                     10 parts  

Oil of neroli                       15 parts

Oil of citron                       5 parts

Oil of cedrat                       5 parts

Oil of rosemary                     1 part

Tincture of ambergris               5 parts

Tincture of benzoin                 5 parts

Alcohol                             1,000 parts



II.   The following is stated to be the "original" formula:


Oil of bergamot                     96 parts

Oil of citron                       96 parts

Oil of cedrat                       96 parts

Oil of rosemary                     48 parts

Oil of neroli                       48 parts

Oil of lavender                     48 parts

Oil of cavella                      24 parts

Absolute alcohol                    1,000 parts

Spirit of rosemary                  25,000 parts



Alcohol, 90 per cent                5,000 parts

Bergamot oil                        220 parts

Lemon oil                           75 parts

Neroli oil                          20 parts

Rosemary oil                        5 parts

Lavender oil, French                5 parts


The oils are well dissolved in spirit and left alone for a few days with frequent shaking. Next add about 40 parts of acetic acid and filter after a while.



Alcohol, 90 per cent                5,000 parts

Lavender oil, French                35 parts

Lemon oil                           30 parts

Portugallo oil                      30 parts

Neroli oil                          15 parts

Bergamot oil                        15 parts

Petit grain oil                     4 parts

Rosemary oil                        4 parts

Orange water                        4 parts


Cologne Spirits or Deodorized Alcohol. This is used in all toilet preparations and perfumes. It is made thus:


Alcohol, 95 per cent                1 gallon

Powdered unslaked lime              4 drachms

Powdered alum                       2 drachms

Spirit of nitrous ether             1 drachm


Mix the lime and alum, and add them to the alcohol, shaking the mixture well together; then add the sweet spirit of niter and set aside for 7 days, shaking occasionally; finally filter.


Florida Waters.


Oil of bergamot                     3 fluidounces

Oil of lavender                     1 fluidounce

Oil of cloves                       1 1/4 fluidrachms

Oil of cinnamon                     2 1/2 fluidrachms

Oil of neroli                       1/2 fluidrachm

Oil of lemon                        1 fluidounce

Essence of jasmine                  6 fluidounces

Essence of musk                     2 fluidounces

Rose water                          1 pint

Alcohol                             8 pints


Mix, and if cloudy, filter through magnesium carbonate.


Lavender Water. This, the most famous of all the perfumed waters, was originally a distillate from a mixture of spirit and lavender flowers. This was the perfume. Then came a compound water, or "palsy water," which was intended strictly for use as a medicine, but sometimes containing ambergris and musk, as well as red sanders wood.

Only the odor of the old compound remains to us as a perfume, and this is the odor which all perfume compounders endeavor to hit. The most important precaution in making lavender water is to use well-matured oil of lavender. Some who take pride in this perfume use no oil which is less than 5 years old, and which has had 1 ounce of rectified spirit added to each pound of oil before being set aside to mature. After mixing, the perfume should stand for at least a month before filtering through gray filtering paper. This may be taken as a general instruction:



Oil of lavender                     1 1/2ounces

Oil of bergamot                     4 drachms

Essence ambergris                   4 drachms

Proof spirit                        3 pints







English oil of lavender             1 ounce

Oil of bergamot                     1 1/2 drachms

Essence of musk (No. 2)             1/2 ounce

Essence of ambergris                1/2 ounce

Proof spirit                        2 pints



English oil of lavender             1/2 ounce

Oil of bergamot                     2 drachms

Essence of ambergris                1 drachm

Essence of musk (No. 1)             3 drachms

Oil of angelica                     2 minims

Attar of rose                       6 minims

Proof spirit                        1 pint



Oil of lavender                     4 ounces

Grain musk                          15 grains

Oil of bergamot                     2 1/2 ounces

Attar of rose                       l 1/2 drachms

Oil of neroli                       1/2 drachm

Spirit of nitrous ether             2 1/2 ounces

Triple rose water                   12 ounces

Proof spirit                        5 pints


Allow to stand 5 weeks before filtering.




Acacia Extract.


French acacia                       400 parts

Tincture of amber (l in l0)         3 parts

Eucalyptus oil                      0.5 parts

Lavender oil                        1 parts

Bergamot oil                        1 parts

Tincture of musk                    2 parts

Tincture of orris root              50 parts

Spirit of wine, 80 per cent         500 parts


Bishop Essence.


Fresh green peel of unripe oranges 60.0 grams

Curaao orange peel                  180.0 grams

Malaga orange peel                  90.0 grams

Ceylon cinnamon                     2.0 grams

Cloves                              7.5 grams

Vanilla                             11.0 grams

Orange flower oil                   4 drops

Spirit of wine                      1,500.0 grams

Hungarian wine                      720.0 grams


A dark -brown tincture of pleasant taste and smell.


Caroline Bouquet.


Oil of lemon                        15 minims

Oil of bergamot                     1 drachm

Essence of rose                     4 ounces

Essence of tuberose                 4 ounces

Essence of violet                   4 ounces

Tincture of orris                   2 ounces


Alexandra Bouquet.


Oil of bergamot                     3 1/2 drachms

Oil of rose geranium                1/2 drachm

Oil of rose                         1/2 drachm

Oil of cassia                       15 minims

Deodorized alcohol                  1 pint


Navy Bouquet.


Spirit of sandalwood                10 ounces

Extract of patchouli                10 ounces

Spirit of rose                      10 ounces

Spirit of vetivert                  10 ounces

Extract of verbena                  12 ounces


Bridal Bouquet. Sandal oil, 30 minims; rose extract, 4 fluidounces; jasmine extract, 4 fluidounces; orange flower extract, 16 fluidounces; essence of vanilla, 1 fluidpunce; essence of musk, 2 fluidounces; tincture of storax, 2 fluidounces. (The tincture of storax is prepared with liquid storax and alcohol (90 per cent], 1:20, by macerating for 7



Irish Bouquet.


White rose essence                  5,000 parts

Vanilla essence                     450 parts

Rose oil                            5 parts

Spirit                              100 parts


Essence Bouquet.



Spirit                              8,000 parts

Distilled water                     2,000 parts

Iris tincture                       250 parts

Vanilla herb tincture               100 parts

Benzoin tincture                    40 parts

Bergamot oil                        50 parts

Storax tincture                     50 parts

Clove oil                           15 parts

Palmarosa oil                       12 parts

Lemon-grass oil                     15 parts



Extract of rose (2d)                64 ounces

Extract of jasmine (2d)             12 ounces

Extract of cassie (2d)              8 ounces

Tincture of orris (1 to 4)          64 ounces

Oil of bergamot                     1/2 ounce

Oil of cloves                       1 drachm

Oil of ylang-ylang                  1/2 drachm

Tincture of benzoin (1 to 8)        2 ounces

Glycerine                           4 ounces


Bouquet Canang.


Ylang-ylang oil                     45 minims

Grain musk                          3 grains

Rose oil                            15 minims

Tonka beans                         3

Cassie oil                          5 minims

Tincture orris rhizome              1 fluidounce






Civet                               1 grain

Almond oil                          1/2 minim

Storax tincture                     3 fluidrachms

Alcohol, 90 per cent                9 fluidounces


Mix, and digest 1 month. The above is a very delicious perfume.


Cassie oil or otto is derived from the flowers of Acacia farnesiana Mimosa farnesiana, L. (N.O. Leguminosae, suborder Mimosese). It must not be confounded with cassia otto, the essential oil obtained from Cinnamomum cassia.


Cashmere Nosegay.



Essence of violet, from pomade      1 pint

Essence of rose, from pomade        1 1/2 pints

Tincture of benzoin, (1 to 4)       1/2 pint

Tincture of civet (1 to 64)         1/4 pint

Tincture of Tonka (1 to 4)          1/4 pint

Benzoic acid                        1/2 ounce

Oil of patchouli                    1/4 ounce

Oil of sandal                       1/2 ounce

Rose water                          1/2 pint



Essence violet                      120 ounces

Essence rose                        180 ounces

Tincture benjamin (1 in 4)          60 ounces

Tincture civet (1 in 62)            30 ounces

Tincture Tonka (1 in 4)             30 ounces

Oil patchouli                       3 ounces

Oil sandalwood                      6 ounces

Rose water                          60 ounces


Clove Pink.



Essence of rose                     2 ounces

Essence of orange flower            6 ounces

Tincture of vanilla                 3 1/2 ounces

Oil of cloves                       20 minims



Essence of cassie                   5 ounces

Essence of orange flower            5 ounces

Essence of rose                     10 ounces

Spirit of rose                      7 ounces

Tincture of vanilla                 3 ounces

Oil of cloves                       12 minims





Grain musk                          10 grains

Sandal otto                         25 minims

Rose otto                           25 minims

Orange flower otto (neroli)         30 minims

Vetivert otto                       5 minims

Powdered orris rhizome              1/2 ounce

Vanilla                             30 grains

Alcohol (90 per cent)               10 fluidounces


Mix and digest for 1 month. This is a lasting and favorite perfume.



Oil of rose                         2 drachms

Oil of neroli                       2 drachms

Oil of sandalwood                   2 drachms

Oil of geranium (French)            2 drachms

Tincture of vetivert (1 1/4 to 8)   96 ounces

Tincture of Tonka (1 to 8)          16 ounces

Tincture of orris (1 to 4)          64 ounces

Glycerine                           6 ounces

Alcohol                             64 ounces


Handkerchief Perfumes.



Lavender oil                        10 parts

Neroli oil                          10 parts

Bitter almond oil                   2 parts

Orris root                          200 parts

Rose oil                            5 parts

Clove oil                           5 parts

Lemon oil                           1 part

Cinnamon oil                        2 parts


Mix with 2,500 parts of best alcohol, and after a rest of 3 days heat moderately on the water bath, and filter.



Bergamot oil                        10 parts

Orange peel oil                     10 parts

Cinnamon oil                        2 parts

Rose geranium oil                   1 part

Lemon oil                           4 parts

Lavender oil                        4 parts

Rose oil                            1 part

Vanilla essence                     5 parts


Mix with 2,000 parts of best spirit, and after leaving undisturbed for 3 days, heat moderately on the water bath, and filter.




Oil of neroli                       12 minims

Oil of rose                         10 minims

Oil of bitter almond                8 minims

Tincture of storax                  4 ounces

Tincture of vanilla                 6 ounces

Essence of cassie                   16 ounces

Essence of rose                     16 ounces

Essence of tuberose                 16 ounces

Essence of violet                   16 ounces




Coumarin                            10 grains

Concentrated rose water (1 to 40)   2 ounces

Neroli oil                          5 minims

Vanilla bean                        1 drachm

Bitter almond oil                   5 minims

Orris root                          1 drachm

Alcohol                             10 ounces


Macerate for a month.






Javanese Bouquet.


Rose oil                            15 minims

Pimento oil                         20 minims

Cassia oil                          3 minims

Neroli oil                          3 minims

Clove oil                           2 minims

Lavender oil                        60 minims

Sandal wood oil                     10 minims

Alcohol                             10 ounces

Water                               1 1/2 ounce


Macerate for 14 days.


Lily Perfume.


Essence of jasmine                  1 ounce

Essence of orange flowers           1 ounce

Essence of rose                     2 ounces

Essence of cassie                   2 ounces

Essence of tuberose                 8 ounces

Spirit of rose                      1 ounce

Tincture of vanilla                 1 ounce

Oil of bitter almond                2 minims


Lily of the Valley.



Acacia essence                      750 parts

Jasmine essence                     750 parts

Orange flower essence               800 parts

Rose flower essence                 800 parts

Vanilla flower essence              1,500 parts

Bitter almond oil                   15 parts



Oil of bitter almond                10 minims

Tincture of vanilla                 2 ounces

Essence of rose                     2 ounces

Essence of orange flower            2 ounces

Essence of jasmine                  2 1/2 ounces

Essence of tuberose                 2 1/2 ounces

Spirit of rose                      2 1/2 ounces



Extract rose                        200 parts

Extract vanilla                     200 parts

Extract orange                      800 parts

Extract jasmine                     600 parts

Extract musk tincture               150 parts

Neroli oil                          10 parts

Rose oil                            6 parts

Bitter almond oil                   4 parts

Cassia oil                          5 parts

Bergamot oil                        6 parts

Tonka beans essence                 150 parts

Linaloa oil                         12 parts

Spirit of wine (90 per cent)        3,000 parts



Neroli extract                      400 parts

Orris root extract                  600 parts

Vanilla extract                     400 parts

Rose extract                        900 parts

Musk extract                        200 parts

Orange extract                      500 parts

Clove oil                           6 parts

Bergamot oil                        5 parts

Rose geranium oil                   15 parts


Maréchal Niel Rose. In the genus of roses, outside of the hundred leaved or cabbage rose, the Maréchal Niel rose (Rosa Noisetteana Red), also called Noisette rose and often, erroneously, tea rose, is especially conspicuous. Its fine, piquant odor delights all lovers of precious perfumes. In order to reproduce the fine scent of this flower artificially at periods when it cannot be had without much expenditure, the following recipes will be found useful:



Infusion rose I (from pomades)      1,000 parts

Genuine rose oil                    10 parts

Infusion Tolu balsam                150 parts

Infusion genuine musk               140 parts

Neroli oil                          30 parts

Clove oil                           2 parts

Infusion tubereuse I

(from pomades)                      1,000 parts

Vanillin                            1 part

Coumarin                            0.5 parts



Triple rose essence                 50 grams

Simple rose essence                 60 grams

Neroli essence                      30 grams

Civet essence                       20 grams

Iris essence                        30 grams

Tonka beans essence                 20 grams

Rose oil                            5 drops

Jasmine essence                     60 grams

Violet essence                      50 grams

Cassia essence                      50 grams

Vanilla essence                     45 grams

Clove oil                           20 drops

Bergamot oil                        10 drops

Rose geranium oil                   20 drops


May Flowers.


Essence of rose                     10 ounces

Essence of jasmine                  10 ounces

Essence of orange flowers           10 ounces

Essence of cassie                   10 ounces

Tincture of vanilla                 20 ounces

Oil of bitter almond                1/2 drachm




Caryophyllin                        10 minims

Extract of tuberose                 16 ounces

Extract of jasmine                  4 ounces

Oil of neroli                       20 minims

Oil of ylang-ylang                  20 minims

Oil of clove                        5 minims

Glycerine                           30 minims






Almond Blossom.


Extract of heliotrope               30 parts

Extract of orange flower            10 parts

Extract of jasmine                  10 parts

Extract of rose                     3 parts

Oil of lemon                        1 part

Spirit of bitter almond,

10 per cent                         6 parts

Deodorized alcohol                  40 parts


Artificial Violet. Ionone is an artificial perfume which smells exactly like fresh violets, and is therefore an extremely important product. Although before it was discovered compositions were known which gave fair imitations of the violet perfume, they were wanting in the characteristic tang which distinguishes all violet preparations. Ionone has even the curious property possessed by violets of losing its scent occasionally for a short time. It occasionally happens that an observer, on taking the stopper out of a bottle of ionone, perceives no special odor, but a few seconds after the stopper has been put back in the bottle, the whole room begins to smell of fresh violets. It seems to be a question of dilution. It is impossible, however, to make a usable extract by mere dilution of a 10 per cent solution of ionone.


It is advisable to make these preparations in somewhat large quantities, say 30 to 50 pounds at a time. This enables them to be stocked for some time, whereby they improve greatly. When all the ingredients are mixed, 10 days or a fortnight, with frequent shakings, should elapse before filtration. The filtered product must be kept in well filled and well corked bottles in a dry, dark, cool place, such as a well ventilated cellar. After 5 or 6 weeks the preparation is ready for use.


Quadruple Extract.


By weight

Jasmine extract, 1st pomade         100 parts

Rose extract, 1st pomade            100 parts

Cassia extract, 1st pomade          200 parts

Violet extract, 1st pomade          200 parts

Oil of geranium, Spanish            2 parts

Solution of vanillin,

10 per cent                         10 parts

Solution of orris, 10 per cent      100 parts

Solution of ionone, 10 per cent     20 parts

Infusion of musk                    10 parts

Infusion of orris from

coarsely ground root                260 parts


Triple Extract


By weight

Cassia extract, 2d pomade           100 parts

Violet extract, 2d pomade           300 parts

Jasmine extract, 2d pomade          100 parts

Rose extract, 2d pomade             100 parts

Oil of geranium, African            1 part

Ionone, 10 per cent                 15 parts

Solution of vanillin,

10 per cent                         5 parts

Infusion of orris from coarse

ground root                         270 parts

Infusion of musk                    10 parts


Double Extract.


By weight

Cassia extract, 2d pomade           100 parts

Violet extract, 2d pomade           150 parts

Jasmine extract, 2d pomade          100 parts

Rose extract, 2d pomade             100 parts

Oil of geranium, reunion            2 parts

Ionone, 10 per cent                 10 parts

Solution of vanillin,

10 per cent                         10 parts

Infusion of ambrette                20 parts

Infusion of orris from coarse

ground root                         300 parts

Spirit                              210 parts


White Rose.


Rose oil                            25 minims

Rose geranium oil                   20 minims

Patchouli oil                       5 minims

Ionone                              3 minims

Jasmine oil (synthetic)             5 minims

Alcohol                             10 ounces


Ylang-Ylang Perfume.



Ylang-ylang oil                     10 minims

Neroli oil                          5 minims

Rose oil                            5 minims

Bergamot oil                        3 minims

Alcohol                             10 ounces


One grain of musk may be added.



Extract of cassie (2d)              96 ounces

Extract of jasmine                  24 ounces






Extract of rose                     24 ounces

Tincture of orris                   4 ounces

Oil of ylang-ylang                  6 drachms

Glycerine                           6 ounces




Toilet waters proper are perfumed liquids designed more especially as refreshing applications to the person accessories to the bath and to the operations of the barber. They are used sparingly on the handkerchief also, but should not be of so persistent a character as the "extracts" commonly used for that purpose, as they would then be unsuitable as lotions.


Ammonia Water. Fill a 6-ounce ground glass stoppered bottle with a rather wide mouth with pieces of ammonium carbonate as large as a marble, then drop in the following essential oils:


Oil of lavender                     30 drops

Oil of bergamot                     30 drops

Oil of rose                         10 drops

Oil of cinnamon                     10 drops

Oil of clove                        10 drops


Finally fill the bottle with stronger water of ammonia, put in the stopper and let stand overnight.


Birch-Bud Water. Alcohol (96 per cent), 350 parts; water, 70 parts; soft soap, 20 parts; glycerine, 15 parts; essential oil of birch buds, 5 parts; essence of spring flowers, 10 parts; chlorophyll, quantity sufficient to tint. Mix the water with an equal volume of spirit and dissolve the soap in the mixture. Mix the oil and other ingredients with the remainder of the spirit, add the soap solution gradually, agitate well, allow to stand for 8 days and filter. For use, dilute with an equal volume of water.


Carmelite Balm Water.


Melissa oil                         30 minims

Sweet marjoram oil                  3 minims

Cinnamon oil                        10 minims

Angelica oil                        3 minims

Citron oil                          30 minims

Clove oil                           15 minims

Coriander oil                       5 minims

Nutmeg oil                          5 minims

Alcohol (90 per cent)               10 fluidounces


Angelica oil is obtained principally from the aromatic root of Angelica

Archangelica, L. (N.O. Umbelliferae), which is commonly cultivated for the sake of the volatile oil which it yields.


Cypress Water.


Essence of ambergris                1/2 ounce

Spirits of wine                     1 gallon

Water                               2 quarts


Distill a gallon.


Eau de Botot.


Aniseed                             80 parts

Clover                              20 parts

Cinnamon cassia                     20 parts

Cochineal                           5 parts

Refined spirit                      800 parts

Rose water                          200 parts


Digest for 8 days and add


Tincture of ambergris               1 part

Peppermint oil                      10 parts


Eau de Lais.


Eau de cologne                      1 part

Jasmine extract                     .05 parts

Lemon essence                       .05 parts

Balm water                          .05 parts

Vetiver essence                     .05 parts

Triple rose water                   .05 parts


Eau de Merveilleuse.


Alcohol                             3 quarts

Orange flower water                 4 quarts

Peru balsam                         2 ounces

Clove oil                           4 ounces

Civet                               1 1/4 ounces

Rose geranium oil                   1/2 ounce

Rose oil                            4 drachms

Neroli oil                          4 drachms




Bergamot oil                        10 grams

Tincture of ambergris               2 grams

Tincture of vetiver (1 in 10)       25 grams

Heliotropin                         5 grams

Rose oil spirit (1 in 100)          25 grams

Tincture of musk                    5 grams

Tincture of angelica                12 drops

Neroli oil, artificial              10 drops

Hyacinth, artificial                15 drops

Jasmine, artificial                 1 gram

Spirit of wine, 80 per cent         1,000 grams


Honey Water.



Best honey                          1 pound

Coriander seed                      1 pound

Cloves                              1 1/2 ounces

Nutmegs                             1 ounce

Gum benjamin                        1 ounce

Vanilloes, No. 4                    1 drachm

The yellow rind of 3 large lemons.






Bruise the cloves, nutmegs, coriander seed, and benjamin, cut the vanilloes in pieces, and put all into a glass alembic with 1 gallon of clean rectified spirit, and, after digesting 48 hours, draw off the spirit by distillation. To 1 gallon of the distilled spirit add


Damask rose water                   1 1/2 pounds

Orange flower water                 1 1/2 pounds

Musk                                5 grains

Ambergris                           5 grains


Grind the musk and ambergris in a glass mortar, and afterwards put all together into a digesting vessel, and let them circulate 3 days and 3 nights in a gentle heat; then let all cool. Filter, and keep the water in bottles well stoppered.



Oil of cloves                       2 1/2 drachms

Oil of bergamot                     10 drachms

English oil of lavender             2 1/2 drachms

Musk                                4 grains

Yellow sandalwood                   2 1/2 drachms

Rectified spirit                    32 ounces

Rose water                          8 ounces

Orange flower water                 8 ounces

English honey                       2 ounces


Macerate the musk and sandalwood in the spirit 7 days, filter, dissolve the oils in the filtrate, add the other ingredients, shake well, and do so occasionally, keeping as long as possible before filtering.


Lilac Water.


Terpineol                           2 drachms

Heliotropin                         8 grains

Bergamot oil                        1 drachm

Neroli oil                          8 minims

Alcohol                             12 ounces

Water                               4 ounces


Orange Flower Water.


Orange flower essence               8 ounces

Magnesium carbonate                 1 ounce

Water                               8 pints


Triturate the essence with the magnesium carbonate, add the water, and



To Clarify Turbid Orange Flower Water. Shake 1 quart of it with 1/4 pound of sand which has previously been boiled out with hydrochloric acid, washed with water, and dried at red heat. This process doubtless would prove valuable for many other purposes.


Violet Waters.



Spirit of ionone, 10 per cent       1/2 drachm

Distilled water                     5 ounces

Orange flower water                 1 ounce

Rose water                          1 ounce

Cologne spirit                      8 ounces


Add the spirit of ionone to the alcohol and then add the waters. Let stand and filter.



Violet extract                      2 ounces

Cassie extract                      1 ounce

Spirit of rose                      1/2 ounce

Tincture of orris                   1/2 ounce

Green coloring,                     a sufficiency.

Alcohol                             to 20 ounces.




These scent tablets consist of a compressed mixture of rice starch, magnesium carbonate, and powdered orris root, saturated with heliotrope, violet, or lilac perfume.




Ionone                              50 parts

Ylang-ylang oil                     50 parts

Tincture of musk, extra strong      200 parts

Tincture of benzoin                 200 parts




Heliotropin                         200 parts

Vanillin                            50 parts

Tincture of musk                    100 parts

Tincture of benzoin                 200 parts




Terpineol                           200 parts

Muguet                              200 parts

Tincture of musk                    200 parts

Tincture of benzoin                 200 parts

Sandalwood                          2 drachms

Vetivert                            2 drachms

Lavender flowers                    4 drachms

Oil of thyme                        1/2 drachm

Charcoal                            2 ounces

Potassium nitrate                   1/2 ounce

Mucilage of tragacanth,             a sufficient quantity.


Perfumes for Hair Oils.



Heliotropin                         8 grains

Coumarin                            1 grain

Oil of orris                        1 drop

Oil of rose                         15 minims

Oil of bergamot                     30 minims



Coumarin                            2 grains

Oil of cloves                       4 drops

Oil of cassia                       4 drops

Oil of lavender flowers             15 minims

Oil of lemon                        45 minims

Oil of bergamot                     75 minims


Soap Perfumes.

See also Soap.



Oil of lavender                     1/2 ounce

Oil of cassia                       30 minims


Add 5 pounds of soap stock.








1 1/2 drachms of each:

Oil of caraway

Oil of clove

Oil of white thyme

Oil of cassia

Oil of orange leaf each (neroli petit grain)

Oil of lavender


Add to 5 pounds of soap stock.



See Fumigants.



See Cosmetics.



(See also Oils.)


The Preparation of Emulsions of Crude Petroleum. Kerosene has long been recognized as a most efficient insecticide, but its irritating action, as well as the very considerable cost involved, has prevented the use of the pure oil as a local application in the various parasitic skin diseases of animals.


In order to overcome these objections various expedients have been resorted to, all of which have for their object the dilution or emulsification of the kerosene. Probably the best known and most generally employed method for accomplishing this result is that which is based upon the use of soap as an emulsifying agent. The formula which is used almost universally for making the kerosene soap emulsion is as follows:


Kerosene                            2 gallons

Water                               1 gallon

Hard soap                           1/2 pound


The soap is dissolved in the water with the aid of heat, and while this solution is still hot the kerosene is added and the whole agitated vigorously. The smooth white mixture which is obtained in this way is diluted before use with sufficient water to make a total volume of 20 gallons, and is usually applied to the skin of animals or to trees or other plants by means of a spray pump. This method of application is used because the diluted emulsion separates quite rapidly, and some mechanical device, such as a self-mixing spray pump, is required to keep the oil in suspension.


It will be readily understood that this emulsion would not be well adapted either for use as a dip or for application by hand, for in the one case the oil, which rapidly rises to the surface, would adhere to the animals when they emerged from the dipping tank and the irritating effect would be scarcely less than that produced by the plain oil, and in the second case the same separation of the kerosene would take place and necessarily result in an uneven distribution of the oil on the bodies of the animals which were being treated.


Within recent years it has been found that a certain crude petroleum from the Beaumont oil fields is quite effective for destroying the Texas fever cattle ticks. This crude petroleum contains from 40 to 50 per cent of oils boiling below 300 C. (572º F.), and from 1 to 1.5 per cent of sulphur. After a number of trials of different combinations of crude oil, soap, and water, the following formula was decided upon as the one best suited to the uses in view:


Crude petroleum                     2 gallons

Water                               1/2 gallon

Hard soap                           1/2 pound


Dissolve the soap in the water with the aid of heat; to this solution add the crude petroleum, mix with a spray pump or shake vigorously, and dilute with the desired amount of water. Soft water should, of course, be used. Various forms of hard and soft soaps have been tried, but soap with an amount of free alkali equivalent to 0.9 per cent of sodium hydroxide gives the best emulsion. All the ordinary laundry soaps are quite satisfactory, but toilet soaps in the main are not suitable.


An emulsion of crude petroleum made according to this modified formula remains fluid and can be easily poured; it will stand indefinitely without any tendency toward a separation of the oil and water and can be diluted in any proportion with cold soft water. After sufficient dilution to produce a 10 per cent emulsion, a number of hours are required for all the oil to rise to the surface, but if the mixture is agitated occasionally, no separation takes place. After long standing the oil separates in the form of a creamlike layer which is easily mixed with the water again by stirring. It is therefore evident that for producing an emulsion which will hold the oil in suspension after dilution, the modified formula meets the desired requirements.


In preparing this emulsion for use in the field, a large spray pump capable of mixing 25 gallons may be used with perfect success.


In using the formula herewith given, it should be borne in mind that it is recommended especially for the crude






petroleum obtained from the Beaumont oil fields, the composition of which has already been given. As crude petroleums from different sources vary greatly in their composition, it is impracticable to give a formula that can be used with all crude oils. Nevertheless, crude petroleum from other sources than the Beaumont wells may be emulsified by modifying the formula given above. In order to determine what modification of this formula is necessary for the emulsification of a given oil, the following method may be used:


Dissolve 1/2 pound of soap in 1/2 gallon of hot water; to 1 measure of this soap solution add 4 measures of the crude petroleum to be tested and shake well in a stoppered bottle or flask for several minutes.


If, after dilution, there is a separation of a layer of pure oil within half an hour the emulsion is imperfect, and a modification of the formula will be required. To accomplish this the proportion of oil should be varied until a good result is obtained.


Petroleum for Spinning. In order to be able to wash out the petroleum or render it "saponifiable," the following process is recommended: Heat the mineral oil with 5 to 10 per cent of olein, add the proper amount of alcoholic lye and continue heating until the solvent (water alcohol) evaporates. A practical way is to introduce an aqueous lye at 230º F. in small portions and to heat until the froth disappears. For clearness it is necessary merely to evaporate all the water. In the same manner, more olein may be added as desired if the admixture of lye is kept down so that not too much soap is formed or the petroleum becomes too thick. After cooling, a uniform gelatinous mass results. This is liquefied mechanically, during or after the cooling, by passing it through fine sieves. Soap is so finely and intimately distributed in the petroleum that the finest particles of oil are isolated by soap, as it were. When a quantity of oil is intimately stirred into the water an emulsion results so that the different parts cannot be distinguished. The same process takes place in washing, the soap contained in the oil swelling between the fibers and the oil particles upon mixture with water, isolating the oil and lifting it from the fiber.


Deodorized Petroleum. Petroleum may be deodorized by shaking it first

with 100 parts of chlorinated lime for every 4,500 parts, adding a little hydrochloric acid, then transferring the liquid to a vessel containing lime, and again shaking until all the chlorine is removed.

After standing, the petroleum is decanted.


Petroleum Briquettes. Mix with 1,000 parts of petroleum oil 150 parts of ground soap, 150 parts of rosin, and 300 parts of caustic soda lye. Heat this mixture while stirring. When solidification commences, which will be in about 40 minutes, the operation must be watched. If the mixture tends to overflow, pour into the receiver a few drops of soda, and continue to stir until the solidification is complete. When the operation is ended, flow the matter into molds for making the briquettes, and place them for 10 or 15 minutes in a stove; then they may be allowed to cool. The briquettes can be employed a few hours after they are made.


To the three elements constituting the mixture it is useful to add per 1,000 parts by weight of the briquettes to be obtained, 120 parts of sawdust and 120 parts of clay or sand, to render the briquettes more solid.


Experiments in the heating of these briquettes have demonstrated that they will furnish three times as much heat as briquettes of ordinary charcoal, without leaving, any residue.



See Insecticides.



See Lubricants.



See Soap.



See Alloys.



 See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.




If it is desired to impart to modern articles of pewter the appearance of antique objects, plunge the pieces for several moments into a solution of alum to which several drops of hydrochloric or sulphuric acid have been added.




These can be easily produced by drawing the outlines of a picture, writing, etc., on a piece of white paper with a solution of 40 parts of saltpeter and 20 parts of gum arabic in 40 parts of warm water, using a writing pen for this purpose. All the lines must connect and one of them






must run to the edge of the paper, where it should be marked with a fine lead pencil line. When a burning match is held to this spot, the line immediately glows on, spreading over the whole design, and the design formerly invisible finally appears entirely singed. This little trick is not dangerous.




An artificial phosphate is thus prepared: Melt in an oven a mixture of 100 parts of phosphorite, ground coarsely, 70 parts of acid sulphate of soda; 20 parts of carbonate of lime; 22 parts of sand, and 607 parts of charcoal. Run the molten matter into a receiver filled with water; on cooling it will become granular. Rake out the granular mass from the water, and after drying, grind to a fine powder. The phosphate can be kept for a long time without losing its quality, for it is neither caustic nor hygroscopic. Wagner has, in collaboration with Dorsch, conducted fertilizing experiments for determining its value, as compared with superphosphate or with Thomas slag. The phosphate decomposes more rapidly in the soil than Thomas slag, and so far as the experiments have gone, it appears that the phosphoric acid of the new phosphate exercises almost as rapid an action as the phosphoric acid of the superphosphate soluble in water. 



See also Luminous Bodies and Paints.


Mix 2 parts of dehydrated sodium carbonate, 0.5 parts of sodium chloride, and 0.2 parts of manganic sulphate with 100 parts of strontium carbonate and 30 parts of sulphur and heat 3 hours to a white heat with exclusion of air.



See Alloys, under Bronzes.




G. Graveri recommends persul focyanic acid = H2(CN)2S3 as meeting all the requirements of phosphorus on matches. It resists shock and friction, it is readily friable, and will mix with other substances; moreover, it is nonpoisonous and cheaper than phosphorus.






No light is perfectly safe or non-actinic, even that coming through a combined ruby and orange window or lamp. Therefore use great care in developing.


A light may be tested this way: Place a dry plate in the plate holder in total darkness, draw the slide sufficiently to expose one-half of the plate, and allow the light from the window or lamp, 12 to 18 inches distant, to fall on this exposed half for 3 or 4 minutes. Then develop the plate the usual length of time in total darkness. If the light is safe, there will be no darkening of the exposed part. If not safe, the remedy is obvious.


The developing room must be a perfectly dark room, save for the light from a ruby- or orange-colored window (or combination of these two colors). Have plenty of pure running water and good ventilation.


Plates should always be kept in a dry room. The dark room is seldom a safe place for storage, because it is apt to be damp.


Various developing agents give different results. Pyrogallic acid in combination with carbonate of sodium or carbonate of potassium gives strong, vigorous negatives. Eikonogen and metol yield soft, delicate negatives. Hydrochinon added to eikonogen or metol produces more contrast or greater strength.


It is essential to have a bottle of bromide of potassium solution,, 10 per cent, in the dark room. (One ounce of bromide of potassium, water to 10 ounces.) Overtimed plates may be much improved by adding a few drops of bromide solution to the developer as soon as the overtimed condition is apparent (a plate is overtimed when the image appears almost immediately, and then blackens all over).


Undertimed plates should be taken out of the developer and placed in a tray of water where no light can reach them. If the detail in the shadows begins to appear after half an hour or so, the plate can be replaced in the developer and development brought to a finish.


Quick development, with strong solutions, means a lack of gradation or half tones.


A developer too warm or containing too much alkali (carbonate of sodium or potassium) will yield flat, foggy negatives.


A developer too cold is retarded in its action, and causes thin negatives.


Uniform temperature is necessary for uniform results.


If development is continued too long, the negative will be too dense.


In warm weather, the developer should be diluted; in cold weather, it should be stronger.






The negative should not be exposed to white light until fixation is complete.


The negative should be left fully 5 minutes longer in the fixing bath than is necessary to dissolve out the white bromide of silver.


In hot weather a chrome alum fixing bath should be used to prevent frilling.


Always use a fresh hypo or fixing bath. Hypo is cheap.


Plates and plate holders must be kept free from dust, or pinholes will result.


After the negative is fixed, an hour's washing is none too much.


The plate should be dried quickly in warm weather else the film will become dense and coarse-grained.


Do not expect clean, faultless negatives to come out of dirty developing and fixing solutions and trays.


Pyro and Soda Developer.



Pure water                          30 ounces

Sulphite soda, crystals             5 ounces

Carbonate soda, crystals            2 1/2 ounces



Pure water                          24 ounces

Oxalic acid                         15 grains

Pyrogallic acid                     1 ounce


To develop, take of


Solution No. I                      1 ounce

Solution No. II                     1/2 ounce

Pure water                          3 ounces


More water may be used in warm weather and less in cool weather.


If solution No. I is made by hydrometer test, use equal parts of the following:


Sulphite soda testing, 80º.

Carbonate soda testing, 40º.


One ounce of this mixture will be equivalent to 1 ounce of solution No. I.   


Pyro and Potassium Developer.



Pure water                          32 ounces

Sulphite soda, crystals             8 ounces

Carbonate potassium, dry            1 ounce



Pure water                          24 ounces

Oxalic acid                         15 ounces

Pyrogallic acid                     1 ounce


To develop, take of


Solution No. 1                      1 ounce

Solution No. II                     1/2 ounce

Pure water                          3 ounces


When the plate is fully developed, if the lights are too thin, use less water in the developer; if too dense, use more water.



Pyro and Metol Developer. Good for short exposures:



Pure water                          57 ounces

Sulphite soda, crystals             2 1/2 ounces

Metol                               1 ounce



Pure water                          57 ounces

Sulphite soda, crystals             2 1/2 ounces

Pyrogallic acid                     1/4 ounce



Pure water                          57 ounces

Carbonate potassium                 2 1/2 ounces


To develop, take of


Pure water                          3 ounces

Solution No. 1                      1 ounce

Solution No. II                     1 ounce

Solution No. III                    1 ounce


This developer may be used repeatedly by adding a little fresh developer as required.


Keep the used developer in a separate bottle.


Rodinal Developer. One part rodinal to 30 parts pure water.


Use repeatedly, adding fresh as required.


Bromo-Hydrochinon Developer. For producing great contrast and intensity, also for developing over-exposed plates.



Distilled or ice water              25 ounces

Sulphite of soda, crystals          3 ounces

Hydrochinon                         1/2 ounce

Bromide of potassium                1/4 ounce


Dissolve by warming, and let cool before use.



Water                               25 ounces

Carbonate of soda, crystals         6 ounces


Mix Nos. I and II, equal parts, for use.


Eikonogen Hydrochinon Developer.



Distilled or pure well water        32 ounces

Sodium sulphite, crystals           4 ounces

Eikonogen                           240 grains

Hydrochinon                         60 grains



Water                               32 ounces

Carbonate of potash                 4 ounces


To develop, take


No. 1                               2 ounces

No. II                              1 ounce

Water *                             1 ounce


* For double-coated plates use 5 ounces of water.






By hydrometer:



Sodium sulphite

solution to test 30                 34 ounces

Eikonogen                           240 grains

Hydrochinon                         60 grains



Carbonate of potash solution to test 50


To develop, take


No. I                               2 ounces

No. II                              1 ounce

Water*                              1 ounce


Hydrochinon Developer.



Hydrochinon                         1 ounce

Sulphite of soda, crystals          5 ounces

Bromide of potassium                10 grains

Water (ice or distilled)            55 ounces



Caustic potash                      180 grains

Water                               10 ounces


To develop:


Take of I, 4 ounces; II, 1/2 ounce. After use pour into a separate bottle. This can be used repeatedly, and with uniformity of results, by the addition of 1 drachm of I and 10 drops of II to every 8 ounces of old developer.


In using this developer it is important to notice the temperature of the room, as a slight variation in this respect causes a very marked difference in the time it takes to develop, much more so than with pyro. The temperature of room should be from 70º to 75º F.


Metol Developer.



Water                               8 ounces

Metol                               100 grains

Sulphite of soda, crystals          1 ounce



Water                               10 ounces

Potassium carbonate                 1 ounce


Take equal parts of I and II and 6 parts of water. If more contrast is needed, take equal parts of I and II and 3 parts of water, with 5 drops to the ounce of a 1/10 solution of bromide of potassium.


Metol and Hydrochinon Developer.



Pure hot water                      80 ounces

Metol                               1 ounce

Hydrochinon                         1/8 ounce

Sulphite soda, crystals             6 ounces



Pure water                          80 ounces

Carbonate soda, crystals            5 ounces


To develop, take of


Pure water                          2 ounces

Solution No. 1                      1 ounce

Solution No. II                     1 ounce


Metol-Bicarbonate Developer. Thoroughly dissolve


Metol                               1 ounce

In water                            60 ounces


Then add


Sulphite of soda, crystals          6 ounces

Bicarbonate of soda                 3 ounces


To prepare with hydrometer,

  mix Sulphite of soda solution,

  testing 75                        30 ounces

Bicarbonate of soda solution,

  testing 50                        30 ounces

Metol                               1 ounce


Dissolved in                        12 ounces water.


Ferrous-Oxalate Developer. For transparencies and opals.



Oxalate of potash                   8 ounces

Water                               30 ounces

Citric acid                         60 grains

Citrate of ammonia solution         2 ounces



Sulphate of iron                    4 ounces

Water                               32 ounces

Sulphuric acid                      16 drops



Citrate of ammonia solution saturated.


Dissolve 1 ounce citric acid in 5 ounces distilled water, add liquor ammonia until a slip of litmus paper just loses the red color, then add water to make the whole measure 8 ounces.


Add 1 ounce of II to 2 of I, and 1/2 ounce of water, and 3 to 6 drops of 10 per cent solution bromide potassium.


To develop, first rinse developing dish with water, lay film or plate down, and flow with sufficient developer to well cover. Careful attention must be given to its action, and when detail is just showing in the face, or half-tone lights in a view, pour off developer, and well wash the film before placing in the fixing bath.


Tolidol Developer. Standard formula for dry plates and films:


Water                               16 ounces

Tolidol                             24 grains

Sodium sulphite                     72 (144) grains

Sodium carbonate                    96 (240) grains


The figures in parenthesis are for crystals. It will be seen that in every case


* For double-coated plates use 5 ounces of water.


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