The Science Notebook
Gilbert Light Experiments - Part 2

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NOTE:  This book was published in 1920, and while many of the experiments and activities here may be safely done as written, a few of them may not be considered particularly safe today.  If you try anything here, please understand that you do so at your own risk.  See our Terms of Use.  

Pages 26-50

26  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING

at one side.  Use much pantomime throughout the show.




Show 2.  The Doctor.




Doctor seated with very large plug hat and very long beard, bell rings, boy enters rubbing stomach and groaning. Doctor seats himself, takes pulse, examines tongue, listens to heart, all with much pantomime, takes large coal tongs, shoves them down throat, (apparently of course), and pulls up a long snake (Fig. 39).  More pantomime. Boy not yet well, doctor again shoves coal tongs down his throat and pulls up an alligator, and so on.



The snake and the alligator are cut out of stiff paper or cardboard and are handed up by a third boy as shown in Fig. 40.

GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  27



Show 3. A surgical case.

Scene 1.  A boy is seated at a table with a large plate of potatoes.  He swallows them whole, then swallows knife, fork, spoon, saltcellar, and so on.  Much pantomime of enjoying a good meal.



Scene 2.  Doctor seated at table, boy rushes in, rubbing stomach, doctor lays him on table, takes large knofe, jabs it into boy's stomach (Fig. 41), boy raises head to object, doctor hits him on head with hatchet (Fig. 42) and proceeds to cut him open, throws back coat to imitate opening stomach, and takes out all the potatoes, knife, fork and spoon, and so on.  Doctor sews boy up, hits him on head with hatchet, boy comes to, pantomime of feeling fine,shakes hand with doctor ant thanks him.

The knife and axe are cut out of cardboard, the plug hat is a tube of stiff paper or ordinary hat.  The whiskers are another tobe of paper.  The boy swallowing potatoes really hands them to another boy hidden behind the chair.



Show 4.  A Boxing Match.


28  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING

Put one boy near the screen and another nearer the light.The first is natural size, the second is enormous (Fig. 43).  If they now pretend to fight it is very, very funny from the audience.  In one of the fights, have the lamp on the stool, let the little fellow beat the big fellow, and if the big fellow finally runs away and steps over the lamp to the chair it looks as though he had jumped into the ceiling.  Little fellow, then struts around as winner.



Show 5.  Living Shadows.

Cover a mirror with two pieces of paper, out of each which you have cut identical eyes, nose, and mouth with teeth, as shown in Fig. 44.  Paste the under paper against the mirror, but paste the outer paper only at the top.  Arrange the light and boy as shown and sway the outer paper back and forth.  Do you see goggling eyes and snapping mouth?

Now have the boy, whose shadow is shown, make a speech with proper gestures, while you sway the paper.  The effect will be extremely amusing to the spectators.

Show 6.  Living Shadows Dialog.

Arrange two mirrors as above and place one on each side of the screen.  Have the two shadows carry on a dialog while two other bows sway the papers.

You will have plenty of fun inventing shows of your own, and with a few beards, mustaches, and false noses made of paper or other material you can have very, very funny times.


GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  29

REFLECTION OF LIGHT



The Law of Reflection: Angle of reflection equals angle of incidence. If a beam of sunlight is allowed to fall on a mirror and the beam before and after reflection is made visible by dust in the air, it is found that the beams make equal angles with a ruler held perpendicular to the mirror, and that they are in the same plane. The beam L Fig. 45, which strikes the mirror is called the incident beam, and the beam R which is reflected is called the reflected beam. The angle i which the incident beam makes with  the perpendicular PN is called the angle of incidence, and the angle r which the reflected beam makes with the perpendicular is called the angle of reflection. This experiment illustrates the Law of Reflection, which is: The angle of reflection equals the angle of incidence and the reflected and incident beams are in the same plane.

FUN WITH SUNLIGHT



Experiment No. 22.
To prove the law of reflection.

Allow a small beam of sunlight to pass through the slit of your shutter and fall on a mirror I placed on the floor or table of your darkened room. Make sufficient dust to show the sunlight. Is the sunlight reflected and does it make a bright spot on the ceiling or opposite wall?

Now hold a ruler
 

30  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING 

perpendicular to the mirror opposite the spot where the light strikes the mirror(Fig. 46). Do you find that the angle between the reflected beam and the ruler is equal to the angle between the incident beam and the  ruler?



Hold a sheet of cardboard edge-wise to the incident and reflected beams in such a position that the incident beam is split in two (Fig. 47). Is the reflected beam also split in two? That is, are the reflected and incident beams in the same plane?

You have here proved the law of reflection.



Experiment No. 23.
Irregular reflection.

Let the beam fall on a piece of white unglazed paper (Fig. 48). Is there no reflected beam; is the light reflected in all directions and does it make everything around it brighter? The light is reflected in all directions because the surface is rough (see Fig, 49).



You see all non-luminous objects by means of light which.they reflect irregularly.


GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  31  

Experiment No. 24.
Twice the angle.

Hold the mirror perpendicular to the beam. Is the beam reflected back to the slit? Now turn the mirror to an angle of 45 to the beam. Is the reflected beam turned through an angle of 90?   That is, is the reflected beam turned through twice the angle the mirror turns? Try other angles. The reflected beam turns through twice the angle because the angles of incidence and reflection are equal and each is equal to the angle through which the mirror turns, therefore, together they are equal to twice this angle.

FUN BY DAY WITH ONE MIRROR



Experiment No. 26.
The heliograph.

Reflect sunlight from your window (Fig. 50) to a distant building, and have your friend reflect sunlight from near this building to your window.

Now send a message to your friend by the Morse code. Uncover your mirror for a short time for a dot and for a longer time for a dash He reads the message on the wall of the building. He replies and you read the message on the inside wall of your room. This is the principle of the heliograph used for military signaling.

Experiment No. 26.
Height of any point on a building.

Drive one end of a straight stick into the ground and make the stick exactly vertical. Place the mirror B, Fig. 51, beside it flat on the ground and adjust until the stick and its image are in a straight line; the mirror is then exactly horizontal.


32  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING

Now if you want to find the height of the topmost window, for example, stand back until you can just see the top of the window, then measure : your distance BC from the mirror ; the distance BE from the mirror to the building; and your height CA from sole to eye.



The triangle ABC which you  make with the mirror is similar to the triangle DBE which the top of the window makes (Fig, 51), that is, they have equal angles, therefore,

DE      AC
----  =  ----
EB      CB

Examples. If you are 12 feet from the mirror, your height to your eye is 5 feet, and the mirror
is 120 feet from the building at the ground level, then:

Height of window              5
----------------------  =    ---
  120                              12

                                5 x 120
                Height of window  =  ---------  =  50 feet
                                   12

FUN BY DAY OR NIGHT WITH ONE MIRROR

Experiment No. 27.
An object and its image.

Look at yourself in a vertical mirror and move back and forth. Does your Image always appear to be as far behind the mirror as you are in front?


GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  33



Arrange the window glass vertically,place a candle in front and another behind (Fig. 52), and make the rear candle coincide with the image of the front candle. Measure the distance from each candle to the mirror. Are they exactly equal?

Draw a line on a piece of paper and call it the mirror line (Fig. 53). Draw three lines across it, and perpendicular to it, at 2-inch intervals. Place the window' glass vertically on the mirror line, place the front candle on each perpendicular in turn. Is its image candle always at the same distance from the mirror?



You have proved here that an image is always the same distance behind the mirror that the object is in front; and that it Is on a perpendicular drawn from the object across the mirror line.




Experiment No. 28.
Slanting object.

Place a pencil in front of the vertical window glass (Fig. 54), and slanting toward the glass. Make a second pencil of equal length coincide with the image. Does the image also slant toward the mirror? It does, because each part of


34  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING

the image is as far behind as the corresponding part of the object is in front, and both are on a line perpendicular to the mirror line.



Experiment No. 29.
To copy a drawing.

Arrange drawing, vertical window glass, book, paper, and light, as shown in Fig. 55. Do you find it easy to copy the drawings? Why is the drawing reversed?

WHY THE IMAGE IS AS FAR BEHIND THE MIRROR
AS THE OBJECT IS IN FRONT

We will explain this first by means of rays and then by means of waves, but you must remember that what you actually receive in your eyes is light waves and not rays. The rays are only imaginary lines which show the direction the waves are moving.



In Fig. 56 the eye sees image B, but the light, of course, goes from A to the mirror and is reflected to the eye. The angles r and i are equal by the law of reflection ; also, since CD and AB are parallel, angle A is equal to i and angle B is equal to r. Therefore angles A and B are equal ; also the angles at F are equal, since they are right angles. The triangles CFA and CFB then have two angles equal and a side CF in common, therefore they are equal 


GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  35

and FB is equal to AF. This shows that the image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front because by the law of reflection r is equal to i.



We will now explain by means of light waves why the image and objects are at equal distances from the mirror, as follows:

The waves of light from the candle A strike the mirror as in 1, Fig. 57, and are reflected as in 2. The curvature of the waves is exactly reversed by reflection. The eye estimates the distance of an object partly by the curvature of the waves which enter it, and the image appears at B as far behind the mirror as the object at A is in front, because the reflected waves which enter the eye have exactly the curvature they would have if the mirror were absent and the object were at B.

We see, then, that the image of A is at an equal distance B because the waves from A are reversed by the mirror but unaltered in any other way.



Experiment No.30.
To illustrate reflected waves.

Fill with water a cake tin with flat sides (Fig, 58), place it near a good light, dip a pencil in, two inches from one side. Is the reflected wave


36  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING

curved in the opposite direction to the original wave? Is it larger and is it the size it would be if it came from a point at an equal distance outside the pan? This is what happens when a light wave strikes a mirror?



Experiment No.31.
Why your image is reversed.

Hold your two bands in front of you (Fig. 59). Is one a reversed image of the other?



Hold your left hand in front of a mirror (Fig. 60). Does it appear to be your right hand? It does, because each point of the image is the same distance behind the mirror that the corresponding part of the left hand is in front

Experiment No. 32.
Reversed words.

Print such words as STAR, STUN, and TOP on paper and look at their images (Fig. 61). Are they reversed? Why?

Experiment No. 33.
Reading a blotting paper.

Write a sentence in ink, blot it on fresh blotting paper. Try to read it. It is hard. Read it in the mirror (Fig. 62). Is it easy?  Why?

Experiment No. 34.
To see behind you.

Hold the mirror in 


GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  37

front of you as in Fig. 63. Can you see behind you with ease? Why?



Experiment No. 35.
To see around a corner.

Hold a mirror as in Fig. 64. Can you see around a comer with ease? Why?

EXPERIMENTAL MAGIC

Experiment No. 36.
A candle burning in a glass of water.

Place candle in front of window glass and glass of water behind it, as in Fig, 65. Does the candle appear to burn in the water?

Experiment No. 37.
Phantom candle in boy's head.

Arrange apparatus as in Fig. 66. Does the candle appear to bum in the boy's head?

Experiment No. 38.
Phantom flame.

Arrange the apparatus as in Fig. 67 and hold your hand behind in the image of the flame. Can you do this quite safely?



Experiment No. 39.
To make magical transformations.

Arrange the apparatus as in Figs. 68 and 69. Place the lighted candle in position 1 and adjust block A until it coincides with the image of block B.

Now to prepare a transformation, fold a sheet of paper once


38  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING

over at the middle, and on the top half make a drawing of a man. Make it with a lead pencil and bear down so as to crease the lower half. Now draw on the lower half inside the creases the skeleton of a man. Tear the halves apart, attach the man to B and the skeleton to A, and adjust until the man seems to turn into a skeleton when you move the candle from position 1 to position 2.



Now darken the room and ask a friend to look into the glass, as in Fig, 69, while you move the candle from 1 to 2. He will be much mystified.

Use photos of the same size, one of a boy and the other of a girl and make the transformation. Make many other transformations.

You may have seen similar magical transformations at the theater or in side shows.



Experiment No. 40.
A magic box.

Make out of stiff cardboard a square box 24 inches


GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  39

long and 3 3/4 inches wide and high. Cut the box into two equal parts at an angle of 45(see 1, Fig. 70), turn the halves as in Z, cut a hole in one half, its center being 2 inches from the end. Cut two trapdoors and attach to each a loop of cord for opening it. Now insert the window glass at the division, see 3.



Now to have fun with your friends, hide the box behind a large sheet of paper or cardboard and have your friends look through a hole in the paper or cardboard into the hole in the box.

Have the box in a good light and have different objects beeath the trapdoors. If you now open one trapdoor, the object beneath is seen by your friends. If now you close the first door and open the second, the object will appear to be transformed into the other object.



Use an empty glass and a glass half full of milk and you can make the tumbler empty and fill at will.

You can make many other very funny transformations.


40  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING

FUN AT NIGHT



Hypnotism

Boys, you can put on imitation hypnotism shows which will mystify and amuse your friends, as follows:



Get a piece of window glass 2 feet by 3 feet, or larger. Put it in a box (Figs. 71 and 78) at an angle of 45 to the length of the box and exactly vertical. Paint the inside of the box black. The box is open toward the audience, also at the opposite end, BI, B2, B3. and at the side, Al, A2, A3. A strong light 1 is placed at the side and throws light on a person sitting opposite Al, A2, or A3, but not on the glass. A weaker light 2 is placed so that it will throw light on a person seated opposite Bl, B2, or B3, but not on the glass. When light 1 is up, a boy seated opposite Al, A2, or A3 will be seen by the audience by reflected light as seated at Bl, B2. or B3. When light 2 is up, a boy seated at Bl, B2, or B3 will be seen at Bl, B2, or B3 by direct light.

The direct image is brighter than the reflected, and to cut it down tack two or three layers of green or black mosquito


GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  41

netting over the B opening. Use black backgrounds behind A and B; this is important.



You should always try out your apparatus just before you use it. Look at the window glass from the audience side, have both lamps lighted, and the boy A will appear to be seated beside boy B. If A appears too low, tilt the glass toward A; if he appears too high, tilt the glass toward B. If the glass is exactly vertical, A and B will be at exactly the same height.




42  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING 

Now have an assistant turn down lamp 1 and A will disappear, turn up lamp 1 and A appears again. Also turn light 2 down and up and B disappears and reappears.

These shows need five boys. One is the hypnotist, who stands out in front and gives the patter talk to the audience. He can wear a dress suit, mustache, tall hat, and so on, if he desires. Two boys are needed as the hypnotism subjects, who occupy chairs A and B, as required. The remaining two boys are needed to operate the lamps.

You will invent all kinds of' shows for yourselves and make up your own patter talk, but we suggest a few that will make plenty of fun.

Show 1. To hypnotize a boy at a distance of ten feet and to make him disappear and reappear.




GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  43


  

Patter. "Ladies and Gentlemen, I have much pleasure in announcing that I will to-night give you an exhibition of hypnotic power more wonderful than anything you have yet seen. It may surprise those of you who know me to learn that I have been studying hypnotism for years, and it will surprise you still more to learn that I have discovered a secret source of hypnotic power of immensely greater strength than any such power discovered up to this time. Former hypnotists have hypnotized their subjects at a distance of one or two feet; but I dare not do this because my power is so great that it might injure the subject. I will do all my work at a distance of ten feet, which I have found to be a perfectly safe distance. I do not care to explain my power any more than to say that I have in the cabinet powerful bodies


44  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING

which bathe my subjects in electro-magnetic forces and help me in my work." (Note. This is perfectly true because lamps give out light and light is electro-magnetic in nature ; of course, do not tell the audience this.) "Now without further talk I will give an exhibition of my hypnotic power by hypnotizing Charles at a distance of ten feet." (Raises curtain.)

Note. Charles is seated at center position, B2 (see Fig. 72). Light 2 is turned up and 1 is turned down. Chair at side is in position A2.

Hypnotist : "Charles, attention !" (Makes passes with hands slowly and says, "Sleep I Sleep ! Sleep !" slowly. Charles shivers, gets rigid, and slowly closes eyes.)

Hypnotist : "Now, Ladies and Gentlemen, former hypnotists have made their subjects do such simple things as rise in the air, remain floating in the air, and so on. On another occasion I will show you some of these simple things, but I will now give you a much more wonderful example of hypnotic power. I will make Charles dissolve into thin air and disappear entirely."

Hypnotist (to Charles) : "Charles, avaunt! Avaunt! Avaunt!" (slowly with passes). (Lamp 2 is slowly turned down and at the same time 1 is slowly turned up. Charles gradually fades into nothing, but the chair is apparently left.)

Hypnotist: "Ladies and Gentlemen, Charles has now joined the spirit world ; but for the sake of his family and friends, I will call him back. I must do this quickly or he may get beyond my power, great as this is." (Looking at ceiling) "Charles, appear!" (Looking at glass) "Appear! Appear!" (slowly). (Light 1 is slowly turned down and 2 slowly turned up and Charles slowly appears.)

Hypnotist snaps his fingers. Charles wakes up and smiles. Hypnotist drops curtain, bows to the audience, and goes behind the curtain to help arrange for the next show.

Show 2. To hypnotize a boy, turn him into another boy, and


GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  45

then turn him back again.

(Charles is seated at position B2, lamp 2 is up; Henry is seated at position A2, lamp 1 is turned down.)

Hypnotist: ^'Ladies and Gentlemen, I will now give you an even greater example of my hypnotic power. Other hypnotists make their subjects believe that they are some one else, but I will actually turn my subject into another being and right before your eyes. Now watch carefully and please do not talk, because I have to concentrate my will to make this transformation, and if my attention is diverted my subject might be left half changed, which would be very serious indeed."

(Raises curtain, speaks to Charles) "Charles, attention!" (Makes short passes and says) "Sleep! Sleep! Sleep!" (slowly).

(To audience) "Now, Ladies and Gentlemen, if you will keep perfectly quiet I will change Charles into another boy."

(To Charles) "Charles, change! Change! Change!" (slowly).

(Light 2 is slowly turned down and 1 slowly turned up. Charles turns into Henry slowly. Henry is also asleep. Hypnotist snaps fingers - Henry wakes up and smiles.)

Hypnotist : "Now, Ladies and Gentlemen, it would never do to leave these boys mixed up in this way because their mothers would never know which is which, not to mention their best girls, so I will turn them back again. Now quiet, please. Henry, attention!" (He mesmerizes Henry with passes and saying, "Sleep! Sleep! Sleep!" Henry stiffens and closes eyes. He then says, "Change! Change! Change!" and Henry slowly changes to Charles as light 2 is turned up and 1 down.)

Hypnotist wakes up Charles, drops curtain, bows, and retires behind curtain again.

Show 3. Transmigration of souls.

Hypnotist: "Ladies and Gentlemen, my next exhibition of my hypnotic power will deal with the transmigration of souls. You have all heard of this strange Hindu theory, namely, that


46  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING

our souls have passed down the ages and have migrated from one animal or man to another. Now I have traced Charles's soul history, and it is very interesting. I have not the time to show you all the forms it has taken, but I will show you the animals his soul inhabited one thousand, two thousand, and three thousand years ago."

(Raises curtain, mesmerizes Charles as before, then says) "O ancient soul form! Come! Come! ComeT (Makes passes and bows three times toward Charles.)

(Charles slowly changes to a dog. Charles is at B2, dog is on a box at A2. At first light 2 is up and light 1 is down. The dog appears as 2 is lowered and 1 is turned up.)

Hypnotist: "Charles is a very nice boy, and you see that one thousand years ago his soul inhabited the body of a very nice dog. I will now show you the body his soul inhabited two thousand years ago."

(Turns toward dog, makes passes, bows three times, and says) "O more ancient soul form! Come! Come! Come!"

(While hypnotist is talking Charles has left his seat and a cat on a box is put in his place. The dog now changes to a cat as light 2 is turned up and light 1 down.)

Hypnotist : "You see that Charles's soul two thousand years ago occupied the body of a very beautiful cat. I will now show you the body his soul occupied three thousand years ago."

(Makes passes toward cat, bows three times, and says) "O most ancient soul form I Come ! Come ! Come !"

(The dog has been replaced by a bird in a cage and the cat changes to a bird as light 1 is turned up and light 2 down.)
Hypnotist: "Ladies and Gentlemen, Charles's soul occupied the body of a beautiful bird three thousand years ago. I will now turn the bird back to Charles. Otherwise the cat might eat Charles up, and I am afraid Charles's mother would not forgive the cat or me."


GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  47

(Makes passes at bird and says) "Charles, appear! Appear! Appear!"

(Charles has taken his place again at B2 and appears as light 2 is turned up and 1 down.)

Hypnotist snaps fingers and awakens Charles, drops curtain, bows, and retires.

Show 4. The transmutation of metals.

Hypnotist : "Ladies and Gentlemen, those of you who know the history of the sciences know that all through the ages and down to the present time, scientists have been trying to change the base metals into the noble metals, -  lead into silver, iron into gold, and so on. All such attempts have previously failed, but I wish to announce modestly to-night that I have succeeded, with the help of my marvelous hypnotic power. I will now prove this to you by changing iron into other metals."

(Raises curtain showing a flatiron - or any iron object - on a box. He makes passes at the iron and says) "O spirit of iron, depart! O spirit of silver, come! Come! Come!" (The iron slowly changes to a silver cake basket, or any object of silver.) (The iron object is on a box at B2, the silver object is on an exactly similar box at At. At first light 2 is up, the iron disappears and the silver appears as 2 is turned down and 1 up.)

Put a gold object in place of the iron, and change silver to gold, and so on.

Show 5. To hatch an egg.

Have an egg on one box and a chicken on the other, and slowly change the egg to a chicken. It is even funnier if you have a full-grown hen. Pretend that your power is not strong enough, great as it is, to change the hen back to the egg.

Show 6. Astral bodies.

Hypnotist: "Ladies and Gentlemen, I will next give you an exhibition of occultism, and I will show you the results of a marvelous discovery I have made. I have discovered a liquid


48  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING

with remarkable powers. If a person drinks this liquid he is immediately changed to his astral body. This body appears to the eye to be the same as ever, but it is composed of bound ether only and has no substance. I may say that this has nothing whatever to do with hypnotism; the effects are produced entirely by the liquid."

(Raises curtain, disclosing Charles and Henry apparently seated side by side with a glass of liquid - water or milk - in front of each. Charles is at Al and Henry is at B3. Both lights are up.)

Hypnotist : "You now see Charles and Henry. Boys ! Drink some of the powerful liquid." (The boys do so.) "Now, Ladies and Gentlemen, the boys appear to you the same as before, but they are not.

"Charles ! Put your hand gently through Henry." (Charles does so.) "Henry! Do you feel anything?" (Henry shakes his head to indicate, no.)

"Henry ! Put your hand gently through Charles." (Henry does so.) "Charles! Do you feel anything?" (Charles moves lips.)  "You say you don't feel anything, but you wish he would wash his hands."

Hypnotist : "You see, Ladies and Gentlemen, their bodies have no substance. They are simply astral bodies made up of bound ether. I will prove this further.

"Charles ! Slice Henry gently with the butcher's knife." (Charles does so.) "Henry! Does it hurt?" (Henry moves lips.) "What! You like it?" (Henry nods yes and moves lips.) "You like it because it makes you feel like a sliced orange?" (Henry nods, yes.)

"Henry! Chop Charles gently with a hatchet." (Henry does so.) "Charles ! Does it hurt you ?" (Charles shakes head and moves lips.) "It doesn't hurt you and you like it because it makes you feel like minced meat?" (Charles nods, yes.)

Hypnotist : "Now, Ladies and Gentlemen, I will show you


GILBERT LIGHT EXPERIMENTS  49

another evidence of the marvelous power of this liquid. I will have Charles pour some of the liquid on an apple and thereby turn it into an astral apple. He will then give it to Henry to eat.

"Charles! Change the apple and give it to Henry." (Charles changes apple by pouring a little liquid on it out of the glass, but instead of giving it to Henry he starts eating it himself. Henry objects and apparently knocks the apple out of Charles's hand. They sit in their chairs and each punches many times to the right. Their fists go right through each other.)

Hypnotist drops curtain and apologizes solemnly to the audience, saying that he is sorry the astral bodies got beyond his control. He bows and retires.

Show 7. Power of the will over supernatural beings.

Hypnotist : "Ladies and Gentlemen, I will now conclude the entertainment of the evening by giving an exhibition of the power of the human will over supernatural beings. Charles has just had a terrifying experience and I am going to help him out."

(Raises curtain and shows Charles seated at Bl. Charles is frightened and keeps looking over first one shoulder then the other.)

Hypnotist : "Now, Charles, calm yourself and tell us exactly what happened." (Charles moves lips.) "You say you just saw a ghost up the dark road near Fred's house." (Charles nods and moves lips.) "Did you run?" (Charles nods, yes.) "Were you afraid?" (Charles shakes head, no.) "Why did you run then?" (Charles moves lips.) "Oh, you just wanted to see whether you could beat him running?" (Charles nods, yes.) "Did you beat him?" (Charles nods, yes.) "Where did you leave the ghost?" (Charles moves lips and waves hand toward door.) "You left it at the front door ?" (Charles nods, yes.) "Can it get in ?" (Charles shakes head and moves lips.) "Oh, you locked the door. Well, it doesn't matter because you aren't afraid of ghosts, anyway." (Ghost gradually appears beside Charles. Henry, covered with


50  GILBERT BOY ENGINEERING

sheet, is seated at A3 and appears at B3 as light 1 is turned up.)

(Charles is much startled, strikes at ghost with fists, then with knife, drops knife with a clatter, takes up hatchet and strikes at ghost; Charles is much agitated. Ghost is calm all through this; it just looks at Charles, but now it moves over into Charles. (Henry moves from chair A3 to Al.) Charles claws at his own neck, trying to tear out ghost.)

Hypnotist now calls out, "Charles, calm yourself! I will help you. You cannot get rid of the ghost because it is your own ghost, but now just sit steady and I will pin the ghost to the chair by my will power and when I say, 'Come !' get up quietly and come out here in front."

(Hypnotist looks intently at ghost, makes passes, and says quietly) "Come !" (Charles comes out in front.)

Hypnotist : "Now, Charles, look at your own ghost Do you want to get rid of him entirely?"

Charles: "Yes."

Hypnotist : "All right. Now watch quietly and I will send him away." (Looking at ghost and pointing finger at him) "O ghost of Charles, disappear and never come back! Disappear! Disappear!" (slowly). (Ghost disappears as light 1 is turned down.)

Hypnotist : "Ladies and Gentlemen, this concludes our entertainment for this evening. Thanking you all for your kind attention, I bid you good-night." (Bows and retires.)

ELEVATIONS

The illusion show (Fig. 73) has a sheet of plate glass GG at an angle of 46. You can put on a similar show by turning your box on its side. You can make a boy appear to rise in air and stay there. The boy is lying on his back on a rug in place of T and has his legs folded as though he were sitting with crossed legs. The hypnotist then makes proper passes and


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