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Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

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Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 101-125






See Waters.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Castings.



See Gold.



See Adhesives.



See Putty.



See Alloys.



See Adhesives under Jewelers' Cements.



See Lubricants.



See Ointments.



See Alloys.



See Adhesives.



See Fireproofing.



See Rubber.



See Paint.



See Varnishes.



See Gold.




Asthma Papers.


I.    Impregnate bibulous paper with the following: Extract of stramonium, 10; potassium nitrate, 17; sugar, 20; warm water, 200 parts. Dry.


II.   Blotting or gray filter paper, 120; potassium nitrate, 60; powdered belladonna leaves, 5; powdered stramonium leaves, 5; powdered digitalis leaves, 5; powdered lobelia, 5; myrrh, 10; olibanum, 10; phellandrium fruits, 5 parts.


Stramonium Candle. Powdered stramonium leaves, 120; potassium nitrate,

72; Peruvian balsam, 3; powdered sugar, 1; powdered tragacanth, 4 parts. (Water, q. s. to mass; roll into suitable shapes and dry.)


Cleary's Asthma Fumigating Powder. Powdered stramonium, 15; powdered belladonna leaves, 15; powdered opium, 2; potassium nitrate, 5.


Asthma Fumigating Powders.


I.    Powdered stramonium leaves, 4; powdered aniseed, 2; potassium nitrate, 2 parts.


II.   Powdered stramonium, 30; potassium nitrate, 5; powdered tea, 15; powdered eucalyptus leaves, 15; powdered Indian hemp, 15; powdered lobelia, 15; powdered aniseed, 2; distilled water, 45 parts. (All the herbal ingredients in coarse powder; moisten with the water in which the potassium nitrate has been previously dissolved, and dry.)


Schiffmann's Asthma Powder. Potassium nitrate, 25; stramonium, 70; belladonna leaves, 5 parts.


Neumeyer's Asthma Powder. Potassium nitrate, 6 parts; sugar, 4; stramo-

nium, 6; powdered lobelia, 1.


Fischer's Asthma Powder. Stramonium, 5 parts; potassium nitrate, 1; powdered Achillea millefolium leaves, 1.


Vorlaender's Asthma Powder. Stramonium, 150; lobelia, 80; arnica flowers, 80; potassium nitrate, 30; potassium iodide, 3; naphthol, 1,100 parts.


Asthma Cigarettes.


I.    Belladonna leaves, 5 parts; stramonium leaves, 5 parts; digitalis leaves, 5 parts; sage leaves, 5 parts; potassium nitrate, 75 parts; tincture of benzoin, 40 parts; boiling water, 1,000 parts. Extract the leaves with the boiling writer, filter, and in the filtrate dissolve the salts. Immerse in the fluid sheets of bibulous paper (Swedish filter paper will answer) and let remain for 24 hours. At the end of this time remove, dry, cut into pieces about 2 3/4 by 4 inches, and roll into cigarettes.


II.   Sodium arseniate, 3 grains; extract of belladonna, 8 grains; extract of stramonium, 8 grains. Dissolve the arseniate of sodium in a small quantity of water, and rub it with the two extracts. Then soak up the whole mixture with fine blotting paper, which is dried and cut into 24 equal parts. Each part is rolled up in a piece of cigarette paper.

Four or five inhalations are generally sufficient as a dose.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Weights and Measures.








The usual physiological antidotes to the mydriatic alkaloids from belladonna, stramonium, and hyoscyamus are morphine or eserine. Strong tea, coffee, or brandy are usually administered as stimulants. Chief reliance has usually been placed upon a stomach siphon and plenty of water to wash out the contents of the stomach. The best antidote ever reported was that of muscarine extracted by alcohol from the mushroom, Amanita muscaria, but the difficulty of securing the same has caused it to be overlooked and almost forgotten. Experiments with this antidote showed it to be an almost perfect opposite of atropine in its effects upon the animal body and that it neutralized poisonous doses.




Cort. cinnam. chinens.              3 parts

Flor. lavandulae                    5 parts

Fol. Menth. pip                     5 parts

Fol. rosmarini                      5 parts

Fol. salvise                        10 parts

Fruct. fceniculi                    3 parts

Spiritus                            70 parts

Aqua                                300 parts


Macerate the drugs in the mixed alcohol and water for 24 hours and distill 200 parts.


AQUA REGIA. Aqua regia consists in principle of 2 parts of hydrochloric acid and 1 part of nitric acid. But this quantity varies according to the shop where it is used for gilding or jewelry, and sometimes the proportion is brought to 4 parts of hydrochloric acid to 1 of nitric acid.



See Freezing Preventives.



See Lubricants.



See Alloys.


Baking Powders


I.    Tartaric acid, 3 parts; sodium bicarbonate, 1 part; starch, 0.75 part. Of this baking powder the required amount for 500 parts of flour is about 20 parts for rich cake, and 15 parts for lean cake.


The substances employed must be dry, each having been previously sifted by itself, so that no coarse pieces are present; the starch is mixed with the sodium bicarbonate before the acid is added. When large quantities are prepared the mixing is done by machine; smaller quantities are best mixed together in a spacious mortar, and then passed repeatedly through a sieve. Instead of starch, flour may be used, but starch is preferable, because it interferes with the action of the acid on the alkalI.    


II.   A formula proposed by Crampton, of the United States Department of

Agriculture, as the result of an investigation of the leading baking powders of the market, is:


Potassium bitartrate                2 parts

Sodium bicarbonate                  1 part

Cornstarch                          1 part


The addition of the starch serves the double purpose of a "filler" to increase the weight of the powder and as a preservative. A mixture of the chemicals alone does not keep well.


The stability of the preparation is increased by drying each ingredient separately by exposure to a gentle heat, mixing at once, and immediately placing in bottles or cans and excluding access of air and consequently of moisture.


This is not a cheap powder; but it is the best that can be made, as to healthfulness.




Sodium acid phosphate               20 parts

Calcium acid phosphate              20 parts

Sodium bicarbonate                  25 parts

Starch                              35 parts


Caution as to drying the ingredients and keeping them dry muse be observed. Even the mixing should be done in a room free from excessive humidity.


IV.   Alum Baking Powder.


Ammonium alum, anhydrous            15 parts

Sodium bicarbonate                  18 parts

Cornstarch, q. s.                   to make 100 parts.


Mix.  The available carbon dioxide yielded is 7 1/2 per cent or 8 per cent.



See Watchmakers' Formulas.



See Hair Preparations.



See Laundry Preparations.



See also Ointments.






Wild-Cherry Balsam.


Wild-cherry bark                    1 ounce

Licorice root                       1 ounce

Ipecac                              1 ounce

Bloodroot                           1 drachm

Sassafras                           1 drachm

Compound tincture of opium          1 fluidounce

Fluid extract of cubeb              4 fluidrachms


Moisten the ground drugs with the fluid extract and tincture and enough

menstruum consisting of 25 per cent alcohol, and after six or eight hours pack in a percolator, and pour on menstruum until percolation begins. Then cork the orifice, cover the percolator, and allow to macerate for 24 hours. Then percolate to 10 fluidounces, pouring back the first portion of percolate until it comes through clear. In the percolate dissolve 1/2 ounce of ammonium chloride and 1/2 pound of sugar by cold percolation, adding simple syrup to make 16 fluidounces. Finally add 1 fluidrachm of chloroform.


Balsam Spray Solution.


Oil of Scotch pine                  30 minims

Oil of eucalyptus                   1 drachm

Oil of cinnamon                     30 minims

Menthol crystals                    q.s.

Fluid extract of balmof-Gilead

  buds                              1 drachm

Tincture of benzoin,                enough to make 4 ounces


This formula can, of course, be modified to suit your requirements. The oils of eucalyptus and cinnamon can be omitted and such quantities of tincture of tolu and tincture of myrrh incorporated as may be desired.


Birch Balsam.


Parts by weight

Alcohol                             30,000

Birch juice                         3,000

Glycerine                           1,000

Bergamot oil                        90

Vanillin                            10

Geranium oil                        50

Water                               14,000



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Plating.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Pyrotechnics.



See Beverages under Lemonade.



See Polishes.



See Ointments.



See Cosmetics.



See Hygrometers and Hygroscopes.



See Air Bath.



See Alloys.



See Cosmetics.




Tartaric acid                       10 parts

Sodium bicarbonate                  9 parts

Rice flour                          6 parts


A few spoonfuls of this, when stirred into a bathtubful of water, causes a copious liberation of carbon dioxide, which is refreshing. This mixture can be made into tablets by compression, moistening, if necessary, with alcohol. Water, of course, cannot be used in making them, as its presence causes the decomposition referred to. Perfume may be added to this powder, essential oils being a good form. Oil of lavender would be a suitable addition, in the proportion of a fluidrachm or more to the pound of powder. A better but more expensive perfume may be obtained by mixing 1 part of oil of rose geranium with 6 parts of oil of lavender. A perfume still more desirable may be had by adding a mixture of the oils from which Cologne water is made. For an ordinary quality the following will suffice:


Oil of lavender                     4 fluidrachms

Oil of rosemary                     4 fluidrachms

Oil of bergamot                     1 fluidounce

Oil of lemon                        2 fluidounces

Oil of clove                        30 minims


For the first quality the following may be taken:


Oil of neroli                       6 fluidrachms

Oil of rosemary                     3 fluidrachms

Oil of bergamot                     3 fluidrachms

Oil of cedrat                       7 fluidrachms

Oil of orange peel                  7 fluidrachms


A fluidrachm or more of either of these mixtures may be used to the pound, as in the case of lavender.


These mixtures may also be used in the preparation of a bath powder (non-effer-






vescent) made by mixing equal parts of powdered soap and powdered borax.     



See Varnishes.



See Paint.




I.    In the so-called dry batteries the exciting substance is a paste instead of a fluid; moisture is necessary to cause the reaction. These pastes are generally secret preparations. One of the earlier "dry" batteries is that of Gassner. The apparatus consists of a containing vessel of zinc, which forms the positive element; the negative one is a cylinder of carbon, and the space between is filled with a paste, the recipe for which is:


Oxide of zinc                       1 part

Sal ammoniac                        3 parts

Chloride of zinc                    1 part

Water                               2 parts


The usual form of chloride-of-silver battery consists of a sealed cell containing a zinc electrode, the two being generally separated by some form of porous septum. Around the platinum or silver electrode is cast a quantity of silver chloride. This is melted and generally poured into molds surrounding the metallic electrode. The exciting fluid is either a solution of ammonium chloride, caustic potassa, or soda, or zinc

sulphate. As ordinarily constructed, these cells contain a paste of the electrolyte, and are sealed up hermetically in glass or hard-rubber receptacles.


II.   The following formula is said to yield a serviceable filling for dry batteries:


Charcoal                                  3 ounces

Graphite                                  1 ounce

Manganese dioxide                         3 ounces

Calcium hydrate                           1 ounce

Arsenic acid                              1 ounce

Glucose mixed with dextrine or starch     1 ounce


Intimately mix, and then work into a paste of proper consistency with a saturated solution of sodium and ammonium chlorides containing one-tenth of its volume of a mercury-bichloride solution and an equal volume of hydrochloric acid. Add the fluid gradually, and well work up the mass.



Calcium chloride, crystallized            30 parts

Calcium chloride, granulated              30 parts

Ammonium sulphate                         15 parts

Zinc sulphate                             25 parts




Solutions for Batteries. The almost exclusively employed solution of sal ammoniac (ammonium chloride) presents the drawback that the zinc rods, glasses, etc., after a short use, become covered with a fine, yellow, very difficultly soluble, basic zinc salt, whereby the generation of the electric current is impaired, and finally arrested altogether. This evil may be remedied by an admixture of cane sugar. For a battery of ordinary size about 20 to 25 grams of sugar, dissolved in warm water, is sufficient per 50 to 60 grams of sal ammoniac. After prolonged use only large crystals (of a zinc saccharate) form, which, however, become attached only to the zinc rod in a few places, having very little disadvantageous effect upon the action of the batteries and being easy to remove, owing to their ready solubility.



See Alloys.





Oil of bay                          1 drachm

Alcohol                             18 ounces

Water                               18 ounces


Mix and filter through magnesia.



Bay-leaf otto                       1/2 ounce

Magnesium carbonate                 1/2 ounce

Jamaica rum                         2 pints

Alcohol                             3 pints

Water                               3 pints


Triturate the otto with the magnesium carbonate, gradually adding the other ingredients, previously mixed, and filter. If the rum employed contains sufficient sugar or mucilaginous matter to cause any stickiness to be felt on the skin, rectification will be necessary.



See Fats.



See Lubricants.



See Babbitt Metal, Bearing Metal, and Phosphor Bronze, under Alloys.



See Insecticides.




Extract of beef                     512 grains

Detannated sherry wine              26 ounces

Alcohol                             4 ounces

Citrate of iron and ammonia         256 grains

Simple sirup                        12 ounces






Tincture of orange                  2 ounces

Tincture of cardamom co             1 ounce

Citric acid                         10 grains

Water,                              enough to make 4 pints


Let stand 24 hours, agitate frequently, and filter. See that the orange is fresh.



See Peptonoids.



See Foods.



See Beverages.



See Alcohol.



See Beverages.




I.    Powdered chalk is poured into the cask and allowed to remain in the beer until completely precipitated.


II.   The liquor of boiled raisins may be poured into the beer, with the result that the sour taste of the beer is disguised.


III.  A small quantity of a solution of potash will remove the sour taste of beer. Too much potash must not be added; otherwise the stomach will suffer. Beer thus restored will not keep long.


IV.   If the beer is not completely spoiled it may be restored by the addition of coarsely powdered charcoal.


V.    If the addition of any of the above-mentioned substances should affect the taste of the beer, a little powdered zingiber may be used to advantage. Syrup or molasses may also be employed.




"Foul brood" is a contagious disease to which bees are subject. It is caused by bacteria and its presence may be known by the bees becoming languid. Dark, stringy, and elastic masses are found in the bottom of the cells, while the caps are sunken or irregularly punctured. Frequently the disease is said to be accompanied by a peculiar offensive odor. Prompt removal of diseased colonies, their transfer to clean and thoroughly disinfected hives, and feeding on antiseptically treated honey or syrup are the means taken for the prevention and cure of the disease. The antiseptics used are salicylic acid, carbolic acid, or formic acid. Spraying the brood with any one of these remedies in a solution and feeding with a honey or syrup medicated with them will usually be all that is required by way of treatment. It is also said that access to salt water is important for the health of bees.



See Insecticides.



See Alloys.



See Antidotes and Atropine.





Tallow                              50 parts

Castor oil, crude                   20 parts

Fish oil                            20 parts

Colophony                           10 parts


Melt on a moderate fire and stir until the mass cools.


II.   Melt 250 parts of gum elastic with 250 parts of oil of turpentine in an iron, well-closed crucible at 122º F. (caution!) and mix well with 200 parts of colophony. After further melting add 200 parts of yellow wax and stir carefully. Melt in 750 parts of heated train oil, 250 parts of tallow, and to this add, with constant stirring, the first mixture when the latter is still warm, and let cool slowly with stirring. This grease is intended for cotton belts.



Gutta-percha                        40 parts

Rosin                               10 parts

Asphalt                             15 parts

Petroleum                           60 parts


Heat in a glass vessel on the water bath for a few hours, until a uniform solution is obtained. Let cool and add 15 parts of carbon disulphide and allow the mixture to stand, shaking it frequently.


Directions for Use. The leather belts to be cemented should first be roughened at the joints, and after the cement has been applied they should be subjected to a strong pressure between warm rollers, whereupon they will adhere together with much tenacity.


Preservation of Belts. In a well-covered iron vessel heat at a temperature of 50º C. (152º F.) 1 part by weight of caoutchouc, cut in small pieces, with 1 part by weight of rectified turpentine. When the caoutchouc is dissolved add 0.8 part of colophony, stir until this is dissolved, and add to the mixture 0.1 part of yellow wax.  Into another vessel of suitable size pour 3 parts of fish oil, add 1 part of tallow, and heat the mixture until the tallow is melted; then pour on the contents of the first vessel, constantly stirring an operation to be continued until the matter is cooled and congealed. This grease is to be rubbed






on the inside of the belts from time to time, while they are in use. The belts run easily and do not slip. The grease may also serve for improving old belts. For this purpose the grease should be rubbed on both sides in a warm place. A first layer is allowed to soak in, and another applied.


To Make a Belt Pull. Hold a piece of tar soap on the inside of the belt while it is running.



See Adhesives.



See Adhesives.



See Lubricants.



See Wines and Liquors.




Benzine, to Color Green. Probably the simplest and cheapest as well as the best method of coloring benzine green is to dissolve in it sufficient oil soluble aniline green of the desired tint to give the required shade.


Purification of Benzine. Ill-smelling benzine, mixed with about 1 to 2 per cent of its weight of free fatty acid, will dissolve therein. One-fourth per cent of tannin is added and all is mixed well. Enough potash or soda lye, or even lime milk, is added until the fatty acids are

saponified, and the tannic acid is neutralized, shaking repeatedly. After a while the milky liquid separates into two layers, viz., a salty, soapy, mud-sediment and clear, colorless, and almost odorless

benzine above. This benzine, filtered, may be employed for many technical purposes, but gives an excellent, pure product upon a second distillation.


Fatty acid from tallow, olive oil, or other fats may be used, but care should be taken that they have as slight an odor of rancid fat as possible. The so-called elaine or olein more correctly oleic acid of the candle factories may likewise be employed, but it should first be agitated with a 1/10 per-cent soda solution to get rid of the bad-smelling fatty acids, especially the butyric acid.


The Prevention of the Inflammability of Benzine. A mixture of 9 volumes

tetrachloride and 1 volume of benzine is practicably inflammable. The flame is soon extinguished by itself.


Substitute for Benzine as a Cleansing Agent.



Chloroform                          75 parts

Ether                               75 parts

Alcohol                             600 parts

Decoction of quillaya bark          22,500 parts





Acetic ether, technically pure      10 parts

Amyl acetate                        10 parts

Ammonia water                       10 parts

Alcohol dilute                      70 parts





Acetone                             1 part

Ammonia water                       1 part

Alcohol dilute                      1 part




Deodorizing Benzine.



Benzine                             20 ounces

Oil of lavender                     1 fluidrachm

Potassium dichromate                1 ounce

Sulphuric acid                      1 fluidounce

Water                               20 fluidounces


Dissolve the dichromate in the water, add the acid and, when the solution is cold, the benzine. Shake every hour during the day, allow to stand all night, decant the benzine, wash with a pint of water and again decant, then add the oil of lavender.


II.   First add to the benzine 1 to 2 per cent of oleic acid, which dissolves. Then about a quarter of 1 per cent of tannin is incorporated by shaking. A sufficient quantity of caustic potassa solution, or milk of lime, to combine with the acids is then well shaken into the mixture, and the whole allowed to stand. The benzine rises to the top of the watery fluid, sufficiently deodorized and decolorized for practical purposes.


III.  To 1,750 parts of water add 250 parts of sulphuric acid, and when it has cooled down add 30 parts of potassium permanganate and let dissolve. Add this solution to 4,500 parts of benzine, stir well together, and set aside for 24 hours. Now decant the benzine and to it add a solution of 7 1/2 parts of potassium permanganate and 15 parts of sodium hydrate in 1,000 parts of water, and agitate the substances well together. Let stand until the benzine separates, then draw off.


IV.   Dissolve 3 parts of litharge and 18 parts of sodium hydrate in 40 parts of water. Add this to 200-250 parts of benzine and agitate well together for two minutes, then let settle and draw off the benzine. Rinse the latter by agitating






it with plenty of clear water, let settle, draw off the benzine, and, if necessary, repeat the operation.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under Miscellaneous Methods.



See Food.



See Soap.




A neutral, bland, oily preparation of benzoin, useful for applying various antiseptics by the aid of an atomizer, nebulizer, or vaporizer. Can be used plain or in combination with other easily dissolved medicinals.


Paraffine, liquid                   16 ounces

Gum benzoin                         1 ounce


Digest on a sand bath for a half hour and filter.






Old-Fashioned Ginger Beer.


Lemons, large and sound             6 only

Ginger, bruised                     3 ounces

Sugar                               6 cups

Yeast, compressed                   1/4 cake

Boiling water                       4 gallons

Water                               enough


Slice the lemons into a large earthenware vessel, removing the seed. Add the ginger, sugar, and water. When the mixture has cooled to lukewarmness, add the yeast, first diffused in a little water. Cover the vessel with a piece of cheese cloth, and let the beer stand 24 hours. At the end of that time strain and bottle it. Cork securely, but not so tightly that the bottles would break before the corks would fly out, and keep in a cool place.


Ginger Beer. Honey gives the beverage a peculiar softness and, from not having fermented with yeast, is the less violent in its action when opened. Ingredients: White sugar, 1/4 pound; honey, 1/4 pound; bruised ginger, 5 ounces; juice of sufficient lemons to suit the taste; water,

4 1/2 gallons. Boil the ginger in 3 quarts of the water for half an hour, then add the ginger, lemon juice, and honey, with the remainder of the water; then strain through a cloth; when cold, add the quarter of the white of an egg and a teaspoonful of essence of lemon. Let the whole stand for four days before bottling. This quantity will make a hundred bottles.


Ginger Beer without Yeast.


Ginger, bruised                     l 1/2 pounds

Sugar                               20 pounds

Lemons                              1 dozen

Honey                               1 pound

Water                               enough


Boil the ginger in 3 gallons of water for half an hour; add the sugar, the lemons (bruised and sliced), the honey, and 17 gallons of water. Strain and, after three or four days, bottle.


Package Pop.


Cream of tartar                     3 ounces

Ginger, bruised                     1 ounce

Sugar                               24 ounces

Citric acid                         2 drachms


Put up in a package, and direct that it be shaken in 1 1/2 gallons of boiling water, strained when cooled, fermented with 1 ounce of yeast, and bottled.


Ginger-Ale Extract.



Jamaica ginger, coarse powder       4 ounces

Mace, powder                        1/2 ounce

Canada snakeroot, coarse powder     60 grains

Oil of lemon                        1 fluidrachm

Alcohol                             12 fluidounces

Water                               4 fluidounces

Magnesium carbonate or

  purified talcum                   1 av. ounce


Mix the first four ingredients, and make 16 fluidounces of tincture with the alcohol and water, by percolation. Dissolve the oil of lemon in a small quantity of alcohol, rub with magnesia or talcum, add gradually with constant trituration the tincture, and filter. The extract may be fortified by adding 4 avoirdupois ounces of powdered grains of paradise to the ginger, etc., of the above before extraction with alcohol and water.



Capsicum, coarse powder             8 ounces

Water                               6 pints

Essence of ginger                   8 fluidounces

Diluted alcohol                     7 fluidounces

Vanilla extract                     2 fluidounces

Oil of lemon                        20 drops

Caramel                             1 fluidounce


Boil the capsicum with water for three hours, occasionally replacing the water lost by evaporation; filter, concentrate the filtrate on a hot water bath to the consistency of a thin extract, add the remaining ingredients, and filter.







Jamaica ginger, ground              12 ounces

Lemon peel, fresh, cut fine         2 ounces

Capsicum, powder                    1 ounce

Calcined magnesia                   1 ounce

Alcohol |

Water   | of each                   sufficient


Extract the mixed ginger and capsicum by percolation so as to obtain 16 fluidounces of water, set the mixture aside for 24 hours, shaking vigorously from time to time, then filter, and pass through the filter enough of a mixture of 2 volumes of alcohol and 1 of water to make the filtrate measure 32 fluidounces. In the latter macerate the lemon peel for 7 days, and again filter.


Ginger Beer.


Brown sugar                         2 pounds

Boiling water                       2 gallons

Cream of tartar                     1 ounce

Bruised ginger root                 2 ounces


Infuse the ginger in the boiling water, add the sugar and cream of tartar; when lukewarm strain; then add half pint good yeast. Let it stand all night, then bottle; one lemon and the white of an egg may be added to fine it.


Lemon Beer.


Boiling water                       1 gallon

Lemon, sliced                       1

Ginger, bruised                     1 ounce

Yeast                               1 teacupful

Sugar                               1 pound


Let it stand 12 to 20 hours, and it is ready to be bottled.


Hop Beer.


Water                               5 quarts

Hops                                6 ounces


Boil 3 hours, strain the liquor, add:


Water                               5 quarts

Bruised ginger                      4 ounces


and boil a little longer, strain, and add 4 pounds of sugar, and when milk-warm, 1 pint of yeast. Let it ferment; in 24 hours it is ready for bottling.


Aenanthic Ether as a Flavoring for Ginger Ale. A fruity, vinous bouquet

and delightful flavor are produced by the presence of Aenanthic ether or brandy flavor in ginger ale. This ether throws off a rich, pungent, vinous odor, and gives a smoothness very agreeable to any liquor or beverage of which it forms a part. It is a favorite with "brandy

sophisticators." Add a few drops of the ether (previously dissolved in eight times its bulk of Cologne spirit) to the ginger-ale syrup just before bottling.


Soluble Extract of Ginger Ale. Of the following three formulas the first is intended for soda-fountain use, the second is a "cheap" extract for the bottlers who want a one-ounce-to-the-gallon extract, and the third is a bottlers' extract to be used in the proportion of three ounces to a gallon of syrup. This latter is a most satisfactory extract and has been sold with most creditable results, both as to clearness of the finished ginger ale and delicacy of flavor.


It will be noted that in these formulas oleoresin of ginger is used in addition to the powdered root. Those who do not mind the additional expense might use one-fourth of the same quantity of volatile oil of ginger instead. This should develop an excellent flavor, since the oil is approximately sixteen times as strong as the oleoresin, and has the additional advantage of being free from resinous extractive.


The following are the formulas:


I.    (To be used in the proportion of 4 ounces of extract to 1 gallon of syrup.)


Jamaica ginger, in fine powder      8 pounds

Capsicum, in fine powder            6 ounces

Alcohol,                            a sufficient quantity.


Mix the powders intimately, moisten them with a sufficient quantity of alcohol, and set aside for 4 hours. Pack in a cylindrical percolator and percolate with alcohol until 10 pints of percolate have resulted. Place the percolate in a bottle of the capacity of 16 pints, and add to it 2 fluidrachms of oleoresin of ginger; shake, add 2 1/2 pounds of finely powdered pumice stone, and agitate thoroughly at intervals of one-half hour for 12 hours. Then add 14 pints of water in quantities of 1 pint at each addition, shaking briskly meanwhile. This part of the operation is most important. Set the mixture aside for 24 hours, agitating it strongly every hour or so during that period. Then take


Oil of lemon                        1 1/2 fluidounces

Oil of rose (or geranium)           3 fluidrachms

Oil of bergamot                     2 fluidrachms






Oil of cinnamon                           3 fluidrachms

Magnesium carbonate                       3 fluidounces


Rub the oils with the magnesia in a large mortar and add 9 ounces of the clear portion of the ginger mixture to which have been previously added 2 ounces of alcohol, and continue trituration, rinsing out the mortar with the ginger mixture. Pass the ginger mixture through a double filter and add through the filter the mixture of oils and magnesia; finally pass enough water through the filter to make the resulting product measure 24 pints, or 3 gallons. If the operator should desire an extract of more or less pungency, he may obtain his desired effect by increasing or decreasing the quantity of powdered capsicum in the formula.


II.   (To be used in the proportion of 1 ounce to 1 gallon of syrup.)


Ginger, in moderately fine powder         6 pounds

Capsicum, in fine powder                  2 1/2 pounds

Alcohol,                                  a sufficient quantity.


Mix, moisten the powder with 3 pints of alcohol, and set aside in a suitable vessel for 4 hours. Then pack the powder firmly in a cylindrical percolator, and percolate until 6 pints of extract are obtained. Set this mixture aside and label Percolate No. 1, and continue the percolation with 1 1/2 pints of alcohol mixed with 1 1/2 pints of water. Set the resultant tincture aside, and label Percolate No. 2.


Take oleoresin ginger 5 fluid ounces and add to Percolate No. 1.


Then take:


Oil of lemon                              1 1/2 fluidounces

Oil of cinnamon                           1 fluidounce

Oil of geranium                           1/2 fluidounce

Magnesium carbonate                       8 ounces


Triturate the oils with the magnesia, add gradually Percolate No. 2, and set aside. Then place Percolate No. 1 in a large bottle, add 3 1/4 pounds of finely powdered pumice stone, and shake at intervals of half an hour for six hours. This being completed, add the mixture of oils, and later 10 pints of water, in quantities of 1/2 a pint at a time, shaking vigorously after each solution. Let the mixture stand for 24 hours, shaking it at intervals, and then pass it through a double filter. Finally add enough water through the filter to make the product measure 24 pints, or 3 gallons.


III.  (To be used in proportion of 3 ounces to 1 gallon of syrup.)


Ginger, in moderately fine powder         8 pounds

Capsicum, in moderately fine powder       2 pounds

Alcohol,                                  q. s.


Mix, moisten with alcohol, and set aside as in the preceding formula; then percolate with alcohol until 10 pints of extract are obtained. To this add oleoresin of ginger 3 drachms, and place in a large bottle. Add 2$ pounds of powdered pumice stone, and shake as directed for formula No. 1. Then add 14 pints of water, in quantities of 1 pint at a time, shaking vigorously after each addition. Set the mixture aside for 24 hours, shaking at intervals. Then take:


Oil of lemon                              1 1/2 fluidounces

Oil of geranium                           1/2 fluidounce

Oil of cinnamon                           3 fluidrachms

Magnesia carbonate                        3 ounces


Rub these in a mortar with the magnesia, and add 9 ounces of the clear portion of the ginger mixture mixed with 2 ounces of alcohol, rubbing the mixture until it becomes smooth. Prepare a double filter, and filter the ginger mixture, adding through the filter the mixture of oils and magnesia. Finally add enough water through the filter to make the final product measure 24 pints, or 3 gallons.


If these formulas are properly manipulated the extracts should keep for a reasonable length of time without a precipitate. If, however, a precipitate occur after the extract has stood for a week, it should be refiltered.




Lemonade Preparations for the Sick.


I.    Strawberry Lemonade: Citric acid, 6 parts; water, 100 parts; sugar, 450 parts; strawberry syrup, 600 parts; cherry syrup, 300 parts; claret, 450 parts; aromatic tincture, ad lib.


II.   Lemonade Powder: Sodium bicarbonate, 65; tartaric acid, 60; sugar, 125; lemon oil, 12 drops.


III.  Lemonade juice: Sugar syrup, 200; tartaric acid, 15; distilled water, 100; lemon oil, 3; tincture of vanilla, 6 drops.


IV.   Lemonade Lozenges: Tartaric acid, 10; sugar, 30; gum arabic, 2; powdered starch, 0.5; lemon oil, 6 drops; tincture of vanilla, 25 drops; and sufficient diluted spirit of wine so that 30 lozenges can be made with it.


Lemonade for Diabetics. The following is said to be useful for assuaging the thirst of diabetics:






Citric acid                         1 part

Glycerine                           50 parts

Cognac                              50 parts

Distilled water                     500 parts


Hot Lemonade. Take 2 large, fresh lemons, and wash them clean with cold water. Roll them until soft; then divide each into halves, and use a lemon-squeezer or reamer to express the juice into a small pitcher. Remove all the seeds from the juice, to which add 4 or more tablespoonfuls of white sugar, according to taste. A pint of boiling water is now added, and the mixture stirred until the sugar is dissolved. The beverage is very effective in producing perspiration, and should be drunk while hot. The same formula may be used for making cold lemonade, by substituting ice water for the hot water, and adding a piece of lemon peel. If desired, a weaker lemonade may be made by using more water.


Lemonades, Lemon and Sour Drinks for Soda-Water Fountains. Plain Lemonade. Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; filtered water, sufficient; shaved ice, sufficient.


Mix and shake well. Garnish with fruit, and serve with both spoon and straws.


Huyler's Lemonade. Juice of 1 lemon; simple syrup, 2 ounces; soda water, sufficient. Dress with sliced pineapple, and serve with straws. In mixing, do not shake, but stir with a spoon.


Pineapple Lemonade. Juice of 1 lemon; pineapple syrup, 2 ounces; soda water, sufficient. Dress with fruit. Serve with straws.


Seltzer Lemonade. Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls. Fill with seltzer. Dress with sliced lemon.


Apollinaris Lemonade. The same as seltzer, substituting apollinaris water for seltzer.


Limeade. Juice of 1 lime; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; water, sufficient. Where fresh limes are not obtainable, use bottled lime juice.


Orangeade. Juice of 1 orange; pulverized sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; water, sufficient; shaved ice, sufficient. Dress with sliced orange and cherries. Serve with straws.


Seltzer and Lemon. Juice of 1 lemon; seltzer, sufficient. Serve in a small glass.


Claret Lemonade. Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 3 teaspoonfuls. Make lemonade, pour into a glass containing shaved ice until the glass lacks about one inch of being full. Pour in sufficient claret to fill the glass. Dress with cherries and sliced pineapple.


Claret Punch. Juice of 1 lemon; pulverized sugar, 3 teaspoonfuls; claret wine, 2 ounces; shaved ice, sufficient. Serve in small glass. Dress with sliced lemon, and fruit in season. Bright red cherries and plums make attractive garnishings.


Raspberry Lemonade.


I.    Juice of 1 lemon; 3 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar; 1 tablespoonful raspberry juice; shaved ice; plain water; shake.


II.   Juice of 1 lemon; 2 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar; $ ounce raspberry

syrup; shaved ice; water; shake.


Banjo Sour. Pare a lemon, cut it in two, add a large tablespoonful of sugar, then thoroughly muddle it; add the white of an egg; an ounce of sloe gin; 3 or 4 dashes of abricotine; shake well; strain into a goblet or fizz glass, and fill balance with soda; decorate with a slice of pineapple and cherry.


Orgeat Punch. Orgeat syrup, 12 drachms; brandy, 1 ounce; juice of 1



Granola. Orange syrup, 1 ounce; grape syrup, 1 ounce; juice of 1/2 lemon; shaved ice, q. s. Serve with straws. Dress with sliced lemon or pineapple.


American Lemonade. One ounce orange syrup; 1 ounce lemon syrup; 1 teaspoonful powdered sugar; 1 dash acidphosphate solution; 1/3 glass shaved ice. Fill with coarse stream. Add slice of orange, and run two straws through it.


Old-Fashioned Lemonade. Put in a freezer and freeze almost hard, then add the fruits, and freeze very hard. Serve in a silver sherbet cup.


"Ping Pong" Frappé. Grape juice, unfermented, 1 quart; port wine (California), 1/2 pint; lemon syrup, 12 ounces; pineapple syrup, 2 ounces; orange syrup, 4 ounces; Benedictine cordial, 4 ounces; sugar, 1 pound.


Dissolve sugar in grape juice and put in wine; add the syrup and cordial; serve from a punch bowl, with ladle, into 12-ounce narrow lemonade glass and fill with solid stream; garnish with slice of orange and pineapple, and serve with straw.


Orange Frappé. Glass half full of fine ice; tablespoonful powdered sugar; 1/2 ounce orange syrup; 2 dashes lemon syrup; dash prepared raspberry; 1/4 ounce






acid-phosphate solution. Fill with soda and stir well; strain into a mineral glass and serve.


Hot Lemonades.



Lemon essence                       4 fluidrachms

Solution of citric acid             1 fluidounce

Syrup,                              enough to make 32 fluidounces


In serving, draw 2 1/2 fluidounces of the syrup into an 8-ounce mug, fill with hot water, and serve with a spoon.



Lemon.                              1

Alcohol                             1 fluidounce

Solution of citric acid             2 fluidrachms

Sugar                               20 av. ounces

Water                               20 fluidounces

White of 1 egg


Grate the peel of the lemon, macerate with the alcohol for a day; express; also express the lemon, mix the two, add the sugar and water, dissolve by agitation, and add the solution of citric acid and the white of egg, the latter first beaten to a froth. Serve like the preceding.


Egg Lemonade.


I.    Break 1 egg into a soda glass, add 1 1/4 ounces lemon syrup, a drachm of lemon juice, and a little shaved ice; then draw carbonated water to fill the glass, stirring well.



Shaved ice                          1/2 tumblerful

Powdered sugar                      4 tablespoonfuls

Juice of 1 lemon

Yolk of 1 egg


Shake well, and add carbonated water to fill the glass.






I.    This may be prepared in two ways, from the powdered cocoa or from a syrup. To prepare the cocoa for use, dry mix with an equal quantity of pulverized sugar and use a heaping teaspoonful to a mug. To prepare a syrup, take 12 ounces of cocoa, 5 pints of water, and 4 pounds of sugar. Reduce the cocoa to a smooth paste with a little warm water. Put on the fire. When the water becomes hot add the paste, and then allow to boil for 3 or 4 minutes; remove from fire and add the sugar; stir carefully while heating, to prevent scorching; when cold add 3 drachms of vanilla; to I ounce will suffice for a cup of chocolate; top off with whipped cream.



Baker's fountain chocolate          1 pound

Syrup                               1 gallon

Extract vanilla                     enough


Shave the chocolate into a gallon porcelained evaporating dish and melt with a gentle heat, stirring with a thin-bladed spatula. When melted remove from the fire and add 1 ounce of cold water, mixing well. Add gradually 1 gallon of hot syrup and strain; flavor to suit. Use 1 ounce to a mug.


III.  Hot Egg Chocolate. Break a fresh egg into a soda tumbler; add 1 1/2 ounces chocolate syrup and 1 ounce cream; shake thoroughly, add hot soda slowly into the shaker, stirring meanwhile; strain carefully into mug; top off with whipped cream and serve.


IV.   Hot Chocolate and Milk.


Chocolate syrup         1 ounce

Hot milk                4 ounces


Stir well, fill mug with hot soda and serve.


V.    Hot Egg Chocolate. One egg, 1 1/4 ounces chocolate syrup, 1 teaspoonful sweet cream; shake, strain, add 1 cup hot soda, and 1 tablespoonful whipped cream.




I.    Make an extract by macerating 1 pound of the best Mocha and Java with 8 ounces of water for 20 minutes, then add hot water enough to percolate 1 pint. One or 2 drachms of this extract will make a delicious cup of coffee. Serve either with or without cream, and let customer sweeten to taste.


II.   Pack 1/2 pound of pulverized coffee in a percolator. Percolate with 2 quarts of boiling water, letting it run through twice. Add to this 2 quarts of milk; keep hot in an urn and draw as a finished drink. Add a lump of sugar and top off with whipped cream.


III.  Coffee syrup may be made by adding boiling water from the apparatus to 1 pound of coffee, placed in a suitable filter or coffeepot, until 2 quarts of the infusion are obtained. Add to this 3 pounds of sugar. In dispensing, first put sufficient cream in the cup, add the coffee, then sweeten, if necessary, and mix with the stream from the draught tube.



Mocha coffee (ground fine)          4 ounces

Java coffee (ground fine)           4 ounces

Granulated sugar                    6 pounds

Hot water                           q. s.


Percolate the coffee with hot water until the percolate measures 72 ounces. Dissolve the sugar in the percolate by agitation without heat and strain.


Hot Egg Orangeade. One egg; juice






of 1/2 orange; 2 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar. Shake, strain, add 1 cup of hot water. Stir, serve with nutmeg.


Hot Egg Bouillon. One-half ounce liquid extract beef; 1 egg; salt and pepper; hot water to fill 8-ounce mug. Stir extract, egg, and seasoning together; add water, still stirring; strain and serve.


Hot Celery Punch. One-quarter ounce of clam juice; 1/4 ounce beef extract; 1 ounce of cream; 4 dashes of celery essence. Stir while adding hot water, and serve with spices.


Chicken Bouillon. Two ounces concentrated chicken; 1/2 ounce sweet cream and spice. Stir while adding hot water.




Fluid extract of ginger             2 1/2 ounces

Sugar                               40 ounces

Water, to                           2 1/2 pints


Take 10 ounces of the sugar and mix with the fluid extract of ginger; heat on the water bath until the alcohol is evaporated. Then mix with 20 ounces of water and shake till dissolved. Filter and add the balance of the water and the sugar. Dissolve by agitation.


Cocoa Syrup.



Cocoa, light, soluble               4 ounces

Granulated sugar                    2 pounds

Boiling hot water                   1 quart

Extract vanilla                     1 ounce


Dissolve the cocoa in the hot water, by stirring, then add the sugar and dissolve. Strain, and when cold add the vanilla extract.



Cocoa syrup                         2 ounces

Cream                               1 ounce


Turn on the hot water stream and stir while filling. Top off with whipped cream.


Hot Soda Toddy.


Lemon juice                         2 fluidrachms

Lemon syrup                         1 fluidounce

Aromatic bitters                    1 fluidrachm

Hot water,                          enough to fill an 8-ounce mug.


Sprinkle with nutmeg or cinnamon.


Hot Orange Phosphate.


Orange syrup                        1 fluidounce

Solution of acid phosphate          1 fluidrachm

Hot water,                          enough to fill an 8-ounce mug.


It is prepared more acceptably by mixing the juice of half an orange with acid phosphate, sugar, and hot water.


Pepsin Phosphate. One teaspoonful of liquid pepsin; 2 dashes of acid phosphate; 1 ounce of lemon syrup; 1 cup hot water.


Cream Beef Tea. Use 1 teaspoonful of liquid beef extract in a mug of hot water, season with salt and pepper, then stir in a tablespoonful of rich cream. Put a teaspoonful of whipped cream on top and serve with flakes.


Cherry Phosphate.  Cherry-phosphate syrup, 1 1/2 ounces; hot water to make 8 ounces.


Cherry-phosphate syrup is made as follows: Cherry juice, 3 pints; sugar, 6 pounds; water, 1 pint; acid phosphate, 4 ounces. Bring to a boil, and when cool add the acid phosphate.


Celery Clam Punch. Clam juice, 2 drachms; beef extract, 1 drachm; cream, 1 ounce; essence of celery, 5 drops; hot water to make 8 ounces.


Claret Punch. Claret wine, 2 ounces; sugar, 3 teaspoonfuls; juice of 1/2 lemon; hot water to make 8 ounces.


Ginger. Extract of ginger, 2 drachms; sugar, 2 drachms; lemon juice, 2 dashes; hot water to make 8 ounces.


Lemon Juice, Plain. Fresh lemon juice, 2 1/2 drachms; lemon syrup, 1 ounce; hot water, q. s. to make 8 ounces.


Lime Juice. Lime juice, 3/4 drachm; lemon syrup, 1 ounce; hot water to make 8 ounces. Mix. Eberle remarks that lemon juice or lime juice enters into many combinations. In plain soda it may be combined with ginger and other flavors, as, for instance, chocolate and coffee.


Lemonade. Juice of 1 lemon; powdered sugar, 2 teaspoonfuls; hot water to make 8 ounces. A small piece of fresh lemon peel twisted over the cup lends an added flavor.


Hot Malt. Extract of malt, 1 ounce; cherry syrup, 1 ounce; hot water, sufficient to make 8 ounces. Mix.     


Malted Milk. Horlick's malted milk, 2 tablespoonfuls; hot water, quantity sufficient to make 8 ounces; flavoring to suit. Mix.   Essence of coffee, chocolate, etc., and many of the fruit syrups go well with malted milk.


Hot Malted Milk Coffee (or Chocolate). Malted milk, 2 teaspoonfuls; coffee (or chocolate) syrup, 1 ounce; hot water, quantity sufficient to make 8 ounces.


Hot Beef Tea.


I.    Best beef extract, 1 tablespoonfui; sweet cream, 1 ounce; hot






water, 7 ounces; pepper, salt, etc., quantity sufficient. Mix.   


II.   Extract beef bouillon, 1 teaspoonful; extract aromatic soup herbs (see Condiments), 10 drops; hot soda, 1 cupful. Mix.    



Extract of beef                     1 teaspoonful

Hot water                           q. s.

Pepper, salt, and celery salt.




Hot Bouillon.


Beef extract                        1 ounce

Hot water,                          q. s. to make 8 ounces

Pepper, salt, etc                   q. s.




Clam Bouillon.



Clam juice                          12 drachms

Cream                               2 ounces

Hot water,                          q. s. to make 8 ounces





Extract clam bouillon               2 ounces

Prepared milk                       2 drachms

Extract of aromatic soup herbs      5 drops

Extract white pepper                5 drops

Hot soda                            1 cupful




III.  Clam juice may be served with hot water, salt and pepper added. Adding butter makes this bouillon a broth.


It may also be served with milk or cream, lemon juice, tomato catsup, etc. Hot oyster juice may be served in the same way.


Hot Tea.



Tea syrup               sufficient

Hot water,              q. s. to make 1 cupful



Loaf sugar             4 cubes

Extract of Oolong tea,

  about                 1 dessertsp'ful

Prepared milk, about    1 dessertsp'ful

Hot soda                1 cupful

Whipped cream           1 tablespoonful


Mix the tea extract, sugar, and prepared milk, pour on water, and dissolve. Top off with whipped cream.


Hot Egg Drinks.


I.    One-half to 1 ounce liquid extract of beef, 1 egg, salt and pepper to season, hot water to fill an 8-ounce mug. Stir the extract, egg, and seasoning together with a spoon, to get well mixed, add the water, stirring briskly meanwhile; then strain, and serve. Or shake the egg and extract in a shaker, add the water, and mix by pouring back and forth several times, from shaker to mug.


II.   Hot Egg Chocolate. One to 1 1/2 ounces chocolate syrup, 1 egg, 1/2 ounce cream, hot water sufficient to fill an 8-ounce mug.


Mix the syrup, egg, and cream together in an egg-shaker; shake as in making cold drinks; add the hot water, and mix all by pouring back and forth several times, from shaker to mug. Or, prepare by beating the egg with a spoon, add the syrup and cream, mix all quickly with the spoon, and add hot water, stirring constantly, and strain.


III.  Hot Egg Coffee. One egg, 1 dessertspoonful extract of coffee, 1 teaspoonful sweet cream, 1 ounce syrup. Shake well, strain, and add 1 cupful hot water and top with whipped cream.


IV.   Hot Egg Lemonade. One egg, juice of 1 lemon, 3 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar. Beat the egg with lemon juice and sugar thoroughly. Mix while adding the water. Serve grated nutmeg and cinnamon. The amount of lemon juice and sugar may be varied to suit different tastes.


V.    Hot Egg Milk. Two teaspoonfuls sugar, 1 ounce cream, 1 egg, hot milk to fill an 8-ounce mug. Prepare as in hot egg chocolate, top with whipped cream, and sprinkle with nutmeg. If there are no facilities for keeping hot milk, use about 2 ounces of cream, and fill mug with hot water.


VI.   Hot Egg Nogg. Plain syrup, 3/4 ounce; brandy, 1/2 ounce; Angostura bitters, 3 drops; 1 egg. Put in shaker and beat well. Strain in 10-ounce mug, and fill with hot milk; finish with whipped cream and nutmeg.


VII.  Hot Egg Phosphate. Two ounces lemon syrup, 1 egg, 1/2 ounce solution of acid phosphate. Mix in a glass, and shake together thoroughly; pour into another glass, heated previously, and slowly draw full of hot water; season with nutmeg.


VIII. Hot Egg Phosphate. Break fresh egg into shaker and add 1/2 ounce pineapple syrup, 1/2 ounce orange syrup, 1 dash phosphate. Shake, without ice, and pour into bouillon cup. Draw cupful of hot water, sprinkle a touch of cinnamon, and serve with wafers.




Coffee Cream Soda. Serve in a 12-ounce glass. Draw 1 1/2 ounces of syrup and 1 ounce of cream. Into the shaker draw 8 ounces of carbonated water, pour into the glass sufficient to fill it to within






1 inch of the top; pour from glass to shaker and back, once or twice, to mix thoroughly; give the drink a rich, creamy appearance, and make it cream sufficiently to fill the glass.


Iced Coffee. Serve in a 10-ounce glass. Draw 1 ounce into glass, fill nearly full with ice-cold milk, and mix by stirring.


Egg Malted Milk Coffee. Prepare same as, malted milk coffee, with the exception of adding the egg before shaking, and top off with a little nutmeg, if desired. This drink is sometimes called coffee light lunch.


Coffee Frappé. Serve in a 12-ounce glass. Coffee syrup, 1 1/2 ounces; white of 1 egg; 1 to 1 1/2 ounces of pure, rich, sweet cream; a small portion of fine shaved ice; shake thoroughly to beat the white of the egg light, and then remove the glass, leaving the contents in the shaker. Now fill the shaker two-thirds full, using the fine stream only. Draw as quickly as possible that the drink may be nice and light. Now pour into glass and back, and then strain into a clean glass. Serve at once, and without straws. This should be drunk at once, else it will settle, and lose its lightness and richness.


Coffee Nogg.


Coffee syrup                        2 ounces

Brandy                              4 drachms

Cream                               2 ounces

One egg.


Coffee Cocktail.


Coffee syrup                        1 ounce

One egg.

Port wine                           1 ounce

Brandy                              2 drachms


Shake, strain into a small glass, and add soda. Mace on top.


Chocolate and Milk.


Chocolate syrup         2 ounces

Sweet milk,             sufficient.


Fill a glass half full of shaved ice, put in the syrup, and add milk until the glass is almost full. Shake well, and serve without straining. Put whipped cream on top and serve with straws.


Chocolate Frappé.


Frozen whipped cream,   sufficient.

Shaved ice,             sufficient.


Fill a glass half full of frozen whipped cream, fill with shaved ice nearly to the top, and pour in chocolate syrup. Other syrups may be used, it desired.


Royal Frappé. This drink consists of 3 parts black coffee and 1 part of brandy, frozen in a cooler, and served while in a semifrozen state.


Mint Julep. One-half tumbler shaved ice, teaspoonful powdered sugar, dash lemon juice, 2 or 3 sprigs of fresh mint. Crush the mint against side of the glass to get the flavor. Then add claret syrup, 1/2 ounce; raspberry syrup, 1 1/2 ounces; and draw carbonated water nearly to fill

glass. Insert bunch of mint and fill glass, leaving full of shaved ice. Serve with straws, and decorate with fruits of the season.


Grape Glace. Beat thoroughly the whites of 4 eggs and stir in 1 pound of powdered sugar, then add 1 pint grape juice, 1 pint water, and 1 pound more of powdered sugar. Stir well until sugar is dissolved, and serve from a pitcher or glass dish, with ladle.


"Golf Goblet."  Serve in a 12-ounce glass; fill two-thirds full of cracked ice, add 1/2 ounce pineapple juice, 1 teaspoonful lemon juice, 1 teaspoonful raspberry vinegar. Put spoon in glass, and fill to within one-half inch of top with carbonated water; add shaved ice, heaping full. Put strawberry or cherry on top, and stick slice of orange down side of glass. Serve with spoon and straws.


Goldenade. Shaved ice, tumblerful; powdered sugar; juice of 1 lemon; yolk of 1 egg. Shake well, add soda water from large stream, turn from tumbler to shaker, and vice versa, several times, and strain through julep strainer into a 12-ounce tumbler.


Lunar Blend. Take two mixing glasses, break an egg, putting the yolk in one glass, the white into the other; into the glass with the yolk add 1 ounce cherry syrup and some cracked ice; shake, add small quantity soda, and strain into a 12-ounce glass. Into the other mixing glass add 1 ounce plain sweet cream, and beat with bar spoons until well whipped; add 1/2 ounce lemon syrup, then transfer it into the shaker, and add soda from fine stream only, and float on top of the one containing the yolk and sherry. Serve with two straws.


Egg Chocolate.


Chocolate syrup                     2 ounces

Cream                               4 ounces

White of one egg.






Egg Creme de Menthe.


Mint syrup                          12 drachms

Cream                               3 ounces

White of one egg.

Whisky                              4 drachms


Egg Sherbet.


Sherry syrup                        4 drachms

Pineapple syrup                     4 drachms

Raspberry syrup                     4 drachms

One egg.



Egg Claret.


Claret syrup                        2 ounces

Cream                               3 ounces

One egg.


Royal Mist.


Orange syrup                        1 ounce

Catawba syrup                       1 ounce

Cream                               2 ounces

One egg.


Banana Cream.


Banana syrup                        12 drachms

Cream                               4 ounces

One egg.


Egg Coffee.


Coffee syrup                        2 ounces

Cream                               3 ounces

One egg.

Shaved ice.


Cocoa Mint.


Chocolate syrup                     1 ounce

Peppermint syrup                    1 ounce

White of one egg.

Cream                               2 ounces


The peppermint syrup is made as follows:


Oil of peppermint                   30 minims

Syrup simplex                       1 gallon

Soda foam                           1 ounce


Egg Lemonade.


Juice of one lemon.

Pulverized sugar                    3 teasp'fuls

One egg.

Water, q.s.


Shake well, using plenty of ice, and serve in a small glass.




Raspberry juice                     1 ounce

Pineapple syrup                     1 ounce

One egg.

Cream                               2 ounces


Siberian Flip.


Orange syrup                        1 ounce

Pineapple syrup                     1 ounce

One egg.

Cream                               2 ounces


Egg Orgeat.


Orgeat syrup                        12 drachms

Cream                               3 ounces

One egg.




Peach syrup                         1 ounce

Grape syrup                         3 ounces

Brandy                              2 drachms

One egg.


Silver Fizz.


Catawba syrup                       2 ounces

Holland gin                         2 drachms

Lemon juice                         8 dashes

White of one egg.


Golden Fizz.


Claret syrup                        2 ounces

Holland gin                         1/4 ounce

Lemon juice                         8 dashes

Yolk of one egg.


Rose Cream.


Rose syrup                          12 drachms

Cream                               4 ounces

White of one egg.


Violet Cream.


Violet syrup                        12 drachms

Cream                               4 ounces

White of one egg.


Rose Mint.


Rose syrup                          6 drachms

Mint syrup                          6 drachms

Cream                               3 ounces

White of one egg.


Currant Cream.


Red-currant syrup                   2 ounces

Cream                               3 ounces         

One egg.


Quince Flip.


Quince syrup                        2 ounces

Cream                               3 ounces

One egg.

Shaved ice.


Coffee Nogg.


Coffee syrup                        2 ounces

Brandy                              4 drachms

Cream                               2 ounces

One egg.


Egg Sour.


Juice of one lemon.

Simple syrup                        12 drachms

One egg.


Shake, strain, and fill with soda. Mace on top.






Lemon Sour.


Lemon syrup                         12 drachms

Juice of one lemon.

One egg.


Raspberry Sour.


Raspberry syrup                     12 drachms

One egg. 

Juice of one lemon.




One egg                            

Cream                               2 ounces

Sugar                               2 teaspoonfuls

Jamaica rum.                        1/2 ounce


Shake well, put into cup, and add hot water. Serve with whipped cream, and sprinkle mace on top.


Prairie Oyster.


Cider vinegar                       2 ounces

One egg.


Put vinegar into glass, and break into it the egg. Season with salt and pepper. Serve without mixing.


Fruit Frappé.


Granulated gelatin                  1 ounce

Juice of six lemons.

Beaten whites of two eggs.

Water                               5 quarts

Syrup                               1 quart

Maraschino cherries                 8 ounces

Sliced peach                        4 ounces

Sliced pineapple                    4 ounces

Whole strawberries                  4 ounces

Sliced orange                       4 ounces


Dissolve the gelatin in 1 quart boiling hot water; add the syrup and the balance of the water; add the whites of the eggs and lemon juice.




The original koumiss is the Russian, made from mare's milk, while that produced in this country and other parts of Europe is usually, probably always, made from cow's milk. For this reason there is a difference in the preparation which may or may not be of consequence. It has been asserted that the ferment used in Russia differs from ordinary yeast, but this has not been established.


In an article on this subject, contributed by D. H. Davies to the Pharmaceutical Journal and Transactions, it is pointed out that mare's milk contains less casein and fatty matter than cow's milk, and he states that it is "therefore far more easy of digestion." He thinks that cow's milk yields a better preparation when diluted with water to reduce the percentage of casein, etc. He proposes the following formula:


Fresh milk                          12 ounces

Water                               4 ounces

Brown sugar                         150 grains

Compressed yeast                    24 grains

Milk sugar                          3 drachms


Dissolve the milk sugar in the water, add to the milk, rub the yeast and brown sugar down in a mortar with a little of the mixture, then strain into the other portion.


Strong bottles are very essential, champagne bottles being frequently used, and the corks should fit tightly; in fact, it is almost necessary to use a bottling machine for the purpose, and once the cork is properly fixed it should be wired down. Many failures have resulted because the corks did not fit properly, the result being that the carbon dioxide escaped as formed and left a worthless preparation.

It is further necessary to keep the preparation at a moderate temperature, and to be sure that the article is properly finished the operator should gently shake the bottles each day for about 10 minutes to prevent the clotting of the casein. It is well to take the precaution of rolling a cloth around the bottle during the shaking process, as the amount of gas generated is great, and should the bottle be weak it might explode.


Kogelman says that if 1 volume of buttermilk be mixed with 1 or 2 volumes of sweet milk, in a short time lively fermentation sets in, and in about 3 days the work is completed. This, according to the author, produces a wine-scented fluid, rich in alcohol, carbon dioxide, lactic acid, and casein, which, according to all investigations yet made, is identical with koumiss. The following practical hints are given for the production of a good article: The sweet milk used should not be entirely freed from cream; the bottles should be of strong glass; the fermenting milk must be industriously shaken by the operator at least 3 times a day, and then the cork put in firmly, so that the fluid will become well charged with carbon-dioxide gas; the bottles must be daily opened and at least twice each day brought nearly to a horizontal position, in order to allow the carbon dioxide to escape and air to enter; otherwise fermentation rapidly ceases, If a drink is desired strong in carbonic acid, the bottles, toward the end of fermentation, should be placed with the necks down. In order to ferment a fresh quantity of milk, simply add 1/3 of its volume of either actively fermenting or freshly fermented milk. The temperature should be from 50º to 60º F., about 60º being the most favorable.






Here are some miscellaneous formulas:


I.    Fill a quart champagne bottle up to the neck with pure milk; add 2 tablespoonfuls of white sugar, after dissolving the same in a little water over a hot fire; add also a quarter of a 2-cent cake of compressed yeast. Then tie the cork in the bottle securely, and shake the mixture well; place it in a room of the temperature of 50º to 95º F. for 6 hours, and finally in the ice box over night. Handle wrapped in a towel as protection if the bottle should burst. Be sure that the milk is pure, that the bottle is sound, that the yeast is fresh, to open the mixture in the morning with great care, on account of its effervescent properties; and be sure not to drink it at all if there is any curdle or thickening part resembling cheese, as this indicates that the fermentation has been prolonged beyond the proper time.


II.   Dilute the milk with 1/6 part of hot water, and while still tepid add 1/8 of very sour (but otherwise good) buttermilk. Put it into a wide jug, cover with a clean cloth, and let stand in a warmish place (about 75º F.) for 24 hours; stir up well, and leave for another 24 hours. Then beat thoroughly together, and pour from jug to jug till perfectly smooth and creamy. It is now "still" koumiss, and may be drunk at once. To make it sparkling, which is generally preferred, put it into champagne or soda-water bottles; do not quite fill them, secure the corks well, and lay them in a cool cellar. It will then keep for 6 or 8 weeks, though it becomes increasingly acid. To mature some for drinking quickly, it is as well to keep a bottle or two to start with in some warmer place, and from time to time shake vigorously. With this treatment it should, in about 3 days, become sufficiently effervescent to spurt freely through a champagne tap, which must be used for drawing it off as required. Later on, when very frothy and acid it is more pleasant to drink if a little sweetened water (or milk and water) is first put into the glass. Shake the bottle, and hold it inverted well into the tumbler before turning the tap. Having made one lot of koumiss as above you can use some of that instead of buttermilk as a ferment for a second lot, and so on 5 or 6 times in succession; after which it will be found advisable to begin again as at first. Mare's milk is the best for koumiss; then ass's milk. Cow's milk may be made more like them by adding a little sugar of milk (or even loaf sugar) with the hot water before fermenting. But perhaps the chief drawback to cow's milk is that the cream separates permanently, whereas that of mare's milk will remix. Hence use partially skimmed milk; for if there is much cream it only forms little lumps of butter, which are apt to clog the tap, or are left behind in the bottle.


Kwass. Kwass is a popular drink among the Russian population of Kunzews, prepared as follows: In a big kettle put from 13 to 15 quarts of water, and bring to a boil, and when in active ebullition pour in 500 grams of malt. Let boil for 20 minutes, remove from the fire, let cool down, and strain off. The liquid is now put into a clean keg or barrel, 30 grams (about an ounce) of best compressed yeast added along with about 600 grams (20 ounces) of sugar, and the cask is put in a warm place to ferment. As soon as bubbles of carbonic gas are detected on the surface of the liquid, it is a signal that the latter is ready for bottling. In each of the bottles, which should be strong and clean, put one big raisin, fill, cork, and wire down. The bottles should be placed on the side, and in the coolest place available best, on ice.

The liquor is ready for drinking in from 2 to 3 days, and is said to be most palatable.


"Braga." Braga is a liquid of milky turbidity, resembling cafe au lait in color, and forming a considerable precipitate if left alone. When shaken it sparkles and a little gas escapes. Its taste is more or less acid, possessing a pleasant flavor.


About 35 parts of crushed millet, to which a little wheat flour is added, are placed in a large kettle. On this about 400 parts of water are poured. The mixture is stirred well and boiled for 3 hours. After settling for 1 hour the lost water is renewed and the boiling continued for another 10 hours. A viscous mass remains in the kettle, which substance is spread upon large tables to cool. After it is perfectly cool, it is stirred with water in a wooden trough and left to ferment for 8 hours. This pulp is sifted, mixed with a little water, and after an hour the braga is ready for sale. The taste is a little sweetish at first, but becomes more and more sourish in time. Fermentation begins only in the trough.




Campchello. Thoroughly beat the yolks of 12 fresh eggs with 2 1/4 pounds finely powdered, refined sugar, the juice






of 3 lemons and 2 oranges, and 3 bottles of Graves or other white wine, over the fire, until rising. Remove, and slowly beat 1 bottle of Jamaica rum with it.


Egg Wine. Vigorously beat 4 whole eggs and the yolks of 4 with 1/2 pound of fine sugar; next add 2 quarts of white wine and beat over a moderate fire until rising.


Bavaroise au Cognac. Beat up the yolks of 8 eggs in 1 quart of good milk over the fire, until boiling, then quickly add 5 ounces of sugar and 1/8 quart of fine cognac.


Bavaroise au Cafe. Heat 1 pint of strong coffee and 1 pint of milk, 5 ounces of sugar, and the yolks of 8 eggs, until boiling, then add 1/16 quart of Jamaica rum.


Carbonated Pineapple Champagne.


Plain syrup, 42º                    10 gallons

Essence of pineapple                8 drachms

Tincture of lemon                   5 ounces

Carbonate of magnesia               1 ounce

Liquid saffron                      2 1/2 ounces

Citric-acid solution                30 ounces

Caramel                             2 1/2 ounces


Filter before adding the citric-acid solution and limejuice. Use 2 ounces to each bottle.


A German Drink. To 100 parts of water add from 10 to 15 parts of sugar, dissolve and add to the syrup thus formed an aqueous extract of 0.8 parts of green or black tea. Add fresh beer or brewers' yeast, put in a warm place and let ferment. When fermentation has progressed to a certain point the liquid is cleared, and then bottled, corked, and the corks tied down. The drink is said to be very pleasant.


Limejuice Cordial. Limejuice cordial that will keep good for any length of time may be made as follows: Sugar, 6 pounds; water, 4 pints; citric acid, 4 ounces; boric acid, 1/2 ounce. Dissolve by the aid of a gentle heat, and when cold add refined limejuice, 60 ounces; tincture of lemon peel, 4 ounces; water to make up to 2 gallons, and color with caramel.


Summer Drink.


Chopped ice                         2 tablespoonfuls

Chocolate syrup                     2 tablespoonfuls

Whipped cream                       3 tablespoonfuls

Milk                                1/2 cup

Carbonated water                    1/4 cup


Shake or stir well before drinking. A tablespoonful of vanilla ice cream is a desirable addition. A plainer drink is made by combining the syrup, 3/4 cup of milk, and the ice, and shaking well.


American Champagne. Good cider (crab-apple cider is the best), 7 gallons; best fourth-proof brandy, 1 quart; genuine champagne wine, 5 pints; milk, 1 gallon; bitartrate of potassa, 2 ounces. Mix, let stand a short time; bottle while fermenting. An excellent imitation.


British Champagne. Loaf sugar, 56 pounds; brown sugar (pale), 48 pounds; water (warm), 45 gallons; white tartar, 4 ounces; mix, and at a proper temperature add yeast, 1 quart; and afterwards sweet cider, 5 gallons; bruised wild cherries, 14 or 15 ounces; pale spirits, 1 gallon; orris powder, 1/2 ounce. Bottle while fermenting.


Champagne Cider. Good pale cider, 1 hogshead; spirits, 3 gallons; sugar, 20 pounds; mix, and let it stand one fortnight; then fine with skimmed milk, 1/2 gallon; this will be very pale, and a similar article, when properly bottled and labeled, opens so briskly that even good judges have mistaken it for genuine champagne.




Scotch Beer. Add 1 peck malt to 4 gallons of boiling water and let it mash for 8 hours, and then strain, and in the strained liquor boil:


Hops                                4 ounces

Coriander seeds                     1 ounce

Honey                               1 pound

Orange peel                         2 ounces

Bruised ginger                      1 ounce


Boil for half an hour, then strain and ferment in the usual way.


Hop Bitter Beer.


Coriander seeds                     2 ounces

Orange peel                         4 ounces

Ginger                              1 ounce

Gentian root                        1/2 ounce


Boil in 5 gallons of water for half an hour, then strain and put into the liquor 4 ounces hops and 3 pounds of sugar, and simmer for 15 minutes, then add sufficient yeast, and bottle when ready.


Sarsaparilla Beer.


I.    Compound extract of sarsaparilla, 1 1/2 ounces; hot water, 1 pint; dissolve, and when cold, add of good pale or East India ale, 7 pints.


II.   Sarsaparilla (sliced), 1 pound; guaiacum bark (bruised small), 1/4 pound; guaiacum wood (rasped) and licorice root (sliced), of each, 2 ounces; aniseed (bruised), 1 1/2 ounces; mezereon root-






bark, 1 ounce ; cloves (cut small), 1/4 ounce; moist sugar, 3 1/2 pounds; hot water (not boiling), 9 quarts; mix in a clean stone jar, and keep it in a moderately warm room (shaking it twice or thrice daily) until active fermentation sets in, then let it repose for about a week, when it will be ready for use. This is said to be superior to the other preparations of sarsaparilla as an alterative or purifier of the blood, particularly in old affections. That usually made has generally only 1/2 of the above quantity of sugar, for which molasses is often substituted; but in either case it will not keep well; whereas, with proper caution, the products of the above formulas may

be kept for 1 or even 2 years. No yeast must be used. Dose: A small

tumblerful 3 or 4 times a day, or oftener.


Spruce Beer.


I.    Sugar, 1 pound; essence of spruce, 1/2 ounce; boiling water, 1 gallon; mix well, and when nearly cold add of yeast 1/2 wineglassful; and the next day bottle like ginger beer.


II.   Essence of spruce, 1/2 pint; pimento and ginger (bruised), of each, 5 ounces; hops, 1/2 pound; water, 3 gallons; boil the whole for 10 minutes, then add of moist sugar, 12 pounds (or good molasses, 14 pounds); warm water, 11 gallons; mix well, and, when only lukewarm, further add of yeast, 1 pint; after the liquid has fermented for about 24 hours, bottle it.


This is diuretic and antiscorbutic. It is regarded as an agreeable summer drink, and often found useful during long sea voyages. When made with lump sugar it is called White Spruce Beer; when with moist sugar or treacle, Brown Spruce Beer. An inferior sort is made by using less sugar or more water.


Treacle Beer.


I.    From treacle or molasses, 3/4 to 2 pounds per gallon (according to the desired strength); hops, 1/4 to 3/4 ounce; yeast, a tablespoonful; water, q. s.; treated as below.



Hops, 1 1/2 pounds; corianders, 1 ounce; capsicum pods (cut small), 1/2 ounce; water, 8 gallons; boil for 10 or 15 minutes, and strain the liquor through a coarse sieve into a barrel containing treacle, 28 pounds; then throw back the hops, etc., into the copper and reboil them, for 10 minutes, with a second 8 gallons of water, which must be strained into the barrel, as before; next "rummage" the whole well with a stout stick, add of cold water 21 gallons (sufficient to make the whole measure 37 gallons), and, again after mixing, stir in 1/2 pint of good fresh yeast; lastly, let it remain for 24 hours in a moderately warm place, after which it may be put into the cellar, and in 2 or 3 days bottled or tapped on draught. In a week it will be fit to drink. For a stronger beer, 36 pounds, or even half a hundredweight of molasses may be used. It will then keep good for a twelvemonth. This is a wholesome drink, but apt to prove laxative when taken in large quantities.


Weiss Beer. This Differs from the ordinary lager beer in that it contains wheat malt. The proportions are 2/3 wheat to 1/3 barley malt, 1 pound hops being used with a peck of the combined malt to each 20 gallons of water. A good deal depends on the yeast, which must be of a special kind, the best grades being imported from Germany.


Yellow Coloring for Beverages. The coloring agents employed are fustic, saffron, turmeric, quercitron, and the various aniline dyes. Here are some formulas:



Saffron                             1 ounce

Deodorized alcohol                  4 fluidounces

Distilled water                     4 fluidounces


Mix alcohol and water, and then add the saffron. Allow the mixture to stand in a warm place for several days, shaking occasionally; then filter. The tincture thus prepared has a deep orange color, and when diluted or used in small quantities gives a beautiful yellow tint to syrups, etc.



Ground fustic wood                  1 1/2 ounces

Deodorized alcohol                  4 fluidounces

Distilled water                     4 fluidounces


This color may be made in the same manner as the liquid saffron, and is a fine coloring for many purposes.



Turmeric powder                     2 ounces

Alcohol, dilute                     16 ounces


Macerate for several days, agitating frequently, and filter. For some beverages the addition of this tincture is not to be recommended, as it possesses a very spicy taste.


The nonpoisonous aniline dyes recommended for coloring confectionery, beverages, liquors, essences, etc., yellow are those known as acid yellow R and tropaeolin 000 (orange I).



See Adhesives, under Rubber Cements.



See Varnishes.







See Alloys.



See Ivory and Casein.



See Balsam.



See Hair Preparations.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See also Veterinary Formulas.


Mixed Birdseed.


Canary seed                         6 parts

Rape seed                           2 parts

Maw seed                            1 part

Millet seed                         2 parts


Mocking-Bird Food.


Cayenne pepper                      2 ounces

Rape seed                           8 ounces

Hemp seed                           16 ounces

Corn meal                           2 ounces

Rice                                2 ounces

Cracker                             8 ounces

Lard oil                            2 ounces


Mix the solids, grinding to a coarse powder, and incorporate the oil.


Food for Redbirds.


Sunflower seed                      8 ounces

Hemp seed                           16 ounces

Canary seed                         10 ounces

Wheat                               8 ounces

Rice                                6 ounces


Mix and grind to coarse powder.



See Lime.



See Canary-Bird Paste.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Dog Biscuit.



See Alloys.



See Gold.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Waters.



See Leather.



See Shoedressings.



See Stove Blackings and Polishes.



See Cholera Remedy.



See Paint and Varnish.



See Cosmetics.



See Household Formulas.



See Explosives.




Linen. Mix common bleaching powder in the proportion of 1 pound to a gallon of water; stir it occasionally for 3 days, let it settle, and pour it off clear. Then make a lye of 1 pound of soda to 1 gallon of boiling water, in which soak the linen for 12 hours, and boil it half an hour; next soak it in the bleaching liquor, made as above; and lastly, wash it in the usual manner. Discolored linen or muslin may be restored by putting a portion of bleaching liquor into the tub wherein the articles are soaking.




I.    Dip the straw in a solution of oxygenated muriatic acid, saturated with potash. (Cxyerenated muriate of lime is much cheaper.) The straw is thus rendered very white, and its flexibility is increased.


II.   Straw is bleached by simply exposing it in a closed chamber to the fumes of burning sulphur. An old flour barrel is the apparatus most used for the purpose by milliners, a flat stone being laid on the ground, the sulphur ignited thereon, and the barrel containing the goods to be bleached turned over it. The goods should be previously washed in pure water.


Wool, Silk, or Straw. Mix together 4 pounds of oxalic acid, 4 pounds of

table salt, water 50 gallons. The goods are laid in this mixture for 1 hour; they are then generally well bleached, and only require to be thoroughly rinsed and worked. For bleaching straw it is best to soak the goods in caustic soda, and afterwards to make use of chloride of lime or Javelle water. The excess of






chlorine is afterwards removed by hyposulphite of soda.


Feathers. Place the feathers from 3 to 4 hours in a tepid dilute solution of bichromate of potassa, to which, cautiously, some nitric acid has been added (a small quantity only). To remove a greenish hue induced by this solution, place them in a dilute solution of sulphuric acid, in water, whereby the feathers become perfectly white and bleached.


Bleaching Solution. Aluminum hypochloride, or Wilson's bleaching liquid, is produced by adding to a clear solution of lime chloride a solution of aluminum sulphate (alumina, alum) as long as a precipitate keeps forming. By mutual decomposition aluminum chloride results, which remains in solution, and lime sulphate (gypsum), which separates out in the form of an insoluble salt.





Soft soap               40 parts

Amyl alcohol            50 parts

Methylated spirit       20 parts

Water 1,000 parts



Soft soap               30 parts

Sulphureted potash      2 parts

Amyl alcohol            32 parts

Water                   1,000 parts



Soft soap               15 parts

Sulphureted potash      29 parts

Water                   1,000 parts



See Laundry Preparations.



See Photography.



See Styptics.



See Turpentine.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Stone, Artificial.



See Soldering.



See Paper.




To distinguish blue from green at night, use either the light of a magnesium wire for this purpose or take a number of Swedish (parlor) matches, light them, and as soon as they flash up, observe the 2 colors, when the difference can be easily told.



See Dyes.



See Laundry Preparations.



See Steel.




Use a solution of sodium carbonate and water, with a little red ink mixed in. This gives a very pleasing pink color to the changes which, at the same time, is very noticeable. The amount of sodium carbonate used depends upon the surface of the blue-print paper, as some coarse-grained papers will look better if less soda is used and vice versa. However, the amount of powdered soda held on a small coin dissolved in a bottle of water gives good results.



See Photography.



See Photography, under Toning.




Take a piece of soft linen or borated gauze, rub some vaseline upon one side of it, quickly pour upon it some chloroform, apply it to the unopened boil or carbuncle, and place a bandage over all. It smarts a little at first, but this is soon succeeded by a pleasing, cool sensation. The patient is given a bottle of the remedy, and directed to change the cloth often. In from 2 hours to 1 day the boil (no matter how indurated) softens and opens.


Boiler Compounds


There are three chemicals which are known to attack boiler scale. These are caustic soda, soda ash, and tannic-acid compounds, the last being derived from sumac, catechu, and the exhausted bark liquor from tanneries.


Caustic soda in large excess is injurious to boiler fittings, gaskets, valves,






etc. That it is injurious, in reasonable excess, to the boiler tubes themselves is yet to be proved. Foaming and priming may be caused through excess of caustic soda or soda ash, as is well known by every practical engineer. Tannic acid is to be condemned and the use of its salts is not to be recommended. It may unite with the organic matter, present in the form of albuminoids, and with calcium and magnesium carbonates. That it removes scale is an assured fact; that it removes iron with the scale is also assured, as tannic acid corrodes an iron surface rapidly.


Compounds of vegetable origin are widely advertised, but they often contain dextrine and gum, both of which are dangerous, as they coat the tubes with a compact scale, not permitting the water to reach the iron. Molasses is acid and should not be used in the boiler. Starch substances generally should be avoided. Kerosene must be dangerous, as it is very volatile and must soon leave the boiler and pass over and through the engine.


There are two materials the use of which in boilers is not prohibited through action upon the metal itself or on account of price. These are soda ash and caustic soda. Sodium triphosphate and sodium fluoride have both been used with success, but their cost is several hundred per cent greater than soda ash. If prescribed as per analysis, in slight excess, there should be no injurious results through the use of caustic soda and soda ash. It would be practicable to manufacture an intimate mixture of caustic soda and carbonate of soda, containing enough of each to soften the average water of a given district.


There is a great deal of fraud in connection with boiler compounds generally. The better class of venders advertise to prepare a special compound for special water. This is expensive, save on a large scale, in reference to a particular water, for it would mean a score or more of tanks with men to make up the mixtures. The less honest of the boiler-compound guild consign each sample of water to the sewer and send the regular goods. Others have a stock analysis which is sent to customers of a given locality, whether it contains iron, lime, or magnesium sulphates or carbonates.


Any expense for softening water in excess of 3 cents per 1,000 gallons is for the privilege of using a ready-made softener. Every superintendent in charge of a plant should insist that the compound used be pronounced by competent authority free from injurious materials, and that it be adapted to the water in use.


Boiler compounds should contain only such ingredients as will neutralize the scale-forming salts present. They should be used only by prescription, so many gallons per 1,000 gallons of feed water. A properly proportioned mixture of soda ought to answer the demands of all plants depending upon that method of softening water in limestone and shale regions.


The honest boiler compounds are, however, useful for small isolated plants, because of the simplicity of their action. For plants of from 75 to 150 horse power two 24-hour settling tanks will answer the purpose of a softening system. Each of these, capable of holding a day's supply, provided with a soda tank in common, and with sludge valves, has paddles for stirring the contents. Large plants are operated on this principle, serving boilers of many thousand horse power. Such a system has an advantage over a continuous system, in that the exact amount of chemical solutions required for softening the particular water can be applied. For some variations of such a system, several companies have secured patents. The fundamental principles, however, have been used for many years and are not patentable.


Prevention of Boiler Scale. The lime contained in the feed water, either as bicarbonate or as sulphate, is precipitated in the shape of a light mud, but the walls of the boiler remain perfectly bright without being attacked in any manner. While under ordinary atmospheric pressure calcium chromate in solution is precipitated by soda or Glauber's salt as calcium carbonate or as calcium sulphate; the latter is separated under higher pressure by chromates as calcium chromate. An excess of chromates or chromic acid does not exercise any deleterious action upon the metal, nor upon the materials used for packing. By the slight admixture of chromates, two pounds are sufficient for a small boiler for weeks; no injurious ingredients are carried in by the wet steam, the injection water, on the contrary, having been found to be chemically pure.


Protecting Boiler Plates from Scale.


I.    For a 5-horse-power boiler, fed with water which contains calcic sulphate, take catechu, 2 pounds; dextrine, 1 pound; crystallized soda, 2 pounds; potash, 1/2 pound; cane sugar, 1/2 pound; alum, 1/2 pound; gum arabic, 1/2 pound.






II.   For a boiler of the same size, fed with water which contains lime: Turmeric, 2 pounds; dextrine, 1 pound; sodium bicarbonate, 2 pounds; potash, 1/2 pound; alum, 1/2 pound; molasses, 1/2 pound.


III.  For a boiler of the same size, fed with water which contains iron: Gamboge, 2 pounds; soda, 2 pounds; dextrine, 1 pound; potash, 1/2 pound; sugar, 1/2 pound; alum, 1/2 pound; gum arabic, 1/2 pound.


IV.   For a boiler of the same size, fed with sea water: Catechu, 2 pounds; Glauber's salt, 2 pounds; dextrine, 2 pounds; alum, 1/2 pound; gum arabic, 1/2 pound.


When these preparations are used add 1 quart of water, and in ordinary cases charge the boiler every month; but if the incrustation is very bad, charge every two weeks.


V.    Place within the boiler of 100 horse power 1 bucketful of washing soda; put in 2 gallons of kerosene oil (after closing the blow-off cock), and fill the boiler with water. Feed in at least 1 quart of kerosene oil every day through a sight-feed oil cup attached to the feed pipe near the boiler i.e, between the heater and the boiler - so that the oil is not entrapped within the heater. If it is inconvenient to open the boiler, then dissolve the washing soda in hot water and feed it in with the pump or through a tallow cock (attached between the ejector and the valve in the suction pipe when the ejector is working.


VI.   A paint for protecting boiler plates from scale, and patented in Germany, is composed of 10 pounds each of train oil, horse fat, paraffine, and of finely ground zinc white. To this mixture is added 40

pounds of graphite and 10 pounds of soot made together into a paste with 1 1/2 gallons of water, and about a pound of carbolic acid. The horse fat and the zinc oxide make a soap difficult to fuse, which adheres strongly to the plates, and binds the graphite and the soot. The paraffine prevents the water from penetrating the coats. The scale which forms on this application can be detached, it is said, with a wooden mallet, without injuring the paint.


VII.  M. E. Asselin, of Paris, recommends the use of glycerine as a preventive. It increases the solubility of combinations of lime, and especially of the sulphate. It forms with these combinations soluble compounds. When the quantity of lime becomes so great that it can no longer be dissolved, nor form soluble combinations, it is deposited in a gelatinous substance, which never adheres to the surface of the iron plates. The gelatinous substances thus formed are not carried with the steam into the cylinder of the engine. M. Asselin advises the employment of 1 pound of glycerine for every 300 pounds or 400 pounds of coal burnt.


Prevention of Electrolysis. In order to prevent the eating away of the sheets and tubes by electrolytic action, it has long been the practice of marine engineers to suspend slabs of zinc in their boilers. The zinc, being more susceptible to the electrolytic action than the iron, is eaten away, while the iron remains unimpaired. The use of zinc in this way has been found also to reduce the trouble from boiler scale. Whether it be due to the formation of hydrogen bubbles between the heating surfaces and incipient scale, to the presence in the water of the zinc salts resulting from the dissolution of the zinc, or to whatever cause, it appears to be a general conclusion among those who have used it that the zinc helps the scale, as well as the corrosion. Nobody has ever claimed for it that it prevented the attachment of scale altogether, but the consensus of opinion is that it "helps some."




It hardly pays to reduce pressure on boilers, except in very extreme cases, but if it can be done by throttling before the steam reaches the cylinder of the engine it would be an advantage, because this retains the heat units due to the higher pressure in the steam, and the throttling has a slight superheating effect. As a matter of fact, tests go to show that for light loads and high pressure a throttling engine may do better than an automatic cut-off. The ideal arrangement is to throttle the steam for light loads; for heavier loads, allow the variable cut-off to come into play. This practice has been carried into effect by the design of Mr. E. J. Armstrong, in which he arranges the shaft governor so that there is negative lead up to nearly one-quarter cut-off, after which the lead becomes positive, and this has the effect of throttling the steam for the earlier loads and undoubtedly gives better economy, in addition to making the engine run more quietly.




Bone or Ivory Black. All bones (and ivory is bone in a sense) consist of a framework of crystallized matter or bone earth, in the interstices of which organic matter is embedded. Hence if






bones are heated red-hot in a closed vessel, the organic matter is destroyed, leaving carbon, in a finely divided state, lodged in the bony framework. If the heat is applied gradually the bone retains its shape, but is quite black and of much less weight than at first. This bone black or animal charcoal is a substance which has great power of absorbing coloring matter from liquids, so that it is largely used for bleaching such liquids. For example, in the vast industry of beet sugar manufacture the solutions first made are very dark in color, but after filtration through animal charcoal will give colorless crystals on evaporation. Chemical trades require such large quantities of bone charcoal that its production is a large industry in itself. As in breaking up the charred bones a considerable amount of waste is produced, in the form of dust and small grains which cannot be used for bleaching purposes, this waste should be worked up into a pigment.

This is done by dissolving out the mineral with hydrochloric acid, and then rinsing and drying the carbon.


The mineral basis of bones consists mainly of the phosphates of lime and magnesia, salts soluble in not too dilute hydrochloric acid. A vat is half filled with the above-mentioned waste, which is then just covered with a mixture of equal volumes of commercial hydrochloric acid and water. As the mineral matter also contains carbonates, a lively effervescence at once ensues, and small quantities of hydrofluoric acid are also formed from the decomposition of calcium fluoride in the bones. Now hydrofluoric acid is a very dangerous substance, as air containing even traces of it is very injurious to the lungs. Hence the addition of hydrochloric acid should be done in the open air, and the vat should be left by itself until the evolution of fumes ceases. A plug is then pulled out at the bottom and the carbon is thoroughly drained. It is then stirred up with water and again drained, when it

has fully settled to the bottom. This rinsing with clear water is repeated till all the hydrochloric acid is washed away and only pure carbon remains in the vat. As for pigment-making purposes it is essential that the carbon should be as finely divided as possible, it is as well to grind the washed carbon in an ordinary color mill. Very little power is required for this purpose, as when once the bone earth is removed the carbon particles have little cohesion. The properly ground mass forms a deep-black mud, which can be left to dry or be dried by artificial heat. When dry, the purified bone black is of a pure black and makes a most excellent pigment.


Bone black is put upon the market under all sorts of names, such as ivory black, ebur ustum, Frankfort black, neutral black, etc. All these consist of finely ground bone black purified from mineral matter. If leather scraps or dried blood are to be worked up, iron tubes are employed, closed at one end, and with a well-fitting lid with a small hole in it at the other. As these bodies give off large volumes of combustible gas during the charring, it is a good plan to lead the vapors from the hole by a bent tube so that they can be burnt and help to supply the heat required and so save fuel. Leather or blood gives a charcoal which hardly requires treatment with hydrochloric acid, for the amount of mineral salts present is so small that its removal appears superfluous.




Place a stethoscope on one side of the supposed fracture, and a tuning fork on the other. When the latter is vibrated, and there is no breakage, the sound will be heard distinctly through bone and stethoscope. Should any doubt exist, comparison should be made with the same bone on the other side of the body. This test shows the difference in the power of conducting sound possessed by bone and soft tissue.



See Ivory.



See Fats.



See Soap.



See Polishes.



See Fertilizers.



See Adhesives.



See Adhesives.




The Preservation of Books in Hot Climates. Books in hot climates quickly deteriorate unless carefully guarded. There are three destructive agencies: (1) damp, (2) a small black insect, (3) cockroaches.






(1) Books which are kept in a damp atmosphere deteriorate on account of molds and fungi that grow rapidly when the conditions are favorable. Books are best kept on open, airy, well-lighted shelves. When there has been a prolonged spell of moist weather their covers should be wiped, and they should be placed in the sun or before a fire for a few hours. Damp also causes the bindings and leaves of some books to separate.


(2) A small black insect, one-eighth of an inch long and a sixteenth of an inch broad, somewhat resembling a beetle, is very destructive, and books will be found, if left untouched, after a few months to have numerous holes in the covers and leaves. If this insect be allowed plenty of time for its ravages it will make so many holes that bindings originally strong can be easily torn to pieces. All damage may be prevented by coating the covers of books with the varnish described under (3). When books are found to contain the insects they should be well wrapped and placed in the sun before varnishing.


(3) The appearance of a fine binding may be destroyed in a single night by cockroaches. The lettering of the binding may, in two or three days, be completely obliterated.


The following varnishes have been found to prevent effectually the ravages of cockroaches and of all insects that feed upon books:



Dammar resin                  2 ounces

Mastic                        2 ounces

Canada balsam                 1 ounce

Creosote                      1/2 ounce

Spirit of wine                20 fl. ounces


Macerate with occasional shaking for a few days if wanted at once, but for a longer time when possible, as a better varnish will result after a maceration of several months.


II.   Corrosive sublimate, 1 ounce; carbolic acid, 1 ounce; methylated or rum spirit, 1 quart.


Where it is necessary to keep books or paper of any description in boxes, cupboards, or closed bookcases, some naphthalene balls or camphor should be always present with them. If camphor be used it is best to wrap it in paper, otherwise it volatilizes more quickly than is necessary. In dry weather the doors of closed bookcases should be left open occasionally, as a damp, still atmosphere is most favorable for deterioration.


How to Open a Book. Never force the back of the book. Hold the book with its back on a smooth or covered table; let the front board down, then the other, holding the leaves in one hand while you open a few leaves at the back, then a few at the front, and so on, alternately opening back and front, gently pressing open the sections till you reach the center of the volume. Do this two or three times and you will obtain the best results. Open the volume violently or carelessly in any one place and you will probably break the back or cause a start in the leaves.



See Disinfectants.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Varnishes.



See Insecticides.



See Shoe Dressings.



See Lubricant.



See Waterproofing.




I.    Sprinkling borax is not only cheaper, but also dissolves less in soldering than pure borax.     


The borax is heated in a metal vessel until it has lost its water of crystallization and mixed with calcined cooking salt and potash borax, 8 parts; cooking salt, 3 parts; potash, 3 parts. Next it is pounded in a mortar into a fine powder, constituting the sprinkling borax.     


II.   Another kind of sprinkling borax is prepared by substituting glass-gall for the potash. Glass-gall is the froth floating on the melted glass, which can be skimmed off.


The borax is either dusted on in powder form from a sprinkling box or stirred with water before use into a thin paste.



See Food.



See Insecticides.



See Dentifrices.


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"The Science Notebook"  Copyright 2008-2018 - Norman Young