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Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

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Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 176-200





tible to the palate of the connoisseur. No other alimentary substance appears to be so seriously affected by slight variations in the quality of the materials from which it is made, or by such apparently trifling differences in the methods of preparing.


The varieties of cheese met with in commerce are very numerous, and differ greatly from each other in richness, color, and flavor. These are commonly distinguished by names indicative of the places in which they have been manufactured, or of the quality of the materials from which they have been prepared. Thus we have Dutch, Gloucester, Stilton, skimmed milk, raw milk, cream, and other cheeses; names which explain themselves. The following are the principal varieties:


American Factory. Same as Cheddar.


Brickbat. Named from its form; made, in Wiltshire, of new milk and cream.


Brie. A soft, white, cream cheese of French origin.


Cheddar. A fine, spongy kind of cheese, the eyes or vesicles of which contain a rich oil; made up into round, thick cheeses of considerable size (150 to 200 pounds).


Cheshire. From new milk, without skimming, the morning's milk being mixed with that of the preceding evening's, previously warmed, so that the whole may be brought to the heat of new milk. To this the rennet is added, in less quantity than is commonly used for other kinds of cheese. On this point much of the flavor and mildness of the cheese is said to depend. A piece of dried rennet, of the size of a half-dollar put into a pint of water over night, and allowed to stand until the next morning, is sufficient for 18 or 20 gallons of milk; in large, round, thick cheeses (100 to 200 pounds each). They are generally solid, homogeneous, and dry, and friable rather than viscid.


Cottenham. A rich kind of cheese, in flavor and consistence not unlike Stilton, from which, however, it differs in shape, being flatter and broader than the latter.


Cream. From the "strippings" (the last of the milk drawn from the cow at each milking), from a mixture of milk and cream, or from raw cream only, according to the quality desired. It is usually made in small oblong, square, or rounded cakes, a general pressure only (that of a 2- or 4-pound weight) being applied to press out the whey. After 12 hours it is placed upon a board or wooden trencher, and turned every day until dry. It ripens in about 3 weeks. A little salt is generally added, and frequently a little powdered lump sugar.


Damson. Prepared from damsons boiled with a little water, the pulp passed through a sieve, and then boiled with about one-fourth the weight of sugar, until the mixture solidifies on cooling; it is next poured into small tin molds previously dusted out with sugar. Cherry

cheese, gooseberry cheese, plum cheese, etc., are prepared in the same way, using the respective kinds of fruit. They are all very agreeable candies or confections.


Derbyshire. A small, white, rich variety, very similar to Dunlop cheese.


Dunlop. Rich, white, and buttery; in round forms, weighing from 30 to 60 pounds.


Dutch (Holland). Of a globular form, 5 to 14 pounds each. Those from

Edam are very highly salted; those from Gouda less so.


Emmenthaler. Same as Gruyere.


Gloucester. Single Gloucester, from milk deprived of part of its cream; double Gloucester, from milk retaining the whole of the cream. Mild tasted, semi-buttery consistence, without being friable; in large, round, flattish forms.


Green or Sage. From milk mixed with the juice of an infusion or decoction of sage leaves, to which marigold flowers and parsley are frequently added.


Gruyère. A fine kind of cheese made in Switzerland, and largely consumed on the Continent. It is firm and dry, and exhibits numerous cells of considerable magnitude.


Holland. Same as Dutch.


Leguminous. The Chinese prepare an actual cheese from peas, called tao-foo, which they sell in the streets of Canton. The paste from steeped ground peas is boiled, which causes the starch to dissolve with the casein; after straining the liquid it is coagulated by a solution of gypsum; this coagulum is worked up like sour milk, salted, and pressed into molds.


Limburger. A strong variety of cheese, soft and well ripened.


Lincoln. From new milk and cream; in pieces about 2 inches thick. Soft, and ill not keep over 2 or 3 months.






Neufchâtel. A much-esteemed variety of Swiss cheese; made of cream, and weighs about 5 or 6 ounces.


Norfolk. Dyed yellow with annotta or saffron; good, but not superior; in cheeses of 30 to 50 pounds.


Parmesan. From the curd of skimmed milk, hardened by a gentle heat. The rennet is added at about 120, and an hour afterwards the curdling milk is set on a slow fire until heated to about 150º F., during which the curd separates in small lumps. A few pinches of saffron are then thrown in. About a fortnight after making the outer crust is cut off, and the new surface varnished with linseed oil, and one side colored red.


Roquefort. From ewes' milk; the best prepared in France. It greatly resembles Stilton, but is scarcely of equal richness or quality, and possesses a peculiar pungency and flavor.


Roquefort, Imitation. The gluten of wheat is kneaded with a little salt and a small portion of a solution of starch, and made up into cheeses. It is said that this mixture soon acquires the taste, smell, and unctuosity of cheese, and when kept a certain time is not to be distinguished from the celebrated Roquefort cheese, of which it possesses all the peculiar pungency. By slightly varying the process other kinds of cheese may be imitated.


Sage. Same as green cheese.


Slipcoat or Soft. A very rich, white cheese, somewhat resembling butter; for present use only.


Stilton. The richest and finest cheese made in England. From raw milk to which cream taken from other milk is added; in cheeses generally twice as high as they are broad. Like wine, this cheese is vastly improved by age, and is therefore seldom eaten before it is 2 years old. A spurious appearance of age is sometimes given to it by placing it in a warm, damp cellar, or by surrounding it with masses of fermenting straw or dung.


Suffolk. From skimmed milk; in round, flat forms, from 24 to 30 pounds

each. Very hard and horny.


Swiss. The principal cheeses made in Switzerland are the Gruyere, the

Neufchâtel, and the Schabzieger or green cheese. The latter is flavored

with melitot.


Westphalian. Made in small balls or rolls of about 1 pound each. It derives its peculiar flavor from the curd being allowed to become partially putrid before being pressed. In small balls or rolls of about 1 pound each.


Wiltshire. Resembles Cheshire or Gloucester. The outside is painted with reddle or red ocher or whey.


York. From cream. It will not keep.


We give below the composition of some of the principal varieties of cheese:




Double Gloucester










Fatty matter




Mineral matter






















Milk, sugar, and extractive matters



Mineral matter










Ordinary Dutch







Fatty matter






Non-nitrogenous organic matter and loss







When a whole cheese is cut, and the consumption small, it is generally found to become unpleasantly dry, and to lose flavor before it is consumed. This is best prevented by cutting a sufficient quantity for a few days' consumption from the cheese, and keeping the remainder in a cool place, rather damp than dry, spreading a thin film of butter over the fresh surface, and covering it with a cloth or pan to keep off the dirt. This removes the objection existing in small families against purchasing a whole cheese at a time. The common practice of buying small quantities of cheese should be avoided, as not only a higher price is paid for any given quality but there is little likelihood of obtaining exactly the same flavor twice running. Should cheese become too dry to be






agreeable, it may be used for stewing, or for making grated cheese, or Welsh rarebits.


Goats’ Milk Cheese. Goats' milk cheese is made as follows: Warm 20 quarts of milk and coagulate it with rennet, either the powder or extract. Separate the curds from the whey in a colander. After a few days the dry curd may be shaped into larger or smaller cheeses, the former only salted, the latter containing salt and caraway seed. The cheeses must be turned every day, and sprinkled with salt, and any mold removed. After a few days they may be put away on shelves to ripen, and left for several weeks. Pure goat's milk cheese should be firm and solid all the way through. Twenty quarts of milk will make about 4 pounds of cheese,



See Food.



See Gardens, Chemical.



See Balsam.



See Wines and Liquors.


Chewing Gums


Manufacture. The making of chewing gum is by no means the simple operation which it seems toº Bé. Much experience in manipulation is necessary to succeed, and the published formulas can at best serve as a guide rather than as something to be absolutely and blindly followed. Thus, if the mass is either too hard or soft, change the proportions until it is right; often it will be found that different purchases of the same article will vary in their characteristics when worked up. But given a basis, the manufacturer can flavor and alter to suit himself. The most successful manufacturers attribute their success to the employment of the most approved machinery and the greatest attention to details. The working formulas and the processes of these manufacturers are guarded as trade secrets, and aside from publishing general formulas, little information can be given.


Chicle gum is purified by boiling with water and separating the foreign matter. Flavorings, pepsin, sugar, etc., are worked in under pressure by suitable machinery. Formula:



Gum chicle                          1 pound

Sugar                               2 pounds

Glucose                             1 pound

Caramel butter                      1 pound


First mash and soften the gum at a gentle heat. Place the sugar and glucose in a small copper pan; add enough water to dissolve the sugar; set on a fire and cook to 244º F.; lift off the fire; add the caramel butter and lastly the gum; mix well into a smooth paste; roll out on a smooth marble, dusting with finely powdered sugar, run through sizing machine to the proper thickness, cut into strips, and again into thin slices.



Chicle                              6 ounces

Paraffine                           2 ounces

Balsam of Tolu                      2 drachms

Balsam of Peru                      1 drachm

Sugar                               20 ounces

Glucose                             8 ounces

Water                               6 ounces

Flavoring,                          enough.


Triturate the chicle and balsams in water, take out and add the paraffine, first heated. Boil the sugar, glucose, and water together to what is known to confectioners as "crack" heat, pour the syrup over the oil slab and turn into it the gum mixture, which will make it tough and plastic. Add any desired flavor.



Gum chicle                         122 parts

Paraffine                           42 parts

Balsam of Tolu                      4 parts

Sugar                               384 parts

Water                               48 parts


Dissolve the sugar in the water by the aid of heat and pour the resultant syrup on an oiled slab. Melt the gum, balsam, and paraffine together and pour on top of the syrup, and work the whole up together.



Gum chicle                          240 parts

White wax                           64 parts

Sugar                               640 parts

Glucose                             128 parts

Water                               192 parts

Balsam of Peru                      4 parts

Flavoring matter,                   enough.


Proceed as indicated in II.  



Balsam of Tolu                      4 parts

Benzoin                             1 part

White wax                           1 part

Paraffine                           1 part

Powdered sugar                      1 part


Melt together, mix well, and roll into sticks of the usual dimensions.


Mix, and, when sufficiently cool, roll out into sticks or any other desirable form.






Spruce Chewing Gum.


Spruce gum                          20 parts

Chicle                              20 parts

Sugar, powdered                     60 parts


Melt the gums separately, mix while hot, and immediately add the sugar, a small portion at a time, kneading it thoroughly on a hot slab. When completely incorporated remove to a cold slab, previously dusted with powdered sugar, roll out at once into sheets, and cut into sticks. Any desired flavor or color may be added to or incorporated with the sugar.



See Insecticides.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Foods.



See Ointments.



See Soap.



See Doses.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Adhesives and Lutes.



See Ceramics.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under Miscellaneous Methods.



See Porcelain.




China riveting is best left to practical men, but it can be done with a drill made from a splinter of a diamond fixed on a handle. If this is not to be had, get a small three-cornered file, harden it by placing it in the fire till red hot, and then plunging it in cold water. Next grind the point on a grindstone and finish on an oilstone. With the point pick out the place to be bored, taking care to do it gently for fear of breaking the article, In a little while a piece will break off, then the hole can easily be made by working the point round. The wire may then be passed through and fastened. A good cement may be made from 1 ounce of grated cheese, 1/2 ounce of finely powdered quicklime, and white of egg sufficient to make a paste. The less cement applied the better, using a feather to spread it over the broken edge.



See Disinfectants.



See Acid-Proofing.




Prepare 1,000 parts of finished cacao and 30 parts of fresh cacao oil, in a warmed, polished, iron mortar, into a liquid substance, add to it 800 parts of finely powdered sugar, and, after a good consistency has been reached, 60 parts of powdered iron lactate and 60 parts of sugar syrup, finely rubbed together. Scent with 40 parts of vanilla sugar. Of

this mass weigh out tablets of 125 parts into the molds.


Coating Tablets with Chocolate. If a chocolate which is free from sugar be placed in a dish over a water bath, it will melt into a fluid of proper consistence for coating tablets. No water must be added. The coating is formed by dipping the tablets. When they are sufficiently hardened they are laid on oiled paper to dry.



See Castor Oil.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Beverages.



See Veterinary Formulas.




Sun Cholera Mixture.


Tincture of opium                   1 part

Tincture of capsicum                1 part

Tincture of rhubarb                 1 part

Spirit of camphor                   1 part

Spirit of peppermint                1 part


Squibb's Diarrhea Mixture.


Tincture opium                      40 parts

Tincture capsicum                   40 parts

Spirit camphor                      40 parts

Chloroform                          15 parts

Alcohol                             65 parts






Aromatic Rhubarb.


Cinnamon, ground                    8 parts

Rhubarb                             8 parts

Calumba                             4 parts

Saffron                             1 part

Powdered opium                      2 parts

Oil peppermint                      5 parts

Alcohol, q. s. ad                   100 parts


Macerate the ground drugs with 75 parts alcohol in a closely covered percolator for several days, then allow percolation to proceed, using sufficient alcohol to obtain 95 parts of percolate. In percolate dissolve the oil of peppermint.


Rhubarb and Camphor.


Tincture capsicum                   2 ounces

Tincture opium                      2 ounces

Tincture camphor                    3 ounces

Tincture catechu                    4 ounces

Tincture rhubarb                    4 ounces

Spirit peppermint                   4 ounces


Blackberry Mixture.


Fluid extract blackberry root       2 pints

Fluid ginger, soluble               5 1/3 ounces

Fluid catechu                       5 1/3 ounces

Fluid opium for tincture            160 minims

Brandy                              8 ounces

Sugar                               4 pounds

Essence cloves                      256 minims

Essence cinnamon                    256 minims

Chloroform                          128 minims

Alcohol (25 per cent), q.s. ad      1 gallon



See Condiments.



See Pigments.



See Adhesives.




The production of chromo pictures requires a little skill. Practice is necessary. The glass plate to be used should be washed off with warm water, and then laid in a 10 per cent solution of nitric acid. After one hour, wash with clean, cold water, dry with a towel, and polish the plate with good alcohol on the inside hollow side until no finger marks or streaks are visible. This is best ascertained by breathing on the glass; the breath should show an even blue surface on the glass.


Coat the unmounted photograph to be colored with benzine by means of wadding, but without pressure, so that the retouching of the picture is not disturbed. Place 2 tablets of ordinary kitchen gelatin in 8 3/4 ounces of distilled or pure rain water, soak for an hour, and then heat until the gelatin has completely dissolved. Pour this warm solution over the polished side of the glass, so that the liquid is evenly distributed. The best way is to pour the solution on the upper right-hand corner, allowing it to flow into the left-hand corner, from there to the left below and right below, finally letting the superfluous liquid run off. Take the photograph, which has been previously slightly moistened on the back, lay it with the picture side on the gelatin-covered plate, centering it nicely, and squeeze out the excess gelatin solution gently, preferably by means of a rubber squeegee. Care must be taken, however, not to displace the picture in this manipulation, as it is easily spoiled.


The solution must never be allowed to boil, since this would render the gelatin brittle and would result in the picture, after having been finished, cracking off from the glass in a short time. When the picture has been attached to the glass plate without blisters (which is best observed from the back), the edge of the glass is cleansed of gelatin, preferably by means of a small sponge and lukewarm water, and the plate is allowed to dry over night.


When the picture and the gelatin are perfectly dry, coat the back of the picture a few times with castor oil until it is perfectly transparent; carefully remove the oil without rubbing, and proceed with the painting, which is best accomplished with good, not over-thick oil colors. The coloring must be observed from the glass side, and for this reason the small details, such as eyes, lips, beard, and hair, should first be sketched in. When the first coat is dry the dress and the flesh tints are painted. The whole surface may be painted over, and it is not necessary to paint shadows, as these are already present in the picture, and consequently show the color through in varying strength.


When the coloring has dried, a second glass plate should be laid on for protection, pasting the two edges together with narrow strips of linen.




To Make Cider. Pick the apples off the tree by hand. Every apple before going into the press should be carefully






wiped. As soon as a charge of apples is ground, remove the pomace and put in a cask with a false bottom and a strainer beneath it, and a vessel to catch the drainage from pomace. As fast as the juice runs from the press place it in clean, sweet, open tubs or casks with the heads out and provide with a faucet, put in about two inches above bottom. The juice should be closely watched and as soon as the least sign of fermentation appears (bubbles on top, etc.) it should be run off into casks prepared for this purpose and placed in a moderately cool room. The barrels should be entirely filled, or as near to the bunghole as possible. After fermentation is well under way the spume or foam should be scraped off with a spoon several times a day. When fermentation has ceased the cider is racked off into clean casks, filled to the bunghole, and the bung driven in tightly. It is now ready for use or for bottling.


Champagne Cider.


I.    To convert ordinary cider into champagne cider, proceed as follows: To 100 gallons of good cider add 3 gallons of strained honey (or 24 pounds of white sugar will answer), stir in well, tightly bung, and let alone for a week. Clarify the cider by adding a half gallon of skimmed milk, or 4 ounces of gelatin dissolved in sufficient hot water and add 4 gallons of proof spirit. Let stand 3 days longer, then syphon off, bottle, cork, and tie or wire down. Bunging the cask tightly is done in order to induce a slow fermentation, and thus retain in the cider as much carbonic acid as possible.


II.   Put 10 gallons of old and clean cider in a strong and iron-bound cask, pitched within (a sound beer cask is the very thing), and add and stir in well 40 ounces of simple syrup. Add 5 ounces of tartaric acid, let dissolve, then add 7 1/2 ounces sodium bicarbonate in powder.

Have the bung ready and the moment the soda is added put it in and drive it home. The cider will be ready for use in a few hours.


Cider Preservative.


I.    The addition of 154 grains of bismuth subnitrate to 22 gallons of cider prevents, or materially retards, the hardening of the beverage on exposure to air; moreover, the bismuth salt renders alcoholic fermentation more complete.


II.   Calcium sulphite (sulphite of lime) is largely used to prevent fermentation in cider. About 1/8 to 1/4 of an ounce of the sulphite is required for 1 gallon of cider. It should first be dissolved in a small quantity of cider, then added to the bulk, and the whole agitated until thoroughly mixed. The barrel should then be bunged and allowed to stand for several days, until the action of the sulphite is exerted. It will preserve the sweetness of cider perfectly, but care should be taken not to add too much, as that would impart a slight sulphurous taste.


Artificial Ciders. To 25 gallons of soft water add 2 pounds of tartaric acid, 25 or 30 pounds of sugar, and a pint of yeast; put in a warm place, and let ferment for 15 days, then add the flavoring matter to suit taste. The various fruit ethers are for sale at any wholesale drug house.


Bottling Sweet Cider. Champagne quarts are generally used for bottling cider, as they are strong and will stand pressure, besides being a convenient size for consumers. In making cider champagne the liquor should be clarified and bottled in the sweet condition, that is to say, before the greater part of the sugar which it contains has been converted into alcohol by fermentation. The fermentation continues, to a certain extent, in the bottle, transforming more of the sugar into alcohol, and the carbonic acid, being unable to escape, is dissolved in the cider and produces the sparkling.


The greater the quantity of sugar contained in the liquor, when it is bottled, the more complete is its carbonation by the carbonic-acid gas, and consequently the more sparkling it is when poured out. But this is true only within certain limits, for if the production of sugar is too high the fermentation will be arrested.


To make the most sparkling cider the liquor is allowed to stand for three, four, five, or six weeks, during which fermentation proceeds. The time varies according to the nature of the apples, and also to the temperature; when it is very warm the first fermentation is usually completed in 7 days.


Before bottling, the liquid must be fined, and this is best done with catechu dissolved in cold cider, 2 ounces of catechu to the barrel of cider. This is well stirred and left to settle for a few days.


The cider at this stage is still sweet, and it is a point of considerable nicety not to carry the first fermentation too far. The bottle should not be quite filled, so as to allow more freedom for the carbonic-acid gas which forms.


When the bottles have been filled,






corked, and wired down, they should be placed in a good cellar, which should be dry, or else the cider will taste of the cork. The bottles should not be laid for four or five weeks, or breakage will ensue. When they are being laid they should be placed on laths of wood or on dry sand; they should never be allowed on cold or damp floors.


Should the cider be relatively poor in sugar, or if it has been fermented too far, about 1 ounce of powdered loaf sugar can be added to each bottle, or else a measure of sugar syrup before pouring in the cider.


Imitation Cider.


I.    A formula for an imitation cider is as follows:


Rain water                          100 gallons

Honey, unstrained                   6 gallons

Catechu, powdered                   3 ounces

Alum, powdered                      5 ounces

Yeast (brewer's preferably)         2 pints


Mix and put in a warm place to ferment. Let ferment for about 15 days; then add the following, stirring well in:


Bitter almonds, crushed             8 ounces

Cloves                              8 ounces


Let stand 24 hours, add two or three gallons of good whiskey, and rack off into clean casks. Bung tightly, let stand 48 hours, then bottle. If a higher color is desired use caramel sufficient to produce the correct tinge. If honey is not obtainable, use sugar-house molasses instead, but honey is preferable.


II.   The following, when properly prepared, makes a passable substitute for cider, and a very pleasant drink:


Catechu, powdered                   3 parts

Alum, powdered                      5 parts

Honey                               640 parts

Water                               12,800 parts

Yeast                               32 parts


Dissolve the catechu, alum, and honey in the water, add the yeast, and put in some warm place to ferment. The container should be filled to the square opening, made by sawing out five or six inches of the center of a stave, and the spume skimmed off daily as it arises. In cooler weather from 2 weeks to 18 days will be required for thorough fermentation. In warmer weather from 12 to 13 days will be sufficient. When fermentation is complete add the following solution:


Oil of bitter almonds               1 part

Oil of clover                       1 part

Caramel                             32 parts

Alcohol                             192 parts


The alcohol may be replaced by twice its volume of good bourbon whiskey. A much cheaper, but correspondingly poor substitute for the above may be made as follows:


Twenty-five gallons of soft water, 2 pounds tartaric acid, 25 pounds of brown sugar, and 1 pint of yeast are allowed to stand in a warm place, in a clean cask with the bung out, for 24 hours. Then bung up the cask, after adding 3 gallons of whiskey, and let stand for 48 hours, after which the liquor is ready for use.



See Vinegar.




Cigar Sizes and Colors. Cigars are named according to their color and shape. A dead-black cigar, for instance, is an "Oscuro," a very dark-brown one is a "Colorado," a medium brown is a "Colorado Claro," and a yellowish light brown is a "Claro." Most smokers know the names of the shades from "Claro" to "Colorado," and that is as far as most of them need to know. As to the shapes, a "Napoleon" is the biggest of all cigars being 7 inches long; a "Perfecto" swells in the middle and tapers down to a very small head at the lighting end; a "Panatela" is a thin, straight, up-and-down cigar without the graceful curve of the "Perfecto"; a "Conchas" is very short and fat, and a "Londres" is shaped like a "Perfecto" except that it does not taper to so small a head at the lighting end. A "Reina Victoria" is a "Londres" that comes packed in a ribbon-tied bundle of 50 pieces, instead of in the usual four layers of 13, 12, 13 and 12.


How to Keep Cigars. Cigars kept in a case are influenced every time the case is opened. Whatever of taint there may be in the atmosphere rushes into the case, and is finally taken up by the cigars. Even though the cigars have the appearance of freshness, it is not the original freshness in which they were received from the factory. They have been dry, or comparatively so, and have absorbed more moisture than has been put in the case, and it matters not what that moisture may be, it can never restore the flavor that was lost during the drying-out process.


After all, it is a comparatively simple matter to take good care of cigars. All that is necessary is a comparatively air-tight, zinc-lined chest. This should be






behind the counter in a place where the temperature is even. When a customer calls for a cigar the dealer takes the box out of the chest, serves his customer, and then puts the box back again. The box being opened for a moment the cigars are not perceptibly affected. The cigars in the close, heavy chest are always safe from atmospheric influences, as the boxes are closed, and the chest is open but a moment, while the dealer is taking out a box from which to serve his customer.


Some of the best dealers have either a large chest or a cool vault in which they keep their stock, taking out from time to time whatever they need for use. Some have a number of small chests, in which they keep different brands, so as to avoid opening and closing one particular chest so often.


It may be said that it is only the higher priced cigars that need special care in handling, although the cheaper grades are not to be handled carelessly. The Havana cigars are more susceptible to change, for there is a delicacy of flavor to be preserved that is never present in the cheaper grades of cigars.


Every dealer must, of course, make a display in his show case, but he need not serve his patrons with these cigars. The shrinkage in value of the cigars in the case is merely a business proposition of profit and loss.


Cigar Flavoring.


I.    Macerate 2 ounces of cinnamon and 4 ounces of tonka beans, ground fine, in 1 quart of rum.


II.   Moisten ordinary cigars with a strong tincture of cascarilla, to which a little gum benzoin and storax may be added. Some persons add a small quantity of camphor or oil of cloves or cassia.



Tincture of valerian.               4 drachms

Butyric aldehyde                    4 drachms

Nitrous ether                       1 drachm

Tincture vanilla                    2 drachms

Alcohol                             5 ounces

Water                               enough to make 16 ounces



Extract vanilla                     4 ounces

Alcohol                             1/2 gallon

Jamaica rum                         1/2 gallon

Tincture valerian                   8 ounces

Caraway seed                        2 ounces

English valerian root               2 ounces

Bitter orange peel                  2 ounces

Tonka beans                         4 drachms

Myrrh                               16 ounces


Soak the myrrh for 3 days in 6 quarts of water, add the alcohol, tincture valerian, and extract of vanilla, and after grinding the other ingredients to a coarse powder, put all together in a jug and macerate for 2 weeks, occasionally shaking; lastly, strain.


V.    Into a bottle filled with 1/2 pint of French brandy put 1 1/4 ounces of cascarilla bark and 1 1/4 ounces of vanilla previously ground with 1/2 pound of sugar; carefully close up the flask and distil in a warm place. After 3 days pour off the liquid, and add 1/4 pint of mastic extract. The finished cigars are moistened with this liquid, packed in boxes, and preserved from air by a well-closed lid. They are said to acquire a pleasant flavor and mild strength through this treatment.


Cigar Spots. The speckled appearance of certain wrappers is due to the work of a species of fungus that attacks the growing tobacco. In a certain district of Sumatra, which produces an exceptionally fine tobacco for wrappers, the leaves of the plant are commonly speckled in this way. Several patents have been obtained for methods of spotting tobacco leaves artificially. A St. Louis firm uses a solution composed of:


Sodium carbonate                    3 parts

Calx chlorinata                     1 part

Hot water                           8 parts


Dissolve the washing soda in the hot water, add the chlorinated lime, and heat the mixture to a boiling temperature for 3 minutes. When cool, decant into earthenware or stoneware jugs, cork tightly, and keep in a cool place. The corks of jugs not intended for immediate use should be covered with a piece of bladder or strong parchment paper, and tightly tied down to prevent the escape of gas, and consequent weakening of the bleaching power of the fluid. The prepared liquor is sprinkled on the tobacco, the latter being then exposed to light and air, when, it is said, the disagreeable odor produced soon disappears.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Antiseptics.



See Magnesium Citrate.



See Beverages, under Lemonades.







See Gelatin.




Clarification is the process by which any solid particles suspended in a liquid are either caused to coalesce together or to adhere to the medium used for clarifying, that they may be removed by filtration (which would previously have been impossible), so as to render the liquid clear.


One of the best agents for this purpose is albumen. When clarifying vegetable extracts, the albumen which is naturally present in most plants accomplishes this purpose easily, provided the vegetable matter is extracted in the cold, so as to get as much albumen as possible in solution.


Egg albumen may also be used. The effect of albumen may be increased by the addition of cellulose, in the form of a fine magma of filtering paper. This has the further advantage that the subsequent filtration is much facilitated.


Suspended particles of gum or pectin may be removed by cautious precipitation with tannin, of which only an exceedingly small amount is usually necessary. It combines with the gelatinous substances better with the aid of heat than in the cold. There must be no excess of tannin used.


Another method of clarifying liquids turbid from particles of gum, albumen, pectin, etc., is to add to them a definite quantity of alcohol. This causes the former substances to separate in more or less large flakes. The quantity of alcohol required varies greatly according to the nature of the liquid. It should be determined in each case by an experiment on a small scale.


Resinous or waxy substances, such as are occasionally met with in honey, etc., may be removed by the addition of bole, pulped filtering paper, and heating to boiling.


In each case the clarifying process may be hastened by making the separating particles specifically heavier; that is, by incorporating some heavier substance, such as talcum, etc., which may cause the flocculi to sink more rapidly, and to form a compact sediment.


Clarifying powder for alcoholic liquids:


Egg albumen, dry                    40 parts

Sugar of milk                       40 parts

Starch                              20 parts


Reduce them to very fine powder, and mix thoroughly.


For clarifying liquors, wines, essences, etc., take for every quart of liquid 75 grains of the above mixture, shake repeatedly in the course of a few days, the mixture being kept in a warm room, then filter.


Powdered talcum renders the same service, and has the additional advantage of being entirely insoluble. However, the above mixture acts more energetically.




Claying Mixture for Forges. Twenty parts fire clay; 20 parts cast-iron turnings; 1 part common salt; 1/2 part sal ammoniac; all by measure.


The materials should be thoroughly mixed dry and then wet down to the consistency of common mortar, constantly stirring the mass as the wetting proceeds. A rough mold shaped to fit the tuyere opening, a trowel, and a few minutes' time are all that are needed to complete the successful claying of the forge. This mixture dries hard and when glazed by the fire will last.


Plastic Modeling Clay. A permanently plastic clay can be obtained by first mixing it with glycerine, turpentine, or similar bodies, and then adding vaseline or petroleum residues rich in vaseline. The proportion of clay to the vaseline varies according to the desired consistency of the product, the admixture of vaseline varying from 10 to 50 per cent. It is obvious that the hardness of the material decreases with the amount of vaseline added, so that the one richest in vaseline will be the softest. By the use of various varieties of clay and the suitable choice of admixtures, the plasticity, as well as the color of the mass,

may be varied.



Cleaning Preparations and Methods

(See also Soaps, Polishes, and Household Formulas).




Removal of Aniline-Dye Stains from the Skin. Rub the stained skin with a pinch of slightly moistened red crystals of chromic trioxide until a distinct sensation of warmth announces the destruction of the dye stuff by oxidation and an incipient irritation of the skin.

Then rinse with soap and water. A single application usually suffices to remove






the stain. It is hardly necessary to call attention to the poisonousness and strong caustic action of chromic trioxide; but

only moderate caution is required to avoid evil effects.


Pyrogallic-Acid Stains on the Fingers (see also Photography). Pyro stains may be prevented fairly well by rubbing in a little wool fat before beginning work. A very effective way of eliminating developer stains is to dip the finger tips occasionally during development into the clearing bath. It is best to use the clearing bath, with ample friction, before resorting to soap, as the latter seems to have a fixing effect upon the stain. Lemon peel is useful for removing pyro stains, and so are the ammonium persulphate reducer and the thiocarbamide clearer.


To Clean Very Soiled Hands. In the morning wash in warm water, using a stiff brush, and apply glycerine. Repeat the application two or three times during the day, washing and brushing an hour or so afterwards, or apply a warm solution of soda or potash, and wash in warm water, using a stiff brush as before. Finally, rub the hands with pumice or infusorial earth. There are soaps made especially for this purpose, similar to those for use on woodwork, etc., in which infusorial earth or similar matter is incorporated.


To Remove Nitric-Acid Stains. One plan to avoid stains is to use rubber finger stalls, or rubber gloves. Nitric-acid stains can be removed from the hands by painting the stains with a solution of permanganate of potash, and washing off the permanganate with a 5 per cent solution of hydrochloric (muriatic) acid. After this wash the hands with pure castile soap. Any soap that roughens the skin should be avoided at all times. Castile soap is the best to keep the skin in good condition.




To Clean Gilt Frames and Gilded Surfaces Generally. Dip a soft brush in alcohol to which a few drops of ammonia water has been added, and with it go over the surface. Do not rub at least, not roughly, or harshly. In the course of five minutes the dirt will have become soft, and easy of removal. Then go over the surface again gently with the same or a similar brush dipped in rain water. Now lay the damp article in the sunlight to dry. If there is no sunlight, place it near a warm (but not hot} stove, and let dry completely. In order to avoid streaks, take care that the position of the article, during the drying, is not exactly vertical.


To Clean Fire-Gilt Articles. Fire-gilt articles are cleaned, according to their condition, with water, diluted hydrochloric acid, ammonia, or potash solution. If hydrochloric acid is employed thorough dilution with water is especially necessary. The acidity should hardly be noticeable on the tongue.


To clean gilt articles, such as gold moldings, etc., when they have become tarnished or covered with flyspecks, etc., rub them slowly with an onion cut in half and dipped in rectified alcohol, and wash off lightly with a moist soft sponge after about 2 hours.


Cleaning Gilded and Polychromed Work on Altars. To clean bright gold a fine little sponge is used which is moistened but lightly with tartaric acid and passed over the gilding. Next go over the gilt work with a small sponge saturated with alcohol to remove all dirt. For matt gilding, use only a white flannel dipped in lye, and carefully wipe off the dead gold with this, drying next with a fine linen rag. To clean polychromed work sponge with a lye of rain water, 1,000 parts, and calcined potash, 68 parts, and immediately wash off with a clean sponge and water, so that the lye does not attack the paint too much.




To Remove Aniline Stains.



Sodium nitrate                      7 grains

Diluted sulphuric acid              15 grains

Water                               1 ounce


Let the mixture stand a day or two before using. Apply to the spot with a sponge, and rinse the goods with plenty of water.


II.   An excellent medium for the removal of aniline stains, which are often very stubborn, has been found to be liquid opodeldoc. After its use the stains are said to disappear at once and entirely.


Cleansing Fluids. A spot remover is made as follows:



Saponine                            7 parts

Water                               130 parts

Alcohol                             70 parts

Benzine                             1,788 parts

Oil mirbane                         5 parts



Benzene (benzol)                    89 parts

Ascetic ether                       10 parts

Pear oil                            1 part


This yields an effective grease eradicator, of an agreeable odor.






III.  To Remove Stains of Sulphate of copper, or of salts of mercury, silver, or gold from the hands, etc., wash them first with a dilute solution either of ammonia, iodide, bromide, or cyanide of potassium, and then with plenty of water; if the stains are old ones they should first be rubbed with the strongest acetic acid and then treated as above.


Removal of Picric-Acid Stains.


I.    Recent stains of picric acid may be removed readily if the stain is covered with a layer of magnesium carbonate, the carbonate moistened with a little water to form a paste, and the paste then rubbed over the spot.


II.   Apply a solution of


Boric acid                    4 parts

Sodium benzoate               1 part

Water                         100 parts


III.  Dr. Prieur, of Besancon, recommends lithium carbonate for the removal of picric-acid stains from the skin or from linen. The method of using it is simply to lay a small pinch on the stain, and moisten the latter with water. Fresh stains disappear almost instantly, and old ones in a minute or two.


To Remove Finger Marks from Books, etc.


I.    Pour benzol (not benzine or gasoline, but Merck's "c.p." crystallizable) on calcined magnesia until it becomes a crumbling mass, and apply this to the spot, rubbing it in lightly, with the tip of the finger. When the benzol evaporates, brush off. Any dirt that remains can be removed by using a piece of soft rubber.


II.   If the foregoing fails (which it sometimes, though rarely, does), try the following: Make a hot solution of sodium hydrate in distilled water, of strength of from 3 per cent to 5 per cent, according to the age, etc., of the stain. Have prepared some bits of heavy blotting paper somewhat larger than the spot to be removed; also, a blotting pad, or several pieces of heavy blotting paper. Lay the soiled page face downward on the blotting pad, then, saturating one of the bits of blotter with the hot sodium hydrate solution, put it on the stain and go over it with a hot smoothing iron. If one application does not remove all the grease or stain, repeat the operation. Then saturate another bit of blotting paper with a 4 per cent or 5 per cent solution of hydrochloric acid in distilled water, apply it to the place, and pass the iron over it to neutralize the strong alkalI.     This process will instantly restore any faded writing or printing, and make the paper bright and fresh again.


Glycerine as a Detergent. For certain kinds of obstinate spots (such as coffee and chocolate, for instance) there is no better detergent than glycerine, especially for fabrics with delicate colors. Apply the glycerine to the spot, with a sponge or otherwise, let stand a minute or so, then wash off with water or alcohol. Hot glycerine is even more

efficient than cold.



See also Leather.


To Clean Colored Leather. Pour carbon bisulphide on non-vulcanized gutta-percha, and allow it to stand about 24 hours. After shaking actively add more gutta-percha gradually until the solution becomes of gelatinous consistency. This mixture is applied in suitable quantity to oil-stained, colored leather and allowed to dry two or three hours. The subsequent operation consists merely in removing the coat of gutta-percha from the surface of the leather that is, rubbing it with the fingers, and rolling it off the surface.


The color is not injured in the least by the sulphuret of carbon; only those leathers on which a dressing containing starch has been used look a little lighter in color, but the better class of leathers are not so dressed. The dry gutta-percha can be redissolved in sulphuret of carbon and used over again.


To Clean Skins Used for Polishing Purposes. First beat them thoroughly to get rid of dust, then go over the surface on both sides with a piece of good white soap and lay them in warm water in which has been put a little soda. Let them lie here for 2 hours, then wash them in plenty of tepid water, rubbing them vigorously until perfectly clean. This bath should also be made alkaline with soda. The skins are finally rinsed in warm water, and dried quickly. Cold water must be avoided at all stages of the cleansing process, as it has a tendency to shrink and harden the skins.


The best way to clean a chamois skin is to wash and rinse it out in clean water immediately after use, but this practice is apt to be neglected so that the skin becomes saturated with dirt and grime.

To clean it, first thoroughly soak in clean, soft water. Then, after soaping it and rolling it into a compact wad, beat with a small round stick - a buggy spoke, say - turning the wad over repeatedly, and keeping it well wet and soaped. This should suffice to loosen the dirt.

Then rinse in clean water until the skin






is clean. As wringing by hand is apt to injure the chamois skin, it is advisable to use a small clothes wringer. Before using the skin again rinse it in clear water to which a little pulverized alum has been added.




To Renovate Straw Hats.


I.    Hats made of natural (uncolored) straw, which have become soiled by wear, may be cleaned by thoroughly sponging with a weak solution of tartaric acid in water, followed by water alone. The hat after being so treated should be fastened by the rim to a board by means of pins, so that it will keep its shape in drying.


II.   Sponge the straw with a solution of


By weight

Sodium hyposulphite                 10 parts

Glycerine                           5 parts

Alcohol                             10 parts

Water                               75 parts


Lay aside in a damp place for 24 hours and then apply


By weight

Citric acid                         2 parts

Alcohol                             10 parts

Water                               90 parts


Press with a moderately hot iron, after stiffening with weak gum water, if necessary.


III.  If the hat has become much darkened in tint by wear the fumes of burning sulphur may be employed. The material should be first cleaned by thoroughly sponging with an aqueous solution of potassium carbonate, followed by a similar application of water, and it is then suspended over the sulphur fumes. These are generated by placing in a metal or earthen dish, so mounted as to keep the heat from setting fire to anything beneath, some brimstone (roll sulphur), and sprinkling over it some live coals to start combustion. The operation is conducted in a deep box or barrel, the dish of burning sulphur being placed at the bottom, and the article to be bleached being suspended from a string stretched across the top. A cover not fitting so tightly as to exclude all air is placed over it, and the apparatus allowed to stand for a few hours.


Hats so treated will require to be stiffened by the application of a little gum water, and pressed on a block with a hot iron to bring them back into shape.


Waterproof Stiffening for Straw Hats. If a waterproof stiffening is required use one of the varnishes for which formulas follow:



Copal                               450 parts

Sandarac                            75 parts

Venice turpentine                   40 parts

Castor oil                          5 parts

Alcohol                             800 parts



Shellac                             500 parts

Sandarac                            175 parts

Venice turpentine                   50 parts

Castor oil                          15 parts

Alcohol                             2,000 parts



Shellac                             750 parts

Rosin                               150 parts

Venice turpentine                   150 parts

Castor oil                          20 parts

Alcohol                             2,500 parts


How to Clean a Panama Hat. Scrub with castile soap and warm water, a nail brush being used as an aid to get the dirt away. The hat is then placed in the hot sun to dry and in the course of two or three hours is ready for use. It will not only be as clean as when new, but it will retain its shape admirably. The cleaned hat will be a trifle stiff at first, but will soon grow supple under wear.


A little glycerine added to the rinsing water entirely prevents the stiffness and brittleness acquired by some hats in drying, while a little ammonia in the washing water materially assists in the scrubbing process. Ivory, or, in fact, any good white soap, will answer as well as castile for the purpose. It is well to rinse a second time, adding the glycerine to the water used the second time. Immerse the hat completely in the rinse water, moving it about to get rid of

traces of the dirty water. When the hat has been thoroughly rinsed, press out the surplus water, using a Turkish bath towel for the purpose, and let it rest on the towel when drying.




To Remove Old Oil, Paint, or Varnish Coats.


I.    Apply a mixture of about 5 parts of potassium silicate (water glass,

36 per cent), about 1 part of soda lye (40 per cent), and 1 part of ammonia. The composition dissolves the old varnish coat, as well as the paint, down to the bottom. The varnish coatings which are to be removed may be brushed off or left for days in a hardened state. Upon being thoroughly moistened with water the old varnish may be readily washed off, the lacquer as well as the oil paint coming off completely. The ammonia otherwise employed dissolves the varnish, but not the paint,






II.   Apply a mixture of 1 part oil of turpentine and 2 parts of ammonia.

This is effective, even if the coatings withstand the strongest lye. The two liquids are shaken in a bottle until they mix like milk. The mixture is applied to the coating with a little oakum; after a few minutes the old paint can be wiped off.


To Clean Brushes and Vessels of Dry Paint (see also Brushes and Paints). The cleaning o the brushes and vessels in which the varnish or oil paint had dried is usually done by boiling with soda solution. This frequently spoils the brushes or cracks the vessels if of glass; besides, the process is rather slow and dirty. A much more suitable remedy is amyl acetate, which is a liquid with a pleasant odor of fruit drops, used mainly for dissolving and cementing celluloid. If amyl acetate is poured over a paint brush the varnish or hardened paint dissolves almost immediately and the brush is again rendered serviceable at once. If necessary, the process is repeated. For cleaning vessels shake the liquid about in them, which softens the paint so that it can be readily removed with paper. In this manner much labor can be saved. The amyl acetate can be easily removed from the brushes, etc., by alcohol or oil of turpentine.


Varnish and Paint Remover. Dissolve 20 parts of caustic soda (98 per cent) in 100 parts of water, mix the solution with 20 parts of mineral oil, and stir in a kettle provided with a mechanical stirrer, until the emulsion is complete. Now add, with stirring, 20 parts of sawdust and pass the whole through a paint mill to obtain a uniform intermixture.

Apply the paste moist.


To Remove Varnish from Metal. To remove old varnish from metals, it suffices to dip the articles in equal parts of ammonia and alcohol (95 per cent).


To Remove Water Stains from Varnished Furniture. Pour olive oil into a dish and scrape a little white wax into it. This mixture should be heated until the wax melts and rubbed sparingly on the stains. Finally, rub the surface with a linen rag until it is restored to brilliancy.


To Remove Paint, Varnish, etc., from Wood. Varnish, paint, etc., no matter how old and hard, may be softened in a few minutes so that they can be easily scraped off, by applying the following mixture;


Water glass                         5 parts

Soda lye, 40º B. (27 per cent)      1 part

Ammonia water                       1 part




Removing Varnish, etc. A patent has been taken out in England for a liquid for removing varnish, lacquer, tar, and paint. The composition is made by mixing 4 ounces of benzol, 3 ounces of fusel oil, and 1 ounce of alcohol. It is stated by the inventor that this mixture, if applied to a painted or varnished surface, will make the surface quite clean in less than 10 minutes, and that a paint soaked brush " as hard as iron " can be made as soft and pliable as new by simply soaking for an hour or so in the mixture.


To Remove Enamel and Tin Solder. Pour enough of oil of vitriol (concentrated sulphuric acid) over powdered fluorspar in an earthen or lead vessel, so as just to cover the parts whereby hydrofluoric acid is generated. For use, dip the article suspended on a wire into the liquid until the enamel or the tin is eaten away or dissolved, which does not injure the articles in any way. If heated, the liquid acts more rapidly. The work should always be conducted in the open air, and care should be taken not to inhale the fumes, which are highly injurious to the health, and not to get any liquid on the skin, as hydrofluoric acid is one of the most dangerous poisons. Hydrofluoric acid must be kept in earthen or leaden vessels, as it destroys glass.


Removing Paint and Varnish from Wood. The following compound is given as one which will clean paint or varnish from wood or stone without injuring the material:


Flour or wood pulp            385 parts

Hydrochloric acid             450 parts

Bleaching powder              160 parts

Turpentine                    5 parts


This mixture is applied to the surface and left on for some time. It is then brushed off, and brings the paint away with it. It keeps moist quite long enough to be easily removed after it has acted.


Paste for Removing Old Paint or Varnish Coats.



Sodium hydrate                5 parts

Soluble soda glass            3 parts

Flour paste                   6 parts

Water                         4 parts



Soap                          10 parts

Potassium hydrate             7 parts

Potassium silicate            2 parts






To Remove Old Enamel. Lay the articles horizontally in a vessel containing a concentrated solution of alum and boil them. The solution should be just sufficient to cover the pieces. In 20 or 25 minutes the old enamel will fall into dust, and the article can be polished with emery. If narrow and deep vessels are used the operation will require more time.




Two-Solution Ink Remover.




Citric acid                         1 part

Concentrated solution of borax      2 parts

Distilled water                     16 parts


Dissolve the acid in the water, add the borax solution, and mix by agitation.



Chloride of lime                    3 parts

Water                               16 parts

Concentrated borax solution         2 parts


Add the chloride of lime to the water, shake well and set aside for a week, then decant the clear liquid and to it add the borax solution.


For use, saturate the spot with solution (a), apply a blotter to take off the excess of liquid, then apply solution (b). When the stain has disappeared, apply the blotter and wet the spot with clean water; finally dry between two sheets of blotting paper.



(a) Mix, in equal parts, potassium chloride, potassium hypochlorite, and oil of peppermint. (b) Sodium chloride, hydrochloric acid and water, in equal parts.


Wet the spot with (a), let dry, then brush it overlightly with (b), and rinse in clear water.


A good single mixture which will answer for most inks is made by mixing citric acid and alum in equal parts. If desired to vend in a liquid form add an equal part of water. In use, the powder is spread well over the spot and (if on cloth or woven fabrics) well rubbed in with the fingers. A few drops of water are then added, and also rubbed in. A final rinsing with water completes the process.


Ink Erasers.


I.    Inks made with nutgalls and copperas can be removed by using a moderately concentrated solution of oxalic acid, followed by use of pure water and frequent drying with clean blotting paper. Most other black inks are erased by use of a weak solution of chlorinated lime, followed by dilute acetic acid and water, with frequent drying with blotters. Malachite green ink is bleached by ammonia water; silver inks by potassium cyanide or sodium hyposulphite. Some aniline colors are easily removed by alcohol, and nearly all by chlorinated lime, followed by diluted acetic acid or vinegar. In all cases apply the substances with camel's-hair brushes or feathers, and allow them to remain no longer than necessary, after which rinse well with water and dry with blotting paper.



Citric acid                         1 part

Water, distilled                    10 parts

Concentrated solution of borax      2 parts


Dissolve the citric acid in the water and add the borax.    Apply to the paper with a delicate camel's-hair pencil, removing any excess of water with a blotter. A mixture of oxalic, citric, and tartaric acids, in equal parts, dissolved in just enough water to give a clean solution, acts energetically on most inks.


Erasing Powder or Pounce. Alum, 1 part; amber, 1 part; sulphur, 1 part; saltpeter, 1 part. Mix well together and keep in a glass bottle. If a little of this powder is placed on an ink spot or fresh writing, rubbing very lightly with a clean linen rag, the spot or the writing will disappear at once.


Removing Ink Stains.



I.    The material requiring treatment should first be soaked in clean, warm water, the superfluous moisture removed, and the fabric spread over a clean cloth. Now allow a few minims of liquor ammoniae fortis, specific gravity 0.891, to drop on the ink spot, then saturate a tiny tuft of absorbent cotton-wool with acidum phosphoricum dilutum, B.P., and apply repeatedly and with firm pressure over the stain; repeat the procedure two or three times, and finally rinse well in warm water, afterwards drying in the sun, when every trace of ink will have vanished. This method is equally reliable for old and fresh ink stains, is rapid in action, and will not injure the most delicate fabric.


II.   To remove ink spots the fabric is soaked in warm water, then it is squeezed out and spread upon a clean piece of linen. Now apply a few drops of liquid ammonia of a specific gravity of 0.891 to the spot, and dab it next with a wad of cotton which has been saturated with dilute phosphoric acid. After repeating the process several times and drying the piece in the sun, the ink spot will have disappeared without leaving the slightest trace.






III.  Ink spots may be removed by the following mixture:


Oxalic acid                         10 parts

Stannic chloride                    2 parts

Acetic acid                         5 parts

Water to make                       500 parts




IV.   The customary method of cleansing ink spots is to use oxalic acid. Thick blotting paper is soaked in a concentrated solution and dried. It is then laid immediately on the blot, and in many instances will take the latter out without leaving a trace behind. In more stubborn cases the cloth is dipped in boiling water and rubbed with crystals of oxalic acid, after which it is soaked in a weak solution of chloride of lime - say 1 ounce to a quart of water. Under such circumstances the linen should be thoroughly rinsed in several waters afterwards. Oxalic acid is undesirable for certain fabrics because it removes the color.


V.    Here is a more harmless method: Equal parts of cream of tartar and citric acid, powdered fine, and mixed together. This forms the "salts of lemon" sold by druggists. Procure a hot dinner plate, lay the part stained in the plate, and moisten with hot water; next rub in the above powder with the bowl of a spoon until the stains disappear; then rinse in clean water and dry.


To Remove Red (Aniline) Ink. Stains of red anilines, except eosine, are at once removed by moistening with alcohol of 94 per cent, acidulated with acetic acid. Eosine does not disappear so easily. The amount of acetic acid to be used is ascertained by adding it, drop by drop, to the alcohol, testing the mixture from time to time, until when dropped on the stain, the latter at once disappears.



See also Household Formulas.


To Renovate Brick Walls. Dissolve glue in water in the proportion of 1 ounce of glue to every gallon of water; add, while hot, a piece of alum the size of a hen's egg, pound Venetian red, and 1 pound Spanish brown. Add more water if too dark; more red and brown if too light.


Cleaning Painted Doors, Walls, etc. The following recipe is designed for painted objects that are much soiled. Simmer gently on the fire, stirring constantly, 30 parts, by weight, of pulverized borax, and 450 parts of brown soap of good quality, cut in small pieces, in 3,000 parts of water. The liquid is applied by means of flannel and rinsed off at once with pure water.


To Remove Aniline Stains from Ceilings, etc. In renewing ceilings, the old aniline color stains are often very annoying, as they penetrate the new coating. Painting over with shellac or oil paint will bring relief, but other drawbacks appear. A very practical remedy is to place a tin vessel on the floor of the room, and to burn a quantity of sulphur in it after the doors and windows of the room have been closed. The sulphur vapors destroy the aniline stains, which disappear entirely.


Old Ceilings. In dealing with old ceilings the distemper must be washed off down to the plaster face, all cracks raked out and stopped with putty (plaster of Paris and distemper mixed), and the whole rubbed smooth with pumice stone and water; stained parts should be painted with oil color, and the whole distempered. If old ceilings are in bad condition it is desirable that they should be lined with paper, which should have a coat of weak size before being distempered.


Oil Stains on Wall Paper. Make a medium thick paste of pipe clay and water, applying it carefully flat upon the oil stain, but avoiding all friction. The paste is allowed to remain 10 to 12 hours, after which time it is very carefully removed with a soft rag. In many cases a repeated action will be necessary until the purpose desired is fully reached. Finally, however, this will be obtained without blurring or destroying the design of the wall paper, unless it be of the cheapest variety. In the case of a light, delicate paper, the paste should be composed of magnesia and benzine.


To Clean Painted Walls. A simple method is to put a little aqua ammonia in moderately warm water, dampen a flannel with it, and gently wipe over the painted surface. No scrubbing is necessary.


Treatment of Whitewashed Walls. It is suggested that whitewashed walls which it is desired to paper, with a view to preventing peeling, should be treated with water, after which the scraper should be vigorously used. If the whitewash has been thoroughly soaked it can easily be removed with the scraper. Care should be taken that every part of the wall is well scraped.






Cleaning Wall Paper.


I.    To clean wall paper the dust should first be removed by lightly brushing, preferably with a feather duster, and the surface then gently rubbed with slices of moderately stale bread, the discolored surface of the bread being removed from time to time, so as to expose a fresh portion for use. Care should be taken to avoid scratching the paper with the crust of the bread, and the rubbing should be in one direction, the surface being systematically gone over, as in painting, to avoid the production of streaks.


II.   Mix 4 ounces of powdered pumice with 1 quart of flour, and with the aid of water make a stiff dough. Form the dough into rolls 2 inches in diameter and 6 inches long; sew each roll separately in a cotton cloth, then boil for 40 or 50 minutes, so as to render the mass firm. Allow to stand for several hours, remove the crust, and they are ready for use.


III.  Bread will clean paper; but unless it is properly used the job will be a very tedious one. Select a "tin" loaf at least two days old. Cut off the crust at one end, and rub down the paper, commencing at the top. Do not rub the bread backwards and forwards, but in single strokes. When the end gets dirty take a very sharp knife and pare off a thin layer; then proceed as before.


It is well to make sure that the walls are quite dry before using the bread, or it may smear the pattern. If the room is furnished it will, of course, be necessary to place cloths around the room to catch the crumbs.


IV.   A preparation for cleansing wall paper that often proves much more effectual than ordinary bread, especially when the paper is very dirty, is made by mixing 2/3 dough and 1/3 plaster of Paris. This should be made a day before it is needed for use, and should be very gently baked.


If there are any grease spots they should be removed by holding a hot flatiron against a piece of blotting paper placed over them. If this fails, a little fuller's earth or pipe clay should be made into a paste with water, and this should then be carefully plastered over the grease spots and allowed to remain till quite dry, when it will be found to have absorbed the grease.


V.    Mix together 1 pound each of rye flour and white flour into a dough, which is partially cooked and the crust removed. To this 1 ounce common salt and ounce of powdered naphthaline are added, and finally 1 ounce of corn meal, and | ounce of burnt umber. The composition is formed into a mass of the proper size to be grasped in the hand, and in use it should be drawn in one direction over the surface to be cleaned.


VI.   Procure a soft, flat sponge, being careful that there are no hard or gritty places in it, then get a bucket of new, clean, dry, wheat bran. Hold the sponge flat side up, and put a handful of bran on it, then quickly turn against the wall, and rub the wall gently and carefully with it; then repeat the operation. Hold a large pan or spread down a drip cloth to catch the bran as it falls, but never use the same bran twice. Still another way is to use Canton flannel in strips a foot wide and about 3 yards long. Roll a strip around a stick 1 inch thick and 10 inches long, so as to have the ends of the stick covered, with the nap of the cloth outside. As the cloth gets soiled, unroll the soiled part and roll it up with the soiled face inside.


In this way one can change places on the cloth when soiled and use the whole face of the cloth. To take out a grease spot requires care. First, take several thicknesses of brown wrapping paper and make a pad, place it against the grease spot, and hold a hot flatiron against it to draw out the grease, which will soak into the brown paper. Be careful to have enough layers of brown paper to keep the iron from scorching or discoloring the wall paper. If the first application does not take out nearly all the grease, repeat with clean brown paper or a blotting pad Then take an ounce vial of washed sulphuric ether and a soft, fine, clean sponge, and sponge the spot carefully until all the grease disappears. Do not wipe the place with the sponge and ether, but dab the sponge carefully against the place. A small quantity of ether is advised, as it is very inflammable.




Soaps for Clothing and Fabrics. When the fabric is washable and the color fast, ordinary soap and water are sufficient for removing grease and the ordinarily attendant dirt; but special soaps are made which may possibly be more effectual.




Powdered borax                      30 parts

Extract of soap bark                30 parts

Ox gall (fresh)                     120 parts

Castile soap                        450 parts


First make the soap-bark extract by boiling the crushed bark in water until it has assumed a dark color, then strain the liquid into an evaporating dish, and






by the aid of heat evaporate it to a solid extract; then powder and mix it with the borax and the ox gall. Melt the castile soap by adding a small quantity of water and warming, then add the other ingredients and mix well.


About 100 parts of soap bark make 20 parts of extract.



Castile soap                        2 pounds

Potassium carbonate                 1/2 pound

Camphor                             1/2 ounce

Alcohol                             1/2 ounce

Ammonia water                       1/2 ounce

Hot water,                          1/2 pint, or sufficient.


Dissolve the potassium carbonate in the water, add the soap previously reduced to thin shavings, keep warm over a water bath, stirring occasionally, until dissolved, adding more water if necessary, and finally, when of a consistence to become semisolid on cooling, remove from the fire. When nearly ready to set, stir in the camphor, previously dissolved in the alcohol and the ammonia.


The soap will apparently be quite as efficacious without the camphor and ammonia.


If a paste is desired, a potash soap should be used instead of the castile in the foregoing formula, and a portion or all of the water omitted. Soaps made from potash remain soft, while soda soaps harden on the evaporation of the water which they contain when first made.


A liquid preparation may be obtained, of course, by the addition of sufficient water, and some more alcohol would probably improve it.


Clothes-Cleaning Fluids:

See also Household Formulas.



Borax                               1 ounce

Castile soap                        1 ounce

Sodium carbonate                    3 drachms

Ammonia water                       5 ounces

Alcohol                             4 ounces

Acetone                             4 ounces

Hot water                           to make 4 pints


Dissolve the borax, sodium bicarbonate, and soap in the hot water, mix the acetone and alcohol together, unite the two solutions, and then add the ammonia water. The addition of a couple of ounces of rose water will render it somewhat fragrant.


II.   A strong decoction of soap bark, preserved by the addition of alcohol, forms a good liquid cleanser for fabrics of the more delicate sort.




Chloroform                          15 parts

Ether                               15 parts

Alcohol                             120 parts

Decoction of quillaia bark of 30º   4,500 parts



Acetic ether                        10 parts

Amyl acetate                        10 parts

Liquid ammonia                      10 parts

Dilute alcohol                      70 parts


V.    Another good non-inflammable spot remover consists of equal parts of acetone, ammonia, and diluted alcohol. For use in large quantities carbon tetrachloride is suggested.



Castile soap                        4 av. ounces

Water, boiling                      32 fluidounces


Dissolve and add:


Water                               1 gallon

Ammonia                             8 fluidounces

Ether                               2 fluidounces

Alcohol                             4 fluidounces


To Remove Spots from Tracing Cloth. It is best to use benzine, which is applied by means of a cotton rag. The benzine also takes off lead pencil marks, but does not attack India and other inks. The places treated with benzine should subsequently be rubbed with a little talcum, otherwise it would not be possible to use the pen on them.


Removal of Paint from Clothing. Before paint becomes "dry" it can be removed from cloth by the liberal application of turpentine or benzine. If the spot is not large, it may be immersed in the liquid; otherwise, a thick, folded, absorbent cloth should be placed under the fabric which has been spotted, and the liquid sponged on freely enough that it may soak through, carrying the greasy matter with it. Some skill in manipulation is requisite to avoid simply spreading the stain and leaving a "ring" to show how far it has extended.


When benzine is used the operator must be careful to apply it only in the absence of light or fire, on account of the extremely inflammable character of the vapor.


Varnish stains, when fresh, are treated in the same way, but the action of the solvent may possibly not be so complete on account of the gum rosins present.


When either paint or varnish has dried, its removal becomes more difficult. In such case soaking in strong ammonia water may answer. An emulsion, formed by shaking together 2 parts of ammonia water and 1 of spirits of turpentine, has been recommended.


To Remove Vaseline Stains from Clothing. Moisten the spots with a mixture of 1 part of aniline oil, 1 of pow-






dered soap, and 10 of water. After allowing the cloth to lie for 5 or 10 minutes, wash with water.


To Remove Grease Spots from Plush. Place fresh bread rolls in the oven, break them apart as soon as they have become very hot, and rub the spots with the crumbs, continuing the work by using new rolls until all traces of fat have disappeared from the fabric. Purified benzine, which does not alter even the most delicate colors, is also useful for this purpose.


To Remove Iron Rust from Muslin and Linen. Wet with lemon juice and salt and expose to the sun. If one application does not remove the spots, a second rarely fails to do so.


Keroclean. This non-inflammable cleanser removes grease spots from delicate fabrics without injury, cleans all kinds of jewelry and tableware by removing fats and tarnish, kills moths, insects, and household pests by suffocation and extermination, and cleans ironware by removing rust, brassware by removing grease, copperware by removing verdigris. It is as clear as water and will stand any fire test.


Kerosene                            1 ounce

Carbon tetrachloride (commercial)   3 ounces

Oil of citronella                   2 drachms


Mix, and filter if necessary. If a strong odor of carbon bisulphide is detected in the carbon tetrachloride first shake with powdered charcoal and filter.


To Clean Gold and Silver Lace.


I.    Alkaline liquids sometimes used for cleaning gold lace are unsuitable, for they generally corrode or change the color of the silk. A solution of soap also interferes with certain colors, and should therefore not be employed. Alcohol is an effectual remedy for restoring the luster of gold, and it may be used without any danger to the silk, but where the gold is worn off, and the base metal exposed, it is not so successful in accomplishing its purpose, as by removing the tarnish the base metal becomes more distinguishable from the fine gold.


II.   To clean silver lace take alabaster in very fine powder, lay the lace upon a cloth, and with a soft brush take up some of the powder, and rub both sides with it till it becomes bright and clean, afterwards polish with another brush until all remnants of the powder are removed, and it exhibits a lustrous surface.


III.  Silver laces are put in curdled milk for 24 hours. A piece of Venetian soap, or any other good soap, is scraped and stirred into 2 quarts of rain water. To this a quantity of honey and fresh ox gall is added, and the whole is stirred for some time. If it becomes too thick, more water is added. This mass is allowed to stand for half a day, and the wet laces are painted with it. Wrap a wet cloth around the roller of a mangle, wind the laces over this, put another wet cloth on top, and press, wetting and repeating the application several times. Next, dip the laces in a clear solution of equal parts of sugar and gum arabic, pass them again through the mangle, between two clean pieces of cloth, and hang them up to dry thoroughly, attaching a weight to the lower end.


IV.   Soak gold laces over night in cheap white wine and then proceed as with silver laces. If the gold is worn off, put 771 grains of shellac, 31 grains of dragon's blood, 31 grains of turmeric in strong alcohol and pour off the ruby-colored fluid. Dip a fine hair pencil in this, paint the pieces to be renewed, and hold a hot flatiron a few inches above them, so that only the laces receive the heat.


V.    Silver embroideries may also be cleaned by dusting them with Vienna lime, and brushing off with a velvet brush.


For gildings the stuff is dipped in a solution of gold chloride, and this is reduced by means of hydrogen in another vessel.


For silvering, one of the following two processes may be employed: (a) Painting with a solution of 1 part of phosphorus in 15 parts bisulphide of carbon and dipping in a solution of nitrate of silver; (b) dipping for 2 hours in a solution of nitrate of silver, mixed with ammonia, then exposing to a current of pure hydrogen.


To Remove Silver Stains from White Fabrics. Moisten the fabric for two or three minutes with a solution of 5 parts of bromine and 500 parts of water. Then rinse in clear water. If a yellowish stain remains, immerse in a solution of 150 parts of sodium hyposulphite in 500 parts of water, and again rinse in clear water.


Rust-Spot Remover. Dissolve potassium bioxalate, 200 parts, in distilled water, 8,800 parts; add glycerine, 1,000 parts, and filter. Moisten the rust or ink spots with this solution; let the linen,

etc., lie for 3 hours, rubbing the moistened spots frequently, and then wash well with water.






To Clean Quilts. Quilts are cleaned by first washing them in lukewarm soapsuds, then laying them in cold, soft (rain) water over night. The next day they are pressed as dry as possible and hung up; the ends, in which the moisture remains for a long time, must be wrung out from time to time.


It is very essential to beat the drying quilts frequently with a smooth stick or board. This will have the effect of swelling up the wadding, and preventing it from felting. Furthermore, the quilts should be repeatedly turned during the drying from right to left and also from

top to bottom. In this manner streaks are avoided.


Removal of Peruvian-Balsam Stains. The fabric is spread out, a piece of filter paper being placed beneath the stain, and the latter is then copiously moistened with chloroform, applied by means of a tuft of cotton wool. Rubbing is tc be avoided.


Solution for Removing Nitrate of Silver Spots.


Bichloride of mercury               5 parts

Ammonium chloride                   5 parts

Distilled water                     40 parts


Apply the mixture to the spots with a cloth, then rub. This removes, almost instantaneously, even old stains on linen, cotton, or wool. Stains on the skin thus treated become whitish yellow and soon disappear.


Cleaning Tracings. Tracing cloth can be very quickly and easily cleaned, and pencil marks removed by the use of benzine, which is applied with a cotton swab. It may be rubbed freely over the tracing without injury to lines drawn in ink, or even in water color, but the pencil marks and dirt will quickly disappear. The benzine evaporates almost immediately, leaving the tracing unharmed. The surface, however, has been softened and must be rubbed down with talc, or some similar substance, before drawing any more ink lines.


The glaze may be restored to tracing cloth after using the eraser by rubbing the roughened surface with a piece of hard wax from an old phonograph cylinder. The surface thus produced is superior to that of the original glaze, as it is absolutely oil and water-proof.


Rags for Cleaning and Polishing. Immerse flannel rags in a solution or 20 parts of dextrine and 30 parts of oxalic acid in 20 parts of logwood decoction; gently wring them out, and sift over them a mixture of finely powdered tripoli and pumice stone. Pile the moist rags one upon another, placing a layer of the powder between each two. Then press, separate, and dry.


Cleaning Powder.


Bole                    500 parts

Magnesium carbonate     50 parts


Mix and make into a paste with a small quantity of benzine or water; apply to stains made by fats or oils on the cloth- ing and when dry remove with a brush.




Cleaning and Preserving Polished Woodwork. Rub down all the polished work with a very weak alcoholic solution of shellac (1 to 20 or even 1 to 30) and linseed oil, spread on a linen cloth. The rubbing should be firm and hard. Spots on the polished surface, made by alcohol, tinctures, water, etc., should be removed as far as possible and as soon as possible after they are made, by the use of boiled linseed oil. Afterwards they should be rubbed with the shellac and linseed oil solution on a soft linen rag. If the spots are due to acids go over them with a little dilute ammonia water. Ink spots may be removed with dilute or (if necessary) concentrated hydrochloric acid, following its use with dilute ammonia water. In extreme cases it may be necessary to use the scraper or sandpaper, or both.


Oak as a general thing is not polished, but has a matt surface which can be washed with water and soap. First all stains and spots should be gone over with a sponge or a soft brush and very weak ammonia water. The carved work should be freed of dust, etc., by the use of a stiff brush, and finally washed with dilute ammonia water. When dry it should be gone over very thinly and evenly with brunoline applied with a soft pencil. If it is desired to give an especially handsome finish, after the surface is entirely dry, give it a preliminary coat of brunoline and follow this on the day after with a second. Brunoline may be purchased of any dealer in paints. To make it, put 70 parts of linseed oil in a very capacious vessel (on account of the foam that ensues) and add to it 20 parts of powdered litharge, 20 parts of powdered minium, and 10 parts of lead acetate, also powdered. Boil until the oil is completely oxidized, stirring constantly. When completely oxidized the oil is no longer red, but is of a dark brown color. When it acquires






this color, remove from the fire, and add 160 parts of turpentine oil, and stir well. This brunoline serves splendidly for polishing furniture or other polished wood.


To Clean Lacquered Goods. Papier-maché and lacquered goods may be cleaned perfectly by rubbing thoroughly with a paste made of wheat flour and olive oil. Apply with a bit of soft flannel or old linen, rubbing hard; wipe off and polish by rubbing with an old silk handkerchief.


Polish for Varnished Work. To renovate varnished work make a polish of 1 quart good vinegar, 2 ounces butter of antimony, 2 ounces alcohol, and 1 quart oil. Shake well before using.


To Clean Paintings. To clean an oil painting, take it out of its frame, lay a piece of cloth moistened with rain water on it, and leave it for a while to take up the dirt from the picture. Several applications may be required to secure a perfect result. Then wipe the picture very gently with a tuft of cotton wool damped with absolutely pure linseed oil. Gold frames may be cleaned with a freshly cut onion; they should be wiped with a soft sponge wet with rain water a few hours after the application of the onion, and finally wiped with a soft rag.


Removing and Preventing Match Marks. The unsightly marks made on a painted surface by striking matches on it can sometimes be removed by scrubbing with soapsuds and a stiff brush. To prevent match marks dip a bit of flannel in alboline (liquid vaseline), and with it go over the surface, rubbing it hard. A second rubbing with a dry bit of flannel completes the job. A man may "strike" a match there all day, and neither get a light nor make a mark.




Powder for Cleaning Gloves.



White bole or pipe clay             60.0 parts

Orris root (powdered)               30.0 parts

Powdered grain soap                 7.5 parts

Powdered borax                      15 parts

Ammonium chloride                   2.5 parts


Mix the above ingredients. Moisten the gloves with a damp cloth, rub on the powder, and brush off after drying.


II.   Four pounds powdered pipeclay, 2 pounds powdered white soap, 1 ounce lemon oil, thoroughly rubbed together. To use, make powder into a thin cream with water and rub on the gloves while on the hands. This is a cheaply produced compound, and does its work effectually.


Soaps and Pastes for Cleaning Gloves.



Soft soap                           1 ounce

Water                               4 ounces

Oil of lemon                        1/2 drachm

Precipitated chalk,                 a sufficient quantity.


Dissolve the soap in the water, add the oil, and make into a stiff paste with a sufficient quantity of chalk.



White hard soap                     1 part

Talcum                              1 part

Water                               4 parts


Shave the soap into ribbons, dissolve in the water by the aid of heat, and incorporate the talcum.



Curd soap                           1 av. ounce

Water                               4 fluidounces

Oil of lemon                        1/2 fluidrachm


French chalk, a sufficient quantity. Shred the soap and melt it in the water by heat, add the oil of lemon, and make into a stiff paste with French chalk.



White castile soap, old and dry     15 parts

Water                               15 parts

Solution of chlorinated soda        16 parts

Ammonia water                       1 part


Cut or shave up the soap, add the water, and heat on the water bath to a smooth paste. Remove, let cool, and add the other ingredients and mix thoroughly.



Castile soap, white, old, and dry   100 parts

Water                               75 parts

Tincture of quillaia                10 parts

Ether, sulphuric                    10 parts

Ammonia water, FF                   5 parts

Benzine, deodorized                 75 parts


Melt the soap, previously finely shaved, in the water, bring to a boil and remove from the fire. Let cool down, then add the other ingredients, incorporating them thoroughly. This should be put up in collapsible tubes or tightly closed metallic boxes. This is also useful for clothing.


Liquid Cloth and Glove Cleaner.


Gasoline                                  1 gallon

Chloroform                                1 ounce

Carbon disulphide                         1 ounce






Essential oil almond                      5 drops

Oil bergamot                              1 drachm

Oil cloves                                5 drops


Mix.  To be applied with a sponge or soft cloth.




Cleaning and Polishing Marble.


I.    Marble that has become dirty by ordinary use or exposure may be cleaned by a simple bath of soap and water.


If this does not remove stains, a weak solution of oxalic acid should be applied with a sponge or rag, washing quickly and thoroughly with water to minimize injury to the surface.


Rubbing well after this with chalk moistened with water will, in a measure, restore the luster. Another method of finishing is to apply a solution of white wax in turpentine (about 1 in 10), rubbing thoroughly with a piece of flannel or soft leather.


If the marble has been much exposed, so that its luster has been seriously impaired,, it may be necessary to repolish it in a more thorough manner. This may be accomplished by rubbing it first with sand, beginning with a moderately coarse-grained article and changing this twice for finer kinds, after which tripoli or pumice is used. The final polish is given by the so-called putty powder. A plate of iron is generally used in applying the coarse sand; with the fine sand a leaden plate is used; and the pumice is employed in the form of a smooth-surfaced piece of convenient size. For the final polishing coarse linen or bagging is used, wedged tightly into an iron planing tool. During all these applications water is allowed to trickle over the face of the stone.


The putty powder referred to is binoxide of tin, obtained by treating metallic tin with nitric acid, which converts the metal into hydrated metastannic acid. This, when heated, becomes anhydrous. In this condition it is known as putty powder. In practice putty powder is mixed with alum, sulphur, and other substances, the mixture used being dependent upon the nature of the stone to be polished.


According to Warwick, colored marble should not be treated with soap and water, but only with the solution of beeswax above mentioned.


II.   Take 2 parts of sodium bicarbonate, 1 part of powdered pumice stone, and 1 part of finely pulverized chalk. Pass through a fine sieve to screen out all particles capable of scratching the marble, and add sufficient water to form a pasty mass. Rub the marble with it vigorously, and end the cleaning with soap and water.



Ox gall                             1 part

Saturated solution of sodium

  carbonate                         4 parts

Oil of turpentine                   1 part

Pipe clay                           enough to form a paste.



Sodium carbonate                    2 ounces

Chlorinated lime                    1 ounce

Water                               14 ounces


Mix well and apply the magma to the marble with a cloth, rubbing well in, and finally rubbing dry. It may be necessary to repeat this operation.


V.    Wash the surface with a mixture of finely powdered pumice stone and vinegar, and leave it for several hours; then brush it hard and wash it clean. When dry, rub with whiting and wash leather.



Soft soap                           4 parts

Whiting                             4 parts

Sodium bicarbonate                  1 part

Copper sulphate                     2 parts


Mix thoroughly and rub over the marble with a piece of flannel, and leave it on for 24 hours, then wash it off with clean water, and polish the marble with a piece of flannel or an old piece of felt.


VII.  A strong solution of oxalic acid effectually takes out ink stains. In handling it the poisonous nature of this acid should not be forgotten.


VIII. Iron mold or ink spots may be taken out in the following manner: Take 1/2 ounce of butter of antimony and 1 ounce of oxalic acid and dissolve them in 1 pint of rain water; add enough flour to bring the mixture to a proper consistency. Lay it evenly on the stained part with a brush, and, after it has remained for a few days, wash it off and repeat the process if the stain is not wholly removed.


IX.   To remove oil stains apply common clay saturated with benzine. If the grease has remained in long the polish will be injured, but the stain will be removed.


X.    The following method for removing rust from iron depends upon the solubility of the sulphide of iron in a solution of cyanide of potassium. Clay is made into a thin paste with ammonium sulphide, and the rust spot smeared with the mixture, care being taken that the spot is only just covered. After ten minutes this paste is washed off and replaced by one consisting of white bole mixed with a solution of potassium cyanide (1 to 4), which is in its turn






washed off after about 2 1/2 hours. Should a reddish spot remain after washing off the first paste, a second layer may be applied for about 5 minutes.



Soft soap                           4 ounces

Whiting                             4 ounces

Sodium carbonate                    1 ounce

Water,                              a sufficient quantity.


Make into a thin paste, apply on the soiled surface, and wash off after 24 hours.


XII.  In a spacious tub place a tall vessel upside down. On this set the article to be cleaned so that it will not stand in the water, which would loosen the cemented parts. Into this tub pour a few inches of cold water hot water renders marble dull take a soft brush and a piece of Venetian soap, dip the former in the water and rub on the latter carefully, brushing off the article from top to bottom. When in this manner dust and dirt have >been dissolved, wash off all soap particles by means of a watering pot and cold water, dab the object with a clean sponge, which absorbs the moisture, place it upon a cloth and carefully dry with a very clean, soft cloth, rubbing gently. This treatment will restore the former gloss to the marble.


XIII. Mix and shake thoroughly in a bottle equal quantities of sulphuric acid and lemon juice. Moisten the spots and rub them lightly with a linen cloth and they will disappear.


XIV.  Ink spots are treated, with acid oxalate of potassium; blood stains by brushing with alabaster dust and distilled water, then bleaching with chlorine solution. Alizarine ink and aniline ink spots can be moderated by laying on rags saturated with Javelle water, chlorine water, or chloride of lime paste. Old oil stains can only be effaced by placing the whole piece of marble for hours in benzine. Fresh oil or grease spots are obliterated by repeated applications of a little damp, white clay and subsequent brushing with soap water or weak soda solution. For many other spots an application of benzine and magnesia is useful.


XV.   Marble slabs keep well and do not lose their fresh color if they are cleaned with hot water only, without the addition of soap, which is injurious to the color. Care must be taken that no liquid dries on the marble. If spots of wine, coffee, beer, etc., have already appeared, they are cleaned with diluted spirit of sal ammoniac, highly diluted oxalic acid, Javelle water, ox gall, or, take a quantity of newly slaked lime, mix it with water into a paste-like consistency, apply the paste uniformly on the spot with a brush, and leave the coating alone for two to three days before it is washed off. If the spots are not removed by a single application, repeat the latter. In using Javelle water 1 or 2 drops should be carefully poured on each spot, rinsing off with water.


To Remove Grease Spots from Marble. If the spots are fresh, rub them over with a piece of cloth that has been dipped into pulverized china clay, repeating the operation several times, and then brush with soap and water. When the spots are old brush with distilled water and finest French plaster energetically, then bleach with chloride of lime that is put on a piece of white cloth. If the piece of marble is small enough to permit it, soak it for a few hours in refined benzine.


Preparation for Cleaning Marble, Furniture, and Metals, Especially Copper. This preparation is claimed to give very quickly perfect brilliancy, persisting without soiling either the hand or the articles, and without leaving any odor of copper. The following is the composition for 100 parts of the product: Wax, 2.4 parts; oil of turpentine, 9.4 parts; acetic acid, 42 parts; citric acid, 42 parts; white soap, 42 parts.


Removing Oil Stains. from Marble. Saturate fuller's earth with a solution of equal parts of soap liniment, ammonia, and water; apply to the greasy part of the marble; keep there for some hours, pressed down with a smoothing iron sufficiently hot to warm the mass, and as it evaporates occasionally renew the solution. When wiped off dry the stain will have nearly disappeared. Some days later, when more oil works toward the surface repeat the operation. A few such treatments should suffice.


Cleaning Terra Cotta. After having carefully removed all dust, paint the terra cotta, by means of a brush, with a mixture of slightly gummed water and finely powdered terra cotta.


Renovation of Polished and Varnished Surfaces of Wood, Stone, etc. This is composed of the following ingredients, though the proportions may be varied: Cereal flour or wood pulp, 38 1/2 parts; hydrochloric acid, 45 parts; chloride of lime, 16 parts; turpentine, 1/2 part. After mixing the ingredients thoroughly in order to form a homogeneous paste, the object to be treated is smeared with it and allowed to stand for some time. The paste on the surface is then removed by passing over it quickly a piece of soft






leather or a brush, which will remove dirt, grease, and other deleterious substances. By rubbing gently with a cloth or piece of leather a polished surface will be imparted to wood, and objects of metal will be rendered lustrous.


The addition of chloride of lime tends to keep the paste moist, thus allowing the ready removal of the paste without damaging the varnish or polish, while the turpentine serves as a disinfectant and renders the odor less disagreeable during the operation.


The preparation is rapid in its action, and does not affect the varnished or polished surfaces of wood or marble. While energetic in its cleansing action on brass and other metallic objects, it is attended with no corrosive effect.


Nitrate of Silver Spots. To remove these spots from white marble, they should be painted with Javelle water, and after having been washed, passed over a concentrated solution of thiosulphate of soda (hyposulphite).


To Remove Oil-Paint Spots from Sandstones. This may be done by washing the spots with pure turpentine oil, then covering the place with white argillaceous earth (pipe clay), leaving it to dry, and finally rubbing with sharp soda lye, using a brush. Caustic ammonia also removes oil-paint spots from sandstones.




To Remove Rust from Iron or Steel Utensils.


I.    Apply the following solution by means of a brush, after having removed any grease by rubbing with a clean, dry cloth: 100 parts of stannic chloride are dissolved in 1,000 parts of water; this solution is added to one containing 2 parts tartaric acid dissolved in 1,000 parts of water, and finally 20 cubic centimeters indigo solution, diluted with 2,000 parts of water, are added. After allowing the solution to act upon the stain for a few seconds, it is rubbed clean, first with a moist cloth, then with a dry cloth; to restore the polish use is made of silver sand and jewelers' rouge.


II.   When the rust is recent it is removed by rubbing the metal with a cork charged with oil. In this manner a perfect polish is obtained. To take off old rust, mix equal parts of fine tripoli and flowers of sulphur, mingling this mixture with olive oil, so as to form a paste.

Rub the iron with this preparation by means of a skin.


III.  The rusty piece is connected with a piece of zinc and placed in water containing a little sulphuric acid. After the articles have been in the liquid for several days or a week, the rust will have completely disappeared. The length of time will depend upon the depth to which the rust has penetrated. A little sulphuric acid may be added from time to time, but the chief point is that the zinc always has good electric contact with the iron. To insure this an iron wire may be firmly wound around the iron object and connected with the zinc. The iron is not attacked in the least, as long as the zinc is kept in good electric contact with it. When the articles are taken from the liquid they assume a dark gray or black color and are then washed and oiled.


IV.   The rust on iron and steel objects, especially large pieces, is readily removed by rubbing the pieces with oil of tartar, or with very fine emery and a little oil, or by putting powdered alum in strong vinegar and rubbing with this alumed vinegar.


V.    Take cyanide of calcium, 25 parts; white soap, powdered, 25 parts;

Spanish white, 50 parts; and water, 200 parts. Triturate all well and rub the piece with this paste. The effect will be quicker if before using this paste the rusty object has been soaked for 5 to 10 minutes in a solution of cyanide of potassium in the ratio of 1 part of cyanide to 2 parts of water.


VI.   To remove rust from polished steel cyanide of potassium is excellent. If possible, soak the instrument to be cleaned in a solution of cyanide of potassium in the proportion of 1 ounce of cyanide to 4 ounces of water. Allow this to act till all loose rust is removed, and then polish with cyanide soap. The latter is made as follows: Potassium cyanide, precipitated chalk, white castile soap. Make a saturated solution of the cyanide and add chalk sufficient to make a creamy paste. Add the soap cut in fine shavings and thoroughly incorporate in a mortar. When the mixture is stiff cease to add the soap. It should be remembered that potassium cyanide is a virulent poison.


VII.  Apply turpentine or kerosene oil, and after letting it stand over night, clean with finest emery cloth.


VIII. To free articles of iron and steel from rust and imbedded grains of sand the articles are treated with fluorhydric acid (about 2 per cent) 1 to 2 hours, whereby the impurities but not the metal are dissolved. This is followed by a washing with lime milk, to neutralize any fluorhydric acid remaining.






To Remove Rust from Nickel. First grease the articles well; then, after a few days, rub them with a rag charged with ammonia. If the rust spots persist, add a few drops of hydrochloric acid to the ammonia, rub and wipe off at once. Next rinse with water, dry, and polish with tripolI.   


Removal of Rust. To take off the rust from small articles which glass or emery paper would bite too deeply, the ink-erasing rubber used in business offices may be employed. By beveling it, or cutting it to a point as needful, it can be introduced into the smallest cavities and windings, and a perfect cleaning be effected.


To Remove Rust from Instruments.


I.    Lay the instruments over night in a saturated solution of chloride of tin. The rust spots will disappear through reduction. Upon withdrawal from the solution the instruments are rinsed with water, placed in a hot soda-soap solution, and dried. Cleaning with absolute alcohol and polishing chalk may also follow.


II.   Make a solution of 1 part of kerosene in 200 parts of benzine or carbon tetrachloride, and dip the instruments, which have been dried by leaving them in heated air, in this, moving their parts, if movable, as in forceps and scissors, about under the liquid, so that it may enter all the crevices. Next lay the instruments on a plate in a dry room, so that the benzine can evaporate. Needles are simply thrown in the paraffine solution, and taken out with tongs or tweezers, after which they are allowed to dry on a plate.


III.  Pour olive oil on the rust spots and leave for several days; then rub with emery or tripoli, without wiping off the oil as far as possible, or always bringing it back on the spot. Afterwards remove the emery and the oil with a rag, rub again with emery soaked with vinegar, and finally with fine plumbago on a piece of chamois skin.


To Preserve Steel from Rust. To preserve steel from rust dissolve 1 part caoutchouc and 16 parts turpentine with a gentle heat, then add 8 parts boiled oil, and mix by bringing them to the heat of boiling water. Apply to the steel with a brush, the same as varnish. It can be removed again with a cloth soaked in turpentine.




Cleaning and Preserving Medals, Coins, and Small Iron Articles. The coating of silver chloride may be reduced with molten potassium cyanide. Then boil the article in water, displace the water with alcohol, and dry in a drying closet. When dry brush with a soft brush and cover with "zaponlack " (any good transparent lacquer or varnish will answer).


Instead of potassium cyanide alone, a mixture of that and potassium carbonate may be used. After treatment in this way, delicate objects of silver become less brittle. Another way is to put the article in molten sodium carbonate and remove the silver carbonate thus formed, by acetic acid of 50 per cent strength. This process produces the finest possible polish.


The potassium-cyanide process may be used with all small iron objects. For larger ones molten potassium rhodanide is recommended. This converts the iron oxide into iron sulphide that is easily washed off and leaves the surface of a fine black color.


Old coins may be cleansed by first immersing them in strong nitric acid and then washing them in clean water. Wipe them dry before putting away.


To Clean Old Medals. Immerse in lemon juice until the coating of oxide has completely disappeared; 24 hours is generally sufficient, but a longer time is not harmful.


Steel Cleaner. Smear the object with oil, preferably petroleum, and allow some days for penetration of the surface of the metal. Then rub vigorously with a piece of flannel or willow wood. Or, with a paste composed of olive oil, sulphur flowers, and tripoli, or of rotten stone and oil. Finally, a coating may be employed, made of 10 parts of potassium cyanide and 1 part of cream of tartar; or 2-5 parts of potassium cyanide, with the addition of 55 parts of carbonate of lime and 20 parts of white soap.


Restoring Tarnished Gold.


Sodium bicarbonate                  20 ounces

Chlorinated lime                    1 ounce

Common salt                         1 ounce

Water                               16 ounces


Mix well and apply with a soft brush.


A very small quantity of the solution is sufficient, and it may be used either cold or lukewarm. Plain articles may be brightened by putting a drop or two of the liquid upon them and lightly brushing the surface with fine tissue paper.






Cleaning Copper.


I.    Use Armenian bole mixed into a paste with oleic acid.



Rotten stone                        1 part

Iron subcarbonate                   3 parts

Lard oil,                           a sufficient quantity.



Iron oxide                          10 parts

Pumice stone                        32 parts

Oleic acid,                         a sufficient quantity.



Soap, cut fine                      16 parts

Precipitated chalk                  2 parts

Jewelers' rouge                     1 part

Cream of tartar                     1 part

Magnesium carbonate                 1 part


Water, a sufficient quantity. Dissolve the soap in the smallest quantity of water that will effect solution over a water bath. Add the other ingredients to the solution while still hot, stirring constantly.


To Remove Hard Grease, Paint, etc., from Machinery. To remove grease, paint, etc., from machinery add half a pound of caustic soda to 2 gallons of water and boil the parts to be cleaned in the fluid. It is possible to use it several times before its strength is exhausted.


Solutions for Cleaning Metals.



Water                               20 parts

Alum                                2 parts

Tripoli                             2 parts

Nitric acid                         1 part



Water.                              40 parts

Oxalic acid                         2 parts

Tripoli                             7 parts


To Cleanse Nickel.


I.    Fifty parts of rectified alcohol; 1 part of sulphuric acid; 1 part of nitric acid. Plunge the piece in the bath for 10 to 15 seconds, rinse it off in cold water, and dip it next into rectified alcohol. Dry with a fine linen rag or with sawdust.



Stearine oil                        1 part

Ammonia water                       25 parts

Benzine                             50 parts

Alcohol                             75 parts


Rub up the stearine with the ammonia, add the benzine and then the alcohol, and agitate until homogeneous. Put in wide-mouthed vessels and close carefully.


To Clean Petroleum Lamp Burners. Dissolve in a quart of soft water an ounce or an ounce and a half of washing soda, using an old half-gallon tomato can. Into this put the burner after removing the wick, set it on the stove, and let it boil strongly for 5 or 6 minutes, then take out, rinse under the tap, and dry. Every particle of carbonaceous matter will thus be got rid of, and the burner be as clean and serviceable as new. This ought to be done at least every month, but the light would be better if it were done every 2 weeks.


Gold-Ware Cleaner.


Acetic acid                         2 parts

Sulphuric acid                      2 parts

Oxalic acid                         1 part

Jewelers' rouge                     2 parts

Distilled water                     200 parts


Mix the acids and water and stir in the rouge, after first rubbing it up with a portion of the liquid. With a clean cloth, wet with this mixture, go well over the article. Rinse off with hot water and dry.


Silverware Cleaner. Make a thin paste of levigated (not precipitated) chalk and sodium hyposulphite, in equal parts, rubbed up in distilled water. Apply this paste to the surface, rubbing well with a soft brush. Rinse in clear water and dry in sawdust. Some authorities advise the cleaner to let the paste dry on the ware, and then to rub off and rinse with hot water.


Silver-Coin Cleaner. Make a bath of 10 parts of sulphuric acid and 90 parts of water, and let the coin lie in this until the crust of silver sulphide is dissolved. From 5 to 10 minutes usually suffice. Rinse in running water, then rub with a soft brush and castile soap, rinse again, dry with a soft cloth, and then carefully rub with chamois.


Cleaning Silver-Plated Ware. Into a wide-mouthed bottle provided with a good cork put the following mixture:


Cream of tartar                     2 parts

Levigated chalk                     2 parts

Alum                                1 part


Powder the alum and rub up with the other ingredients, and cork tightly. When required for use wet sufficient of the powder and with soft linen rags rub the article, being careful not to use much pressure, as otherwise the thin layer of plating may be cut through.

Rinse in hot suds, and afterwards in clear water, and dry in sawdust. When badly blackened with silver sulphide, if small, the article may be dipped for an instant in hydrochloric acid and immediately rinsed in running water. Larger articles may be treated as coins are immersed for 2 or 3 minutes in a 10 per cent aqueous solution of sulphuric acid, or the surface may be rapidly wiped


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