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Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

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Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 201-225






with a swab carrying nitric acid and instantly rinsed in running water.


Cleaning Gilt Bronze Ware. If greasy, wash carefully in suds, or, better, dip into a hot solution of caustic potash, and then wash in suds with a soft rag, and rinse in running water. If not then clean and bright, dip into the following mixture:


Nitric acid                         10 parts

Aluminum sulphate                   1 part

Water                               40 parts


Mix.  Rinse in running water.


Britannia Metal Cleaner. Rub first with jewelers' rouge made into a paste with oil; wash in suds, rinse, dry, and finish with chamois or wash leather.


To Remove Ink Stains on Silver. Silver articles in domestic use, and especially silver or plated inkstands, frequently become badly stained with ink. These stains cannot be removed by ordinary processes, but readily yield to a paste of chloride of lime and water. Javelle water may be also used.


Removing Egg Stains. A pinch of table salt taken between the thumb and finger and rubbed on the spot with the end of the finger will usually remove the darkest egg stain from silver.


To Clean Silver Ornaments. Make a strong solution of soft soap and water, and in this boil the articles for a few minutes five will usually be enough. Take out, pour the soap solution into a basin, and as soon as the liquid has cooled down sufficiently to be borne by the hand, with a soft brush scrub the articles with it. Rinse in boiling water and place on a porous substance (a bit of tiling, a brick, or unglazed earthenware) to dry. Finally give a light rubbing with a chamois. Articles thus treated look as bright as new.


Solvent for Iron Rust. Articles attacked by rust may be conveniently cleaned by dipping them into a well-saturated solution of stannic chloride. The length of time of the action must be regulated according to the thickness of the rust. As a rule 12 to 24 hours will suffice, but it is essential to prevent an excess of acid in the bath, as this is liable to attack the iron itself. After the objects have been removed from the bath they must be rinsed with water, and subsequently with ammonia, and then quickly dried. Greasing with vaseline seems to prevent new formation of rust. Objects treated in this manner are said to resemble dead silver.


Professor Weber proposed a diluted alkali, and it has been found that after employing this remedy the dirt layer is loosened and the green platina reappears. Potash has been found to be an efficacious remedy, even in the case of statues that had apparently turned completely black.


To Clean Polished Parts of Machines. Put in a flask 1,000 parts of petroleum; add 20 parts of paraffine, shaved fine; cork the bottle and stand aside for a couple of days, giving it an occasional shake. The mixture is now ready for use. To use, shake the bottle, pour a little of the liquid upon a woolen rag and rub evenly over the part to be cleaned; or apply with a brush. Set the article aside and, next day, rub it well with a dry, woolen rag. Every particle of rust,

resinified grease, etc., will disappear provided the article has not been neglected too long. In this case a further application of the oil will be necessary. If too great pressure has not been made, or the rubbing continued too long, the residual oil finally leaves the surface protected by a delicate layer of paraffine that will prevent rusting for a long time.


To Clean Articles of Nickel. Lay them for a few seconds in alcohol containing 2 per cent of sulphuric acid; remove, wash in running water, rinse in alcohol, and rub dry with a linen cloth. This process gives a brilliant polish and is especially useful with plated articles on the plating of which the usual polishing materials act very destructively. The yellowest and brownest nickeled articles are restored to pristine brilliancy by leaving them in the alcohol and acid for 15 seconds. Five seconds suffice ordinarily.


How to Renovate Bronzes. For gilt work, first remove all grease, dirt, wax, etc., with a solution in water of potassium or sodium hydrate, then dry, and with a soft rag apply the following:


Sodium carbonate                    7 parts

Spanish whiting                     15 parts

Alcohol, 85 per cent                50 parts

Water                               125 parts


Go over every part carefully, using a brush to get into the minute crevices. When this dries on, brush off with a fine linen cloth or a supple chamois skin.


Or the following plan may be used: Remove grease, etc., as directed above, dry and go over the spots where the gilt surface is discolored with a brush dipped in a solution of two parts of alum in 250 parts of water and 65 parts of nitric acid. As soon as the gilding reappears or the






surface becomes bright, wash off, and dry in the direct sunlight.


Still another cleaner is made of nitric acid, 30 parts; aluminum sulphate, 4 parts; distilled or rain water, 125 parts. Clean of grease, etc., as above, and apply the solution with a camel's-hair pencil.

Rinse off and dry in sawdust. Finally, some articles are best cleaned by immersing in hot soap suds and rubbing with a soft brush. Rinse in clear, hot water, using a soft brush to get the residual suds out of crevices. Let dry, then finish by rubbing the gilt spots or places with a soft, linen rag, or a bit of chamois.


There are some bronzes gilt with imitation gold and varnished. Where the work is well done and the gilding has not been on too long, they will deceive even the practiced eye. The deception, however, may easily be detected by touching a spot on the gilt surface with a glass rod dipped in a solution of corrosive sublimate. If the gilding is true no discoloration will occur, but if false a brown spot will be produced.


To Clean a Gas Stove. An easy method of removing grease spots consists in immersing the separable parts for several hours in a warm lye, heated to about 70 C. (158º F.), said lye to be made of 9 parts of caustic soda and 180 parts of water. These pieces, together with the fixed parts of the stove, may be well brushed with this lye and afterwards rinsed in clean, warm water. The grease will be dissolved, and the stove restored almost to its original state.


Cleaning Copper Sinks. Make rotten stone into a stiff paste with soft soap and water. Rub on with a woolen rag, and polish with dry whiting and rotten stone. Finish with a leather and dry whiting. Many of the substances and mixtures used to clean brass will effectively clean copper. Oxalic acid is said to be the best medium for cleaning copper, but after using it the surface of the copper must be well washed, dried, and then rubbed with sweet oil and tripoli, or some other polishing agent. Otherwise the metal will soon tarnish again.


Treatment of Cast-iron Grave Crosses. The rust must first be thoroughly removed with a steel-wire brush. When this is done apply one or two coats of red lead or graphite paint. After this priming has become hard, paint with double-burnt lampblack and equal parts of oil of turpentine and varnish. This coating is followed by one of lampblack ground with coach varnish. Now paint the single portions with "mixtion" (gilding oil) and gild as usual. Such crosses look better when they are not altogether black. Ornaments may be very well treated in colors with oil paint and then varnished. The crosses treated in this manner are preserved for many years, but it is essential to use good exterior or

coach varnish for varnishing, and not the so-called black varnish, which is mostly composed of asphalt or tar.


Cleaning Inferior Gold Articles. The brown film which forms on low-quality gold articles is removed by coating with fuming hydrochloric acid, whereupon they are brushed off with Vienna lime and petroleum. Finally, clean the objects with benzine, rinse again in pure

benzine, and dry in sawdust.


To Clean Bronze. Clean the bronze with soft soap; next wash it in plenty of water; wipe, let dry, and apply light encaustic mixture composed of spirit of turpentine in which a small quantity of yellow wax has been dissolved. The encaustic is spread by means of a linen or

woolen wad. For gilt bronze, add 1 spoonful of alkali to 3 spoonfuls of water and rub the article with this by means of a ball of wadding. Next wipe with a clean chamois, similar to that employed in silvering.


How to Clean Brass and Steel. To clean brasses quickly and economically, rub them with vinegar and salt or with oxalic acid. Wash immediately after the rubbing, and polish with tripoli and sweet oil. Unless the acid is washed off the article will tarnish quickly. Copper kettles and saucepans, brass andirons, fenders, and candlesticks and trays are best cleaned with vinegar and salt. Cooking vessels in constant use need only to be well washed afterwards. Things for show even pots and pans need the oil polishing, which gives a deep, rich, yellow luster, good for six months. Oxalic acid and salt should be employed for furniture brasses if it touches the wood it only improves the tone. Wipe the brasses well with a wet cloth, and polish thoroughly with oil and tripolI.     Sometimes powdered rotten stone does better than the tripolI. Rub, after using, either with a dry cloth or leather, until there is no trace of oil. The brass to be cleaned must be freed completely from grease, caked dirt, and grime. Wash with strong ammonia suds and rinse dry before beginning with the acid and salt.


The best treatment for wrought steel is to wash it very clean with a stiff brush






and ammonia soapsuds, rinse well, dry by heat, oil plentifully with sweet oil, and dust thickly with powdered quicklime. Let the lime stay on 2 days, then brush it off with a clean, very stiff brush. Polish with a softer brush, and rub with cloths until the luster comes out. By leaving the lime on, iron and steel may be kept from rust almost indefinitely.


Before wetting any sort of bric-a-brac, and especially bronzes, remove all the dust possible. After dusting, wash well in strong white soapsuds and ammonia, rinse clean, polish with just a suspicion of oil and rotten stone, and rub off afterwards every trace of the oil. Never let acid touch a bronze surface, unless to eat and pit it for antique effects.


Composition for Cleaning Copper, Nickel, and other Metals. Wool grease,

46 parts, by weight; fire clay, 30 parts, by weight; paraffine, 5 parts, by weight; Canova wax, 5 parts, by weight; cocoanut oil, 10 parts, by weight; oil of mirbane, 1 part, by weight. After mixing these different ingredients, which constitute a paste, this is molded in order to give a cylindrical form, and introduced into a case so that it can be used like a stick of cosmetic.


Putz Pomade.


I.    Oxalic acid, 1 part; caput mortuum, 15 parts (or, if white pomade is desired, tripoli, 12 parts); powdered pumice stone, best grade, 20 parts; palm oil, 60 parts; petroleum or oleine, 4 parts. Perfume with mirbane oil.



Oxalic acid                         1 part

Peroxide of iron (jewelers'

  rouge)                            15 parts

Rotten stone                        20 parts

Palm oil                            60 parts

Petrolatum                          5 parts


Pulverize the acid and the rotten stone and mix thoroughly with the rouge. Sift to remove all grit, then make into a paste with the oil and petrolatum. A little nitro-benzol may be added to scent the mixture.



Oleine                              40 parts

Ceresine                            5 parts

Tripoli                             40 parts

Light mineral oil (0.870)           20 parts


Melt the oleine, ceresine, and mineral oil together, and stir in the tripoli; next, grind evenly in a paint mill.


To Clean Gummed Parts of Machinery. Boil about 10 to 15 parts of caustic soda or 100 parts of soda in 1,000 parts of water, immerse the parts to be cleaned in this for some time, or, better, boil them with it. Then rinse and dry. For small shops this mode of cleaning is doubtless the best.


To Remove Silver Plating.


I.    Put sulphuric acid 100 parts and potassium nitrate (saltpeter) 10 parts in a vessel of stoneware or porcelain, heated on the water bath. When the silver has left the copper, rinse the objects several times.

This silver stripping bath may be used several times, if it is kept in a well-closed bottle. When it is saturated with silver, decant the liquid, boil it to dryness, then add the residue to the deposit, and melt in the crucible to obtain the metal.


II.   Stripping silvered articles of the silvering may be accomplished by the following mixture: Sulphuric acid, 60 B., 3 parts; nitric acid, 40 B., 1 part; heat the mixture to about 166º F., and immerse the articles by means of a copper wire. In a few seconds the acid mixture will have done the work. A thorough rinsing off is, of course, necessary.


To Clean Zinc Articles. In order to clean articles of zinc, stir rye bran into a paste with boiling water, and add a handful of silver sand and a little vitriol. Rub the article with this paste, rinse with water, dry, and polish with a cloth.


To Remove Rust from Nickel. Smear the rusted parts well with grease (ordinary animal fat will do), and allow the article to stand several days. If the rust is not thick the grease and rust may be rubbed off with a cloth dipped in ammonia. If the rust is very deep, apply a diluted solution of hydrochloric acid, taking care that the acid does not touch the metal, and the rust may be easily rubbed off. Then wash the article and polish in the usual way.


Compound for Cleaning Brass. To make a brass cleaning compound use oxalic acid, 1 ounce; rotten stone, 6 ounces; enough whale oil and spirits of turpentine of equal parts, to mix, and make a paste.


To Clean Gilt Objects.


I.    Into an ordinary drinking glass pour about 20 drops of ammonia, immerse the piece to be cleaned repeatedly in this, and brush with a soft brush. Treat the article with pure water, then with alcohol, and wipe with a soft rag.


II.   Boil common alum in soft, pure water, and immerse the article in the solution, or rub the spot with it and dry with sawdust.


III.  For cleaning picture frames,






moldings, and, in fact, all kinds of gilded work, the best medium is liquor potassse, diluted with about 5 volumes of water. Dilute alcohol is also excellent. Methylated wood spirit, if the odor is not objectionable, answers admirably.


To Scale Cast Iron. To remove the scale from cast iron use a solution of 1 part vitriol and 2 parts water; after mixing, apply to the scale with a cloth rolled in the form of a brush, using enough to wet the surface well. After 8 or 10 hours wash off with water, when the hard, scaly surface will be completely removed.


Cleaning Funnels and Measures. Funnels and measures used for measuring varnishes, oils, etc., may be cleaned by soaking them in a strong solution of lye or pearlash. Another mixture for the same purpose consists of pearlash with quicklime in aqueous solution. The measures are allowed to soak in the solution for a short time, when the resinous matter of the paint or varnish is easily removed. A thin coating of petroleum lubricating oils may be removed, it is said, by the use of naphtha or petroleum benzine.


To Clean Aluminum.


I.    Aluminum articles are very hard to clean so they will have a bright, new appearance. This is especially the case with the matted or frosted pieces. To restore the pieces to brilliancy place them for some time in water that has been slightly acidulated with sulphuric acid.


II.   Wash the aluminum with coal-oil, gasoline or benzine, then put it in a concentrated solution of caustic potash, and after washing it with plenty of water, dip it in the bath composed of 2/3 nitric acid and 1/3 water. Next, subject it to a bath of concentrated nitric acid, and finally to a mixture of rum and olive oil. To render aluminum capable of being worked like pure copper, of oil of turpentine and steanc acid are used. For polishing by hand, take a solution of 30 parts of borax and 1,000 parts of water, to which a few drops of spirits of ammonia have been added.


How to Clean Tarnished Silver.


I.    If the articles are only slightly tarnished, mix 3 parts of best washed and purified chalk and 1 part of white soap, adding water, till a thin paste is formed, which should be rubbed on the silver with a dry brush, till the articles are quite bright. As a substitute, whiting, mixed with caustic ammonia to form a paste, may be used. This mixture is very effective, but it irritates the eyes and nose.


II.   An efficacious preparation is obtained by mixing beech-wood ashes, 2 parts; Venetian soap, 4/100 part; cooking salt, 2 parts; rain water, 8 parts. Brush the silver with this lye, using a somewhat stiff brush.


III.  A solution of crystallized potassium permanganate has been recommended.


IV.   A grayish violet film which silverware acquires from perspiration, can be readily removed by means of ammonia.


V.    To remove spots from silver lay it for 4 hours in soapmakers' lye, then throw on fine powdered gypsum, moisten the latter with vinegar to cause it to adhere, dry near the fire, and wipe off. Next rub the spot with dry bran. This not only causes it to disappear, but gives extraordinary gloss to the silver.


VI.   Cleaning with the usual fine powders is attended with some difficulty and inconvenience. An excellent result is obtained without injury to the silver by employing a saturated solution of hyposulphite of soda, which is put on with a brush or rag. The article is then washed with plenty of water.


VII.  Never use soap on silverware, as it dulls the luster, giving the article more the appearance of pewter than silver. When it wants cleaning, rub it with a piece of soft leather and prepared chalk, made into a paste with pure water, entirely free from grit.


To Clean Dull Gold.


I Take 80 parts, by weight, of chloride of lime, and rub it up with gradual addition of water in a porcelain mortar into a thin, even paste, which is put into a solution of 80 parts, by weight, of bicarbonate of soda, and 20 parts, by weight, of salt, in 3,000 parts, by weight, of water. Shake it, and let stand a few days before using. If the preparation is to be kept for any length of time the bottle should be placed, well corked, in the cellar. For use, lay the tarnished articles in a dish, pour the liquid, which has previously been well shaken, over them so as just to cover them, and leave them therein for a few days.



Bicarbonate of soda                 31 parts

Chloride of lime                    15.5 parts

Cooking salt                        15 parts

Water                               240 parts


Grind the chloride of lime with a little water to a thin paste, in a porcelain vessel, and add the remaining chemicals. Wash the objects with the aid of a soft brush with the solution, rinse several times in water, and dry in fine sawdust.






Cleaning Bronze Objects. Employ powdered chicory mixed with water, so as to obtain a paste, which is applied with a brush. After the brushing, rinse off and dry in the sun or near a stove.


Cleaning Gilded Bronzes.


I.    Commence by removing the spots of grease and wax with a little potash or soda dissolved in water. Let dry, and apply the following mixture with a rag: Carbonate of soda, 7 parts; whiting, 15 parts; alcohol (85º), 50 parts; water, 125 parts. When this coating is dry pass a fine linen cloth or a piece of supple skin over it. The hollow parts are cleaned with a brush.


II.   After removing the grease spots, let dry and pass over all the damaged parts a pencil dipped in the following mixture: Alum, 2 parts; nitric acid, 65; water, 250 parts. When the gilding becomes bright, wipe, and dry in the sun or near a fire.


III.  Wash in hot water containing a little soda, dry, and pass over the gilding a pencil soaked in a liquid made of 30 parts nitric acid, 4 parts of aluminum phosphate, and 125 parts of pure water. Dry in sawdust.


IV.   Immerse the objects in boiling soap water, and facilitate the action of the soap by rubbing with a soft brush; put the objects in hot water, brush them carefully, and let them dry in the air; when they are quite dry rub the shining parts only with an old linen cloth or a soft leather, without touching the others.


Stripping Gilt Articles. Degilding or stripping gilt articles may be done by attaching the object to the positive pole of a battery and immersing it in a solution composed of 1 pound of cyanide dissolved in about 1 gallon of water. Desilvering may be effected in the same manner.


To Clean Tarnished Zinc. Apply with a rag a mixture of 1 part sulphuric acid with 12 parts of water. Rinse the zinc with clear water.


Cleaning Pewter Articles. Pour hot lye of wood ashes upon the tin, throw on sand, and rub with a hard, woolen rag, hat felt, or whisk until all particles of dirt have been dissolved. To polish pewter plates it is well to have the turner make similar wooden forms fitting the plates, and to rub them clean this way. Next they are rinsed with clean water and placed on a table with a clean linen cover on which they are left to dry without being touched, otherwise spots will appear. This scouring is not necessary so often if the pewter is rubbed with wheat bran after use and cleaned perfectly. New pewter is polished with a paste of whiting and brandy, rubbing the dishes with it until the mass becomes dry.


To Clean Files. Files which have become clogged with tin or lead are cleaned by dipping for a few seconds into concentrated nitric acid. To remove iron filings from the file cuts, a bath of blue vitriol is employed. After the files have been rinsed in water they are likewise dipped in nitric acid. File-ridges closed up by zinc are cleaned by immersing the files in diluted sulphuric acid. Such as have become filled with copper or brass are also treated with nitric acid, but here the process has to be repeated several times. The files should always be rinsed in water after the treatment, brushed with a stiff brush, and dried in sawdust or by pouring alcohol over them, and letting it burn off on the file.


Scale Pan Clearer. About the quickest cleaner for brass scale pans is a solution of potassium bichromate in dilute sulphuric acid, using about 1 part of chromate, in powder, to 3 parts of acid and 6 parts of water. In this imbibe a cloth wrapped around a stick (to protect the hands), and with it rub the pans. Do this at tap or hydrant, so that no time is lost in placing the pan in running water after having rubbed it with the acid solution. For pans not very badly soiled rubbing with ammonia water and rinsing is sufficient.


Tarnish on Electro-Plate Goods. This tarnish can be removed by dipping the article for from 1 to 15 minutes that is, until the tarnish shall have been removed in a pickle of the following composition: Rain water 2 gallons and potassium cyanide pound. Dissolve together, and fill into a stone jug or jar, and close tightly. The article, after having been immersed, must be taken out and thoroughly rinsed in several waters, then dried with fine, clean sawdust. Tarnish on jewelry can be speedily removed by this process; but if the cyanide is not completely removed it will corrode the goods.




Grease- and Paint -Spot Eradicators.



Benzol                              500 parts

Benzine                             500 parts

Soap, best white, shaved            5 parts

Water, warm,                        sufficient.







Dissolve the soap in the warm water, using from 50 to 60 parts. Mix the benzol and benzine, and add the soap solution, a little at a time, shaking up well after each addition. If the mixture is slow in emulsifying, add at one time from 50 to 100 parts of warm water, and shake violently. Set the emulsion aside for a few days, or until it separates, then decant the superfluous water, and pour the residual pasty mass, after stirring it up well, into suitable boxes.



Soap spirit                         100 parts

Ammonia solution, 10 per cent       25 parts

Acetic ether                        15 parts



Extract of quillaia                 1 part

Borax                               1 part

Ox gall, fresh                      6 parts

Tallow soap                         15 parts


Triturate the quillaia and borax together, incorporate the ox gall, and, finally, add the tallow soap and mix thoroughly by kneading. The product is a plastic mass, which may be rolled into sticks or put up into boxes.


Removing Oil Spots from Leather. To remove oil stains from leather, dab the spot carefully with spirits of sal ammoniac, and after allowing it to act for a while, wash with clean water. This treatment may have to be repeated a few times, taking care, however, not to injure the color of the leather. Sometimes the spot may be removed very simply by spreading the place rather thickly with butter and letting this act for a few hours. Next scrape off the butter with the point of a knife, and rinse the stain with soap and lukewarm water.


To Clean Linoleum. Rust spots and other stains can be removed from linoleum by rubbing with steel chips.


To Remove Putty, Grease, etc., from Plate Glass. To remove all kinds of greasy materials from glass, and to leave the latter bright and clean, use a paste made of benzine and burnt magnesia of such consistence that when the mass is pressed between the fingers a drop of benzine will exude. With this mixture and a wad of cotton, go over the entire surface of the glass, rubbing it well. One rubbing is usually sufficient. After drying, any of the substance left in the corners, etc., is easily removed by brushing with a suitable brush. The same preparation is very useful for cleaning mirrors and removing grease stains from books, papers, etc.


Removing Spots from Furniture. White spots on polished tables are removed in the following manner: Coat the spot with oil and pour on a rag a few drops of "mixtura balsamica oleosa," which can be bought in every drug store, and rub on the spot, which will disappear immediately.


To Remove Spots from Drawings, etc. Place soapstone, fine meerschaum shavings, amianthus, or powdered magnesia on the spot, and, if necessary, lay on white filtering paper, saturating it with peroxide of hydrogen. Allow this to act for a few hours, and remove the application with a brush. If necessary, repeat the operation. In this manner black coffee spots were removed from a valuable diagram without erasure by knife or rubber.




To Clean the Tops of Clocks in Repairing. Sprinkle whiting on the top.

Pour good vinegar over this and rub vigorously. Rinse in clean water and dry slowly in the sun or at the fire. A good polish will be obtained.


To Clean Watch Chains. Gold or silver watch chains can be cleaned with a very excellent result, no matter whether they be matt or polished, by laying them for a few seconds in pure aqua ammonia; they are then rinsed in alcohol, and finally shaken in clean sawdust, free from sand. Imitation gold and plated chains are first cleaned in benzine, then rinsed in alcohol, and afterwards shaken in dry sawdust. Ordinary chains are first dipped in the following pickle: Pure nitric acid is mixed with concentrated sulphuric acid in the proportion of 10 parts of the former to 2 parts of the latter; a little table salt is added. The chains are boiled in this mixture, then rinsed several times in water, afterwards in alcohol, and finally dried in sawdust.


Cleaning Brass Mountings on Clock Cases, etc. The brass mountings are first cleaned of dirt by dipping them for a short time into boiling soda lye, and next are pickled, still warm, if possible, in a mixture consisting of nitric acid, 60 parts; sulphuric acid, 40 parts; cooking salt, 1 part; and shining soot (lampblack), 1/2 part, whereby they acquire a handsome golden-yellow coloring. The pickling mixture, however, must not be employed immediately after pouring together the acids, which causes a strong generation of heat, but should settle for at least






1 day. This makes the articles handsomer and more uniform. After the dipping the objects are rinsed in plenty of clean water and dried on a hot, iron plate,and at the same time warmed for lacquering. Since the pieces would be lacquered too thick and unevenly in pure gold varnish, this is diluted with alcohol, 1 part of gold varnish sufficing for 10 parts of alcohol. Into this liquid dip the mountings previously warmed and dry them again on the hot plate.


Gilt Zinc Clocks. It frequently happens that clocks of gilt zinc become covered with green spots. To remove such spots the following process is used: Soak a small wad of cotton in alkali and rub it on the spot. The green color will disappear at once, but the gilding being gone, a black spot will remain. Wipe off well to remove all traces of the alkalI.  

To replace the gilding, put on, by means of liquid gum arabic, a little bronze powder of the color of the gilding. The powdered bronze is applied dry with the aid of a brush or cotton wad. When the gilding of the clock has become black or dull from age, it may be revived by immersion in a bath of cyanide of potassium, but frequently it suffices to wash it with a soft brush in soap and water, in which a little carbonate of soda has been dissolved. Brush the piece in the lather, rinse in clean water, and dry in rather hot sawdust. The piece should be dried well inside and outside, as moisture will cause it to turn black.


To Clean Gummed Up Springs. Dissolve caustic soda in warm water, place the spring in the solution and leave it there for about one half hour. Any oil still adhering may now easily be taken off with a hard brush; next, dry the spring with a clean cloth. In this manner gummed up parts of tower clocks, locks, etc., may be quickly and thoroughly cleaned, and oil paint may be removed from metal or wood. The lye is sharp, but free from danger, nor are the steel parts attacked by it.


To Clean Soldered Watch Cases. Gold, silver, and other metallic watch cases which in soldering have been exposed to heat, are laid in diluted sulphuric acid (1 part acid to 10 to 15 parts water), to free them from oxide. Heating the acid accelerates the cleaning process. The articles are then well rinsed in water and dried. Gold cases are next brushed with powdered tripoli moistened with oil, to remove the pale spots caused by the heat and boiling, and to restore the original color. After that they are cleaned with soap water and finally polished with rouge. Silver cases are polished after boiling, with a scratch brush dipped in beer.


A Simple Way to Clean a Clock. Take a bit of cotton the size of a hen's egg, dip it in kerosene and place it on the floor of the clock, in the corner; shut the door of the clock, and wait 3 or 4 days. The clock will be like a new one and if you look inside you will find the cotton batting black with dust. The fumes of the oil loosen the particles of dust, and they fall, thus cleaning the clock.


To Restore the Color of a Gold or Gilt Dial. Dip the dial for a few seconds in the following mixture: Half an ounce of cyanide of potassium is dissolved in a quart of hot water, and 2 ounces of strong ammonia, mixed with 1/2 an ounce of alcohol, are added to the solution. On removal from this bath, the dial should immediately be immersed in warm water, then brushed with soap, rinsed, and dried in hot boxwood dust. Or it may simply be immersed in dilute nitric acid; but in this case any painted figures will be destroyed.


A Bath for Cleaning Clocks. In an enameled iron or terra-cotta vessel pour 2,000 parts of water, add 50 parts of scraped Marseilles soap, 80 to 100 parts of whiting, and a small cup of spirits of ammonia. To hasten the process of solution, warm, but do not allow to boil.


If the clock is very dirty or much oxidized, immerse the pieces in the bath while warm, and as long as necessary. Take them out with a skimmer or strainer, and pour over them some benzine, letting the liquid fall into an empty vessel. This being decanted and bottled can be used indefinitely for rinsing.


If the bath has too much alkali or is used when too hot, it may affect the polish and render it dull. This may be obviated by trying different strengths of the alkalI.    Pieces of blued steel are not injured by the alkali, even when pure.


To Remove a Figure or Name from a Dial. Oil of spike lavender may be employed for erasing a letter or number. Enamel powder made into a paste with water, oil, or turpentine is also used for this purpose. It should be previously levigated so as to obtain several degrees of fineness. The powder used for repolishing the surface, where an impression has been removed, must be extremely fine. It is applied with a piece of peg-






wood or ivory. The best method is to employ diamond powder. Take a little of the powder, make into a paste with fine oil, on the end of a copper polisher the surface of which has been freshly filed and slightly rounded. The marks will rapidly disappear when rubbed with this. The surface is left a little dull; it may be rendered bright by rubbing with the same powder mixed with a greater quantity of oil, and applied with a stick of pegwood. Watchmakers will do well to try on disused dials several degrees of fineness of the diamond powder.


Cleaning Pearls. Pearls turn yellow in the course of time by absorbing perspiration on account of being worn in the hair, at the throat, and on the arms. There are several ways of rendering them white again.


I.    The best process is said to be to put the pearls into a bag with wheat bran and to heat the bag over a coal fire, with constant motion.


II.   Another method is to bring 8 parts each of well-calcined, finely powdered lime and wood charcoal, which has been strained through a gauze sieve, to a boil with 500 parts of pure rain water, suspend the pearls over the steam of the boiling water until they are warmed through, and then boil them in the liquid for 5 minutes, turning frequently. Let them cool in the liquid, take them out, and wash off well with clean water.


III.  Place the pearls in a piece of fine linen, throw salt on them, and tie them up. Next rinse the tied-up pearls in lukewarm water until all the salt has been extracted, and dry them at an ordinary temperature.


IV.   The pearls may also be boiled about 1/4 hour in cow's milk into which a little cheese or soap has been scraped; take them out, rinse off in fresh water, and dry them with a clean, white cloth.


V.    Another method is to have the pearls, strung on a silk thread or wrapped up in thin gauze, mixed in a loaf of bread of barley flour and to have the loaf baked well in an oven, but not too brown.

When cool remove the pearls.


VI.   Hang the pearls for a couple of minutes in hot, strong, wine vinegar or highly diluted sulphuric acid, remove, and rinse them in water. Do not leave them too long in the acid, otherwise they will be injured by it.




Cleaning Preparation for Glass with Metal Decorations. Mix 1,000 parts of denaturized spirit (96 per cent) with 150 parts, by weight, of ammonia; 20 parts of acetic ether; 15 parts of ethylic ether; 200 parts of Vienna lime; 950 parts of bolus; and 550 parts of oleine. With this mixture both glass and metal can be quickly and thoroughly cleaned. It is particularly recommended for show windows ornamented with metal.


Paste for Cleaning Glass.


Prepared chalk                      6 pounds

Powdered French chalk               1 1/2 pounds

Phosphate calcium                   2 1/4 pounds

Quillaia bark                       2 1/4 pounds

Carbonate ammonia                   18 ounces

Rose pink                           6 ounces


Mix the ingredients, in fine powder, and sift through muslin. Then mix with soft water to the consistency of cream, and apply to the glass by means of a soft rag or sponge; allow it to dry on, wipe off with a cloth, and polish with chamois.


Cleaning Optical Lenses. For this purpose a German contemporary recommends vegetable pith. The medulla of rushes, elders, or sunflowers is cut out, the pieces are dried and pasted singly alongside of one another upon a piece of cork, whereby a brush-like apparatus is obtained, which is passed over the surface of the lens. For very small lenses pointed pieces of elder pith are employed. To dip dirty and greasy lenses into oil of turpentine or ether and rub them with a linen rag, as has been proposed, seems hazardous, because the Canada balsam with which the lenses are cemented might dissolve.


To Remove Glue from Glass. If glue has simply dried upon the glass hot water ought to remove it. If, however, the spots are due to size (the gelatinous wash used by painters) when dried they become very refractory and recourse must be had to chemical means for their removal. The commonest size being a solution of gelatin, alum, and rosin dissolved in a solution of soda and combined with starch, hot solutions of caustic soda or of potash may be used. If that fails to remove them, try diluted hydrochloric, sulphuric, or any of the stronger acids. If the spots still remain some abrasive powder (flour of emery) must be used and the glass repolished with jewelers' rouge applied by means of a chamois skin. Owing to the varied nature of sizes used the above are only suggestions.


Cleaning Window Panes. Take diluted nitric acid about as strong as strong






vinegar and pass it over the glass pane, leave it to act a minute and throw on pulverized whiting, but just enough to give off a hissing sound. Now rub both with the hand over the whole pane and polish with a dry rag. Rinse off with clean water and a little alcohol and polish dry and clear. Repeat the process on the other side. The nitric acid removes all impurities which have remained on the glass at the factory, and even with inferior panes a good appearance is obtained.


To Clean Store Windows. For cleaning the large panes of glass of store windows, and also ordinary show cases, a semiliquid paste may be employed, made of calcined magnesia and purified benzine. The glass should be rubbed with a cotton rag until it is brilliant.


Cleaning Lamp Globes. Pour 2 spoonfuls of a slightly heated solution of potash into the globe, moisten the whole surface with it, and rub the stains with a fine linen rag; rinse the globe with clean water and carefully dry it with a fine, soft cloth.


To Clean Mirrors. Rub the mirror with a ball of soft paper slightly dampened with methylated spirits, then with a duster on which a little whiting has been sprinkled, and finally polish with clean paper or a ash leather. This treatment will make the glass beautifully bright.


To Clean Milk Glass. To remove oil spots from milk glass panes and lamp globes, knead burnt magnesia with benzine to a plastic mass, which must be kept in a tight-closing bottle. A little of this substance rubbed on the spot with a linen rag will make it disappear.


To Remove Oil Paint Spots from Glass. If the window panes have been bespattered with oil paint in painting walls, the spots are, of course, easily removed while wet. When they have become dry the operation is more difficult and alcohol and turpentine in equal parts, or spirit of sal ammoniac should be used to soften the paint. After that go over it with chalk. Polishing with salt will also remove paint spots. The salt grates somewhat, but it is not hard enough to cause scratches in the glass; a subsequent polishing with chalk is also advisable, as the drying of the salt might injure the glass. For scratching off soft paint spots sheet zinc must be used, as it cannot damage the glass on account of its softness. In the case of silicate paints (the so-called weather-proof coatings) the panes must be especially protected, because these paints destroy the polish of the glass. Rubbing the spots with brown soap is also a good way of removing the spots, but care must be taken in rinsing off that the window frames are not acted upon.


Removing Silver Stains. The following solution will remove silver stains from the hands, and also from woolen, linen, or cotton goods:


Mercuric chloride                   1 part

Ammonia muriate                     1 part

Water                               8 parts


The compound is poisonous.




Universal Cleaner.


Green soap                          20 to 25 parts

Boiling water                       750 parts

Liquid ammonia, caustic             30 to 40 parts

Acetic ether                        20 to 30 parts




To Clean Playing Cards. Slightly soiled playing cards may be made clean by rubbing them with a soft rag dipped in a solution of camphor. Very little of the latter is necessary.


To Remove Vegetable Growth from Buildings. To remove moss and lichen from stone and masonry, apply water in which 1 per cent of carbolic acid has been dissolved. After a few hours the plants can be washed off with water.


Solid Cleansing Compound. The basis of most of the solid grease eradicators is benzine and the simplest form is a benzine jelly made by shaking 3 ounces of tincture of quillaia (soap bark) with enough benzine to make 16 fluidounces. Benzine may also be solidified by the use of a soap with addition of an excess of alkalI. Formulas in which soaps are used in this way follow:



Cocoanut-oil soap                   2 av. ounces

Ammonia water                       3 fluidounces

Solution of potassium               1 1/2 fluidounces

Water                               enough to make 12 fluidounces


Dissolve the soap with the aid of heat in 4 fluidounces of water, add the ammonia and potassa and the remainder of the water.


If the benzine is added in small portions, and thoroughly agitated, 2 fluidounces of the above will be found sufficient to solidify 32 fluidounces of benzine.







Castile soap, white                 3 1/2 av. ounces

Water, boiling                      3 1/2 fluidounces

Water of ammonia                    5 fluidrachms

Benzine                             enough to make 16 fluidounces


Dissolve the soap in the water, and when cold, add the other ingredients.


To Clean Oily Bottles. Use 2 heaped tablespoonfuls (for every quart of capacity) of fine sawdust or wheat bran, and shake well to cover the interior surface thoroughly; let stand a few minutes and then add about a gill of cold water. If the bottle be then rotated in a horizontal position, it will usually be found clean after a single treatment. In the case of drying oils, especially when old, the bottles should be moistened inside with a little ether, and left standing a few hours before the introduction of sawdust. This method is claimed to be more rapid and convenient than the customary one of using strips of paper, soap solution, etc.


Cork Cleaner. Wash in 10 per cent solution of hydrochloric acid, then immerse in a solution of sodium hypo- sulphite and hydrochloric acid. Finally the corks are washed with a solution of soda and pure water. Corks containing oil or fat cannot be cleaned by this method.


To Clean Sponges. Rinse well first in very weak, warm, caustic-soda lye, then with clean water, and finally leave the sponges in a solution of bromine in water until clean. They will whiten sooner if exposed to the sun in the bromine water. Then repeat the rinsings in weak lye and clean water, using the latter till all smell of bromine has disappeared. Dry quickly and in the sun if possible.



See Photography.



See Alloys.



See Watchmakers' Formulas.



See Metals.



See Oil.



See Watchmaking.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Adhesives.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods; also, Household Formulas.



See Polishes.



See Waterproofing.



See Household Formulas.



See Varnishes.



See Pyrotechnics.



See Oil.



See Plating.



See Beverages.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Household Formulas and Recipes.



See Insecticides.



See Oil, Cod-Liver.




I.          Acorn. From acorns deprived of their shells, husked, dried, and roasted.


II.         Bean. Horse beans roasted along with a little honey or sugar.


III.        Beet Root. From the yellow beet root, sliced, dried in a kiln or oven, and ground with a little coffee.


IV.         Dandelion. From dandelion roots, sliced, dried, roasted, and ground with a little caramel.


All the above are roasted, before grinding them, with a little fat or lard. Those which are larger than coffee berries are cut into small slices before being roasted. They possess none of the exhilarating properties or medicinal virtues of the genuine coffee.


V.          Chicory. This is a common adulterant. The roasted root is prepared by cutting the full-grown root into slices, and exposing it to heat in iron cylinders, along with about 1 1/2 per cent or 2 per cent of lard, in a similar way to that adopted for coffee. When ground to powder in a mill it constitutes the chi-






cory coffee so generally employed both as a substitute for coffee and as an adulterant. The addition of 1 part of good, fresh, roasted chicory to 10 or 12 parts of coffee forms a mixture which yields a beverage of a fuller flavor, and of a deeper color than that furnished by an equal quantity of pure or unmixed coffee. In this way a less quantity of coffee may be used, but it should be remembered that the article substituted for it does not possess in any degree the peculiar exciting, soothing, and hungerstaying properties of that valuable product. The use, however, of a larger proportion of chicory than that just named imparts to the beverage an insipid flavor, intermediate between that of treacle and licorice; while the continual use of roasted chicory, or highly chicorized coffee, seldom fails to weaken the powers of digestion and derange the bowels.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Syrups.



See Beverages.



See Steel.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Matrix Mass.



See Alloys.



See Veterinary Formulas.


Cold and Cough Mixtures


Cough Syrup. The simplest form of cough syrup of good keeping quality is syrup of wild cherry containing ammonium chloride in the dose of 2 1/2 grains to each teaspoonful. Most of the other compounds contain ingredients that are prone to undergo fermentation.



Ipecacuanha wine                    1 fluidounce

Spirit of anise                     1 fluidrachm

Syrup                               10 fluidounces

Syrup of squill                     8 fluidounces

Tincture of Tolu                    4 fluidounces

Distilled water                     enough to make 30 fluidounces



Heroin                              6 grains

Aromatic sulphuric acid             1 1/2 fluidounces

Concentrated acid infusion of roses 4 fluidounces

Distilled water                     5 fluidounces

Glycerine                           5 fluidounces

Oxymel of squill                    10 fluidounces




Glycerine                           2 fluidounces

Fluid extract of wild cherry        4 fluidounces

Oxymel                              10 fluidounces

Syrup                               10 fluidounces

Cochineal,                          a sufficient quantity.


Benzoic-Acid Pastilles.


Benzoic acid                        105 parts

Rhatany extract                     525 parts

Tragacanth                          35 parts

Sugar                               140 parts


The materials, in the shape of powders, are mixed well and sufficient fruit paste added to bring the mass up to 4,500 parts. Roll out and divide into lozenges weighing 20 grains each.


Cough Balsam with Iceland Moss.


Solution of morphine acetate        12 parts

Sulphuric acid, dilute              12 parts

Cherry-laurel water                 12 parts

Orange-flower water, triple         24 parts

Syrup, simple                       128 parts

Glycerine                           48 parts

Tincture of saffron                 8 parts

Decoction of Iceland moss           112 parts


Mix.  Dose: One teaspoonful.


Balsamic Cough Syrup.


Balsam of Peru                      2 drachms

Tincture of Tolu                    4 drachms

Camphorated tincture of opium       4 ounces

Powdered extract licorice           1 ounce

Syrup squill                        4 ounces

Syrup dextrine (glucose)            sufficient to make 16 ounces


Add the balsam of Peru to the tinctures, and in a mortar rub up the extract of licorice with the syrups. Mix together and direct to be taken in teaspoonful doses.


Whooping-Cough Remedies. The following mixture is a spray to be used






in the sick room in cases of whooping cough:


Thymol                              1.0

Tincture of eucalyptus              30.0

Tincture of benzoin                 30.0

Alcohol                             100.0

Water enough to make                1000.0


Mix.  Pour some of the mixture on a cloth and hold to mouth so that the mixture is inhaled, thereby giving relief.


Expectorant Mixtures.



Ammon. Chloride                     1 drachm

Potass, chlorate                    30 grains

Paregoric                           2 fluidrachms

Syrup of ipecac                     2 fluidrachms

Syrup wild cherry enough to make    2 fluidounces


Dose: One teaspoonful.


II.   Potass, chlorate              1 drachm

Tincture guaiac                     3 1/2 drachms

Tincture rhubarb                    1 1/2 drachms

Syrup wild cherry                   enough to make 3 fluidounces


Dose: One teaspoonful.


Eucalyptus Bonbons for Coughs.


Eucalyptus oil                      5 parts

Tartaric acid                       15 parts

Extract of malt                     24 parts

Cacao                               100 parts

Peppermint oil                      1.4 parts

Bonbon mass                         2,203 parts


Mix and make into bonbons weighing 30 grains each.



See Cosmetics.



See Veterinary Formulas.




Turpentine                          5 parts

Ether and alcohol                   10 parts

Collodion                           94 parts

Castor oil                          1 part


Dissolve the turpentine in the ether and alcohol mixture (in equal parts) and filter, then add to the mixture of collodion and castor oil. This makes a good elastic collodion.


See also Court Plaster, Liquid.



See Perfumes.



See Headaches.



See Dyes and Pigments.



See Enameling.



See Paint.



See Photography.



See Syrups.



See Stone, Artificial.






Curry powder                        4 ounces

Mustard powder                      6 ounces

Ginger                              3 ounces

Turmeric                            2 ounces

Cayenne                             2 drachms

Black pepper powder                 2 drachms

Coriander                           1 drachm

Allspice                            1 drachm

Mace                                30 grains

Thyme                               30 grains

Savory                              30 grains

Celery seed                         2 drachms

Cider vinegar                       2 gallons


Mix all the powders with the vinegar, and steep the mixture over a very gentle fire for 3 hours. The pickles are to be parboiled with salt, and drained, and the spiced vinegar, prepared as above, is to be poured over them while it is still warm. The chowchow keeps best in small jars, tightly covered.


Essence of Extract of Soup Herbs. Thyme, 4 ounces ; winter savory, 4 ounces; sweet marjoram, 4 ounces; sweet basil, 4 ounces; grated lemon peel, 1 ounce; eschalots, 2 ounces; bruised celery seed, 1 ounce; alcohol (50 per cent), 64 ounces. Mix the vegetables, properly bruised, add the alcohol, close the container and set aside in a moderately warm place to digest for 15 days. Filter and press out. Preserve in 4-ounce bottles, well corked.


Tomato Bouillon Extract. Tomatoes, 1 quart; arrowroot, 2 ounces; extract of beef, 1 ounce; bay leaves, 1 ounce; cloves 2 ounces; red pepper, 4 drachms; Worcestershire sauce, quantity sufficient to flavor. Mix.   


Mock Turtle Extract. Extract of beef, 2 ounces; concentrated chicken,

2 ounces; clam juice, 8 ounces; tincture of black pepper, 1 ounce; extract of celery, 3 drachms; extract of orange peel, soluble, 1 drachm; hot water enough to make 2 quarts.








Digestive Relish.


I.    Two ounces Jamaica ginger; 2 ounces black peppercorns; 1 ounce mustard seed; 1 ounce coriander fruit (seed); 1 ounce pimento (allspice); 1/2 ounce mace; 1/2 ounce cloves; 1/2 ounce nutmegs; 1/2 ounce chili pods; 3 drachms cardamom seeds; 4 ounces garlic; 4 ounces eschalots; 4 pints malt vinegar.


Bruise spices, garlic, etc., and boil in vinegar for 15 minutes and strain. To this add 2 1/2 pints mushroom ketchup; 1 1/2 pints India soy.


Again simmer for 15 minutes and strain through muslin.


II.   One pound soy; 50 ounces best vinegar; 4 ounces ketchup; 4 ounces garlic; 4 ounces eschalots; 4 ounces capsicum; 1/2 ounce cloves; 1/2 ounce mace; 1/4 ounce cinnamon; 1 drachm cardamom seeds. Boil well and strain.


Lincolnshire Relish. Two ounces garlic; 2 ounces Jamaica ginger; 3 ounces black peppercorns; 3/4 ounce cayenne pepper; 1/4 ounce ossein; 3/4 ounce nutmeg; 2 ounces salt; 1 1/2 pints India soy. Enough malt vinegar to make 1 gallon. Bruise spices, garlic, etc., and simmer

in 1/2 a gallon of vinegar for 20 minutes, strain and add soy and sufficient vinegar to make 1 gallon, then boil for 5 minutes.

Keep in bulk as long as possible.


Curry Powder.



Coriander seed                      6 drachms

Turmeric                            5 scruples

Fresh ginger                        4 drachms

Cumin seed                          18 grains

Black pepper                        54 grains

Poppy seed                          94 grains

Garlic                              2 heads

Cinnamon                            1 scruple

Cardamom                            5 seeds

Cloves                              8 only

Chillies                            1 or 2 pods

Grated cocoanut                     1/2 nut



Coriander seed                      1/4 pound

Turmeric                            1/4 pound

Cinnamon seed                       2 ounces

Cayenne                             1/2 ounce

Mustard                             1 ounce

Ground ginger                       1 ounce

Allspice                            1/2 ounce

Fenugreek seed                      2 ounces




Worcestershire Sauce.


Pimento                             2 drachms

Clove                               1 drachm

Black pepper                        1 drachm

Ginger                              1 drachm

Curry powder                        1 ounce

Capsicum                            1 drachm

Mustard                             2 ounces

Shallots, bruised                   2 ounces

Salt                                2 ounces

Brown sugar                         8 ounces

Tamarinds                           4 ounces

Sherry wine                         1 pint

Wine vinegar                        2 pints


The spices must be freshly bruised. The ingredients are to simmer together with the vinegar for an hour, adding more of the vinegar as it is lost by evaporation; then add the wine, and if desired some caramel coloring. Set aside for a week, strain, and bottle.


Table Sauce. Brown sugar, 16 parts; tamarinds, 16 parts; onions, 4 parts; powdered ginger, 4 parts; salt, 4 parts; garlic, 2 parts; cayenne, 2 parts; soy, 2 parts; ripe apples, 64 parts; mustard powder, 2 parts; curry powder, 1 part; vinegar, quantity sufficient. Pare and core the apples, boil them in sufficient vinegar with the tamarinds and raisins until soft, then pulp through a fine sieve. Pound the onions and garlic in a mortar and add the pulp to that of the apples. Then add the other ingredients and vinegar, 60 parts; heat to boiling, cool, and add sherry wine, 10 parts, and enough vinegar to make the sauce just pourable. If a sweet sauce is desired add sufficient treacle before the final boiling.


Epicure's Sauce. Eight ounces tamarinds; 12 ounces sultana raisins; 2

ounces garlic; 4 ounces eschalots; 4 ounces horse-radish root; 2 ounces black pepper; 1/2 ounce chili pods; 3 ounces raw Jamaica ginger; 1 1/2 pounds golden syrup; 1 pound burnt sugar (caramel); 1 ounce powdered cloves; 1 pint India soy; 1 gallon malt vinegar. Bruise roots, spices, etc., and boil in vinegar for 15 minutes, then strain. To the strained liquor add golden syrup, soy, and burnt sugar, then simmer for 10 minutes.


Piccalilli Sauce. One drachm chili pods; 1 1/2 ounces black peppercorns; 1/2 ounce pimento; 3/4 ounce garlic; 1/2 gallon malt vinegar. Bruise spices and garlic, boil in the vinegar for 10 minutes, and strain.


One ounce ground Jamaica ginger; 1 ounce turmeric; 2 ounces flower of mustard; 2 ounces powdered natal arrowroot; 8 ounces strong acetic acid. Rub powders in a mortar with acetic acid and add to above, then boil for 5 minutes, or until it thickens.




I.    Five ounces powdered cinnamon bark; 2 1/2 ounces powdered cloves; 2 1/2






ounces powdered nutmegs; 1 1/4 ounces powdered caraway seeds; 1 1/4 ounces powdered coriander seeds; 1 ounce powdered Jamaica ginger; 1/2 ounce powdered allspice. Let all be dry and in fine powder. Mix and pass through a sieve.


II.   Pickling Spice. Ten pounds small Jamaica ginger; 2 1/2 pounds black

peppercorns; l 1/2 pounds white peppercorns; 1 1/2 pounds allspice; 3/4 pound long pepper; 1 1/4 pounds mustard seed; 1/2 pound chili pods. Cut up ginger and long pepper into small pieces, and mix all the other ingredients intimately.


One ounce to each pint of boiling vinegar is sufficient, but it may be made stronger if desired hot.


Essence of Savory Spices. Two and one-half ounces black peppercorns; 1 ounce pimento; 3/4 ounce nutmeg; 1/2 ounce mace; 1/2 ounce cloves; 1/4 ounce cinnamon bark; 1/4 ounce caraway seeds; 20 grains cayenne pepper; 15 ounces spirit of wine; 5 ounces distilled water. Bruise all the spices and having mixed spirit and water, digest in mixture 14 days, shaking frequently, then filter.




The Prepared Mustards of Commerce.


The mustard, i.e, the flower or powdered seed, used in preparing the different condiments, is derived from three varieties of Brassica (Cruciferae) Brassica alba L., Brassica nigra, and Brassica juncea. The first yields the "white" seed of commerce, which produces a mild mustard; the second the "black" seed, yielding the more pungent powder; and the latter a very pungent and oily mustard, much employed by Russians. The pungency of the condiment is also affected by the method of preparing the paste, excessive heat destroying the sharpness completely. The pungency is further controlled and tempered, in the cold processes, by the addition of wheat or rye flour, which also has the advantage of serving as a binder of the mustard. The mustard flour is prepared by first decorticating the seed, then grinding to a fine powder, the expression of the fixed oil from which completes the process. This oil, unlike the volatile, is of a mild, pleasant taste, and of a greenish color, which, it is said, makes it valuable in the sophistication and imitation of "olive" oils, refined, cottonseed, or peanut oil being thus converted into huile veirge de Lucca, Florence, or some other noted brand of olive oil. It is also extensively used for illuminating purposes, especially in southern Russia.


The flavors, other than that of the mustard itself, of the various preparations are imparted by the judicious use of spices cinnamon, nutmeg, cloves, pimento, etc. aromatic herbs, such as thyme, sage, chervil, parsley, mint, marjoram, tarragon, etc., and finally chives, onions, shallots, leeks, garlic, etc.


In preparing the mustards on a large scale, the mustard flower and wheat or rye flour are mixed and ground to a smooth paste with vinegar, must (unfermented grape juice), wine, or whatever is used in the preparation, a mill similar to a drug or paint mill being used for the purpose. This dough immediately becomes spongy, and in this condition, technically called "cake," is used as the basis of the various mustards of commerce.


Mustard Cakes. In the mixture, the amount of flour used depends on the pungency of the mustard flower, and the flavor desired to be imparted to the finished product. The cakes are broadly divided into the yellow and the brown. A general formula for the yellow cake is:


Yellow mustard, from 20 to 30 per cent; salt, from 1 to 3 per cent; spices, from 1/4 to 1/2 of 1 per cent; wheat flour, from 8 to 12 per cent.


Vinegar, must, or wine, complete the mixture.


The brown cake is made with black mustard, and contains about the following proportions:


Black mustard, from 20 to 30 per cent; salt, from 1 to 3 per cent; spices, from 1/4 to 1/2 of 1 per cent; wheat or rye flour, from 10 to 15 per cent.


The variations are so wide, however, that it is impossible to give exact proportions. In the manufacture of table mustards, in fact, as in every other kind of manufacture, excellence is attained only by practice and the exercise of sound judgment and taste by the manufacturer.


Moutarde des Jesuittes. Twelve sardels and 280 capers are crushed into a paste and stirred into 3 pints of boiling wine vinegar. Add 4 ounces of brown cake and 8 ounces of yellow cake and mix well.


Kirschner Wine Mustard. Reduce 30 quarts of freshly expressed grape juice to half that quantity, by boiling over a moderate fire, on a water bath. Dissolve in the boiling liquid 5 pounds of sugar, and pour the syrup through a colander containing 2 or 3 large horse-radishes cut






into very thin slices and laid on a coarse towel spread over the bottom and sides of the colander. To the colate add the following, all in a state of fine powder:


Cardamom seeds                      2 1/2 drachms

Nutmeg                              2 1/2 drachms

Cloves                              4 1/2 drachms

Cinnamon                            1 ounce

Ginger                              1 ounce

Brown mustard cake                  6 pounds

Yellow mustard cake                 9 pounds


Grind all together to a perfectly smooth paste, and strain several times through muslin.


Duesseldorff Mustard.


Brown mustard cake                  10 ounces

Yellow mustard cake                 48 ounces

Boiling water                       96 ounces

Wine vinegar                        64 ounces

Cinnamon                            5 drachms

Cloves                              15 drachms

Sugar                               64 ounces

Wine, good white                    64 ounces


Mix after the general directions given above.


German Table Mustard.


Laurel leaves                       8 ounces

Cinnamon                            5 drachms

Cardamom seeds                      2 drachms

Sugar                               64 ounces

Wine vinegar                        96 ounces

Brown cake                          10 ounces

Yellow cake                         48 ounces


Mix after general directions as given above.


Krems Mustard, Sweet.


Yellow cake                         10 pounds

Brown cake                          20 pounds

Fresh grape juice                   6 pints


Mix and boil down to the proper consistency.


Krems Mustard, Sour.


Brown mustard flour                 30 parts

Yellow mustard flour                10 parts

Grape juice, fresh                  8 parts


Mix and boil down to a paste and then stir in 8 parts of wine vinegar.


Tarragon Mustard.


Brown mustard flour                 40 parts

Yellow mustard flour                20 parts

Vinegar                             6 parts

Tarragon vinegar                    6 parts


Boil the mustard in the vinegar and add the tarragon vinegar.


Tarragon Mustard, Sharp. This is prepared by adding to every 100 pounds

of the above 21 ounces of white pepper, 5 ounces of pimento, and 2 1/2 ounces of cloves, mixing thoroughly by grinding together in a mill, then put in a warm spot and let stand for 10 days or 2 weeks. Finally strain.


Moutarde aux Epices.


Mustard flour, yellow               10 pounds

Mustard flour, brown                40 pounds

Tarragon                            1 pound

Basil, herb                         5 ounces

Laurel leaves                       12 drachms

White pepper                        3 ounces

Cloves                              12 drachms

Mace                                2 drachms

Vinegar                             1 gallon


Mix the herbs and macerate them in the vinegar to exhaustion, then add to the mustards, and grind together. Set aside for a week or ten days, then strain through muslin.


In all the foregoing formulas where the amount of salt is not specified, it is to be added according to the taste or discretion of the manufacturer.


Mustard Vinegar.


Celery, chopped fine                32 parts

Tarragon, the fresh herb            6 parts

Cloves, coarsely powdered           6 parts

Onions, chopped fine                6 parts

Lemon peel, fresh, chopped fine     3 parts

White-wine vinegar                  575 parts

White wine                          515 parts

Mustard seed, crushed               100 parts


Mix and macerate together for a week or 10 days in a warm place, then strain off.


Ravigotte Mustard.


Parsley                             2 parts

Chervil                             2 parts

Chives                              2 parts

Cloves                              1 part

Garlic                              1 part

Thyme                               1 part

Tarragon                            1 part

Salt                                8 parts

Olive oil                           4 parts

White- wine vinegar                 128 parts

Mustard flower,                     sufficient.


Cut or bruise the plants and spices, and macerate them in the vinegar for 15 or 20 days. Strain the liquid through a cloth and add the salt. Rub up mustard with the olive oil in a vessel set in ice, adding a little of the spiced vinegar from time to time, until the whole is incorporated and the complete mixture makes 384 parts.







See Foods.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Alloys.




Cream Bonbons for Hoarseness. Stir into 500 parts of cream 500 parts of white sugar. Put in a pan and cook, with continuous stirring, until it becomes brown and viscid. Now put in a baking tin and smooth out, as neatly as possible, to the thickness of, say, twice that of the back of a table knife and let it harden. Before it gets completely hard draw lines with a knife across the surface in such manner that when it is quite hard it will break along them, easily, into bits the size of a lozenge.


Nut Candy Sticks. Cook to 320º F. 8 pounds best sugar in 2 pints water, with 4 pounds glucose added. Pour out on an oiled slab and add 5 pounds almonds, previously blanched, cut in small pieces, and dried in the drying room. Mix up well together to incorporate the nuts thoroughly with the sugar. When it has cooled enough to be handled, form into a round mass on the slab and spin out m long, thin sticks.


Fig Squares. Place 5 pounds of sugar and 5 pounds of glucose in a copper pan, with water enough to dissolve the sugar. Set on the fire, and when it starts to boil add 5 pounds of ground figs. Stir and cook to 240 on the thermometer. Set off the fire, and then add 5 pounds of fine cocoanuts; mix well and pour out on greased marble, roll smooth,

and cut like caramels.


Caramels. Heat 10 pounds sugar and 8 pounds glucose in a copper kettle until dissolved. Add cream to the mixture, at intervals, until 2 1/2 quarts are used. Add 2 1/4 pounds caramel butter and 12 ounces paraffine wax to the mixture. Cook to a rather stiff ball, add nuts, pour out between iron bars and, when cool enough, cut into strips. For the white ones flavor with vanilla, and add 2 pounds melted chocolate liquor for the chocolate caramel when nearly cooked.


Candy Orange Drops. It is comparatively easy to make a hard candy, but to put the material into "drop" form apparently requires experience and a machine. To make the candy itself, put, say, a pint of water into a suitable pan or kettle, heat to boiling, and add gradually to it 2 pounds or more of sugar, stirring well so as to avoid the risk of burning the sugar. Continue boiling the syrup so formed until a little of it poured on a cold slab forms a mass of the required hardness. If the candy is to be of orange flavor, a little fresh oil of orange is added just before the mass is ready to set and the taste is improved according to the general view at least by adding, also, say, 2 drachms of citric acid dissolved in a very little water. As a coloring an infusion of safflower or tincture of turmeric is used.


To make such a mass into tablets, it is necessary only to pour out on a well-greased slab, turning the edges back if inclined to run, until the candy is firm, and then scoring with a knife so that it can easily be broken into pieces when cold. To make "drops" a suitable mold is necessary.


Experiment as to the sufficiency of the boiling in making candy may be saved and greater certainty of a good result secured by the use of a chemical thermometer. As the syrup is boiled and the water evaporates the temperature of the liquid rises. When it reaches 220º F., the sugar is then in a condition to yield the "thread" form; at 240º "soft ball" is formed; at 245º, "hard ball"; at 252º, "crack"; and at 290º, "hard crack." By simply suspending the thermometer in the liquid and observing it from time to time, one may know exactly when to end the boiling.


Gum Drops. Grind 25 pounds of Arabian or Senegal gum, place it in a copper pan or in a steam jacket kettle, and pour 3 gallons of boiling water over it; stir it up well. Now set the pan with the gum into another pan containing boiling water and stir the gum slowly until dissolved, then strain it through a No. 40 sieve. Cook 19 pounds of sugar with sufficient water, 2 pounds of glucose, and a teaspoonful of cream of tartar to a stiff ball, pour it over the gum, mix well, set the pan on the kettle with the hot water, and let it steam for 1 hours, taking care that the water in the kettle does not run dry; then open the door of the stove and cover the fire with ashes, and let the gum settle for nearly an hour, then remove the scum which has settled on top, flavor and run out with the fun-






nel dropper into the starch impressions, and place the trays in the drying room for 2 days, or until dry; then take the drops out of the starch, clean them off well and place them in crystal pans, one or two layers. Cook sugar and water to 34 1/2º on the syrup gauge and pour over the drops lukewarm. Let stand in a moderately warm place over night, then drain the syrup off, and about an hour afterwards knock the gum drops out on a clean table, pick them apart, and place on trays until dry, when they are ready for sale.


A Good Summer Taffy. Place in a kettle 4 pounds of sugar, 3 pounds of glucose, and 1 1/2 pints of water; when it boils drop in a piece of butter half the size of an egg and about 2 ounces of paraffine wax.  Cook to 262º, pour on a slab, and when cool enough, pull, flavor, and color if you wish. Pull until light, then spin out on the table in strips about 3 inches wide and cut into 4- or 4 1/2-inch lengths. Then wrap in wax paper for the counter. This taffy keeps long without being grained by the heat.


Chewing Candy. Place 20 pounds of sugar in a copper pan, add 20 pounds of glucose, and enough water to easily dissolve the sugar. Set on the fire or cook in the steam pan in 2 quarts of water. Have a pound of egg albumen soaked in 2 quarts of water. Beat this like eggs into a very stiff froth, add gradually the sugar and glucose; when well beaten up, add 5 pounds of powdered sugar, and beat at very little heat either in the steam beater or on a pan of boiling water until light, and does not stick to the back of the hand, flavor with vanilla, and put in trays dusted with fine sugar. When cold it may be cut, or else it may be stretched out on a sugar-dusted table, cut, and wrapped in wax paper. This chewing candy has to be kept in a very dry place, or else it will run and get sticky.


Montpelier Cough Drops.


Brown sugar                         10 pounds

Tartaric acid                       2 ounces

Cream of tartar                     1/2 ounce

Water                               1 1/2 quarts

Anise-seed flavoring,               quantity sufficient.


Melt the sugar in the water, and when at a sharp boil add the cream of tartar. Cover the pan for 5 minutes. Remove the lid and let the sugar boil up to crack degree. Turn out the batch on an oiled slab, and when cool enough to handle mold in the acid and flavoring. Pass it through the acid drop rollers, and when the drops are chipped up, and before

sifting, rub some icing with them.


Medicated Cough Drops.


Light-brown sugar                   14 pounds

Tartaric acid                       1 1/2 ounces

Cream of tartar                     1/2 ounce

Water                               2 quarts

Anise-seed, cayenne, clove, and peppermint flavoring, a few drops of each.


Proceed as before prescribed, but when sufficiently cool pass the batch through the acid tablet rollers and dust with sugar.


Horehound Candy.


Dutch crushed sugar                 10 pounds

Dried horehound leaves              2 ounces

Cream of tartar                     3/4 ounce

Water                               2 quarts

Anise-seed flavoring,               quantity sufficient.


Pour the water on the leaves and let it gently simmer till reduced to 3 pints; then strain the infusion through muslin, and add the liquid to the sugar. Put the pan containing the syrup on the fire, and when at a sharp boil add the cream of tartar. Put the lid on the pan for 5 minutes; then remove it, and let the sugar boil to stiff boil degree. Take the pan off the fire and rub portions of the sugar against the side until it produces a creamy appearance; then add the flavoring. Stir all well, and pour into square tin frames, previously well oiled.


Menthol Cough Drops.


Gelatin                             1 ounce

Glycerine (by weight)               2 1/2 ounces

Orange-flower water                 2 1/2 ounces

Menthol                             5 grains

Rectified spirits                   1 drachm


Soak the gelatin in the water for 2 hours, then heat on a water bath until dissolved, and add 1 1/2 ounces of glycerine. Dissolve the menthol in the spirit, mix with the remainder of the glycerine, add to the glyco-gelatin mass, and pour into an oiled tin tray (such as the lid of a biscuit box). When the mass is cold divide into 10 dozen pastilles.


Menthol pastilles are said to be an excellent remedy for tickling cough as well as laryngitis. They should be freshly prepared, and cut oblong, so that the patient may take half of one, or less, as may be necessary.


Violet Flavor for Candy. Violet flavors, like violet perfumes, are very complex mixtures, and their imitation is a






correspondingly difficult undertaking. The basis is vanilla (or vanillin), rose, and orris, with a very little of some pungent oil to bring up the flavor. The following will give a basis upon which a satisfactory flavor may be built:


Oil of orris                        1 drachm

Oil of rose                         1 drachm

Vanillin                            2 drachms

Cumarin                             30 grains

Oil of clove                        30 minims

Alcohol                             11 ounces

Water                         5 ounces


Make a solution, adding the water last.


CONFECTIONERY COLORS. The following are excellent and entirely harmless coloring agents for the purposes named:


Red. Cochineal syrup prepared as follows:


Cochineal, in coarse powder         6 parts

Potassium carbonate                 2 parts

Distilled water                     15 parts

Alcohol                             12 parts

Simple syrup                        enough to make 500 parts


Rub up the potassium carbonate and the cochineal together, adding the water and alcohol, little by little, under constant trituration. Set aside over night, then add the syrup and filter.




Carmine                             1 part

Liquor potassae                     6 parts

Rose water,                         enough to make 48 parts


Mix.  Should the color be too high, dilute with water until the requisite tint is acquired.


Orange. Tincture of red sandal wood, 1 part; ethereal tincture of orlean, quantity sufficient. Add the tincture of orlean to the sandalwood tincture until the desired shade of orange is obtained.


A red added to any of the yellows gives an orange color.


The aniline colors made by the "Aktiengesellschaft für Anilin Fabrikation," of Berlin, are absolutely non-toxic, and can be used for the purposes recommended, i.e, the coloration of syrups, cakes, candies, etc., with perfect confidence in their innocuity.


Pastille Yellow.


Citron yellow II                    7 parts

Grape sugar, first quality          1 part

White dextrine                      2 parts



Sap-Blue Paste.


Dark blue                           3 parts

Grape sugar                         1 part

Water                               6 parts


Sugar-Black Paste.


Carbon black                        3 parts

Grape sugar                         1 part

Water                               6 parts


Cinnabar Red.*


Scarlet                             65 parts

White dextrine                      30 parts

Potato flour                        5 parts


Bluish Rose.*


Grenadine                           65 parts

White dextrine                      30 parts

Potato flour                        5 parts


Yellowish Rose.


Rosa II                             60 parts

Citron yellow                       5 parts

White dextrine                      30 parts

Potato flour                        5 parts




Red violet                          65 parts

White dextrine                      30 parts

Potato flour                        5 parts


Carmine Green.


Woodruff (Waldmeister) green        55 parts

Rosa II                             5 parts

Dextrine                            35 parts

Potato flour                        5 parts


To the colors marked with an asterisk (*) add, for every 4 pounds, 4 1/2 ounces, a grain and a half each of potassium iodide and sodium nitrate. Colors given in form of powders should be dissolved in hot water for use.


Yellow. Various shades of yellow may be obtained by the maceration of

Besiello saffron, or turmeric, or grains d'Avignon in alcohol until a strong tincture is obtained. Dilute with water until the desired shade is obtained. An aqueous solution of quercitrine also gives an excellent yellow.




Indigo carmine                      1 part

Water                               2 parts




Indigo carmine is a beautiful, powerful, and harmless agent. It may usually be bought commercially, but if it cannot be readily obtained, proceed as follows:


Into a capsule put 30 grains of indigo in powder, place on a water bath, and heat to dryness. When entirely dry put






into a large porcelain mortar (the substance swells enormously under subsequent treatment hence the necessity for a large, or comparatively large, mortar) and cautiously add, drop by drop, 120 grains, by weight, of sulphuric acid, C.P., stirring continuously during the addition. Cover the swollen mass closely, and set aside for 24 hours. Now add 3 fluidounces of distilled water, a few drops at a time, rubbing or stirring continuously. Transfer the liquid thus obtained to a tall, narrow, glass cylinder or beaker, cover and let stand for 4 days, giving the liquid an occasional stirring. Make a strong solution of sodium carbonate or bicarbonate, and at the end of the time named cautiously neutralize the liquid, adding the carbonate a little at a time, stirring the indigo solution and testing it after each addition, as the least excess of alkali will cause the indigo to separate out, and fall in a doughy mass. Stop when the test shows the near approach of neutrality, as the slight remaining acidity will not affect the taste or the properties of the liquid. Filter, and evaporate in the water bath to dryness. The resultant matter is sulphindigotate of potassium, or the "indigo carmine" of commerce.


Tincture of indigo may also be used as a harmless blue.


Green. The addition of the solution indigo carmine to an infusion of any of the matters given under "yellow" will produce a green color. Tincture of crocus and glycerine in equal parts, with the addition of indigo-carmine solution, also gives a fine green. A solution of commercial chlorophyll gives grass-green, in shades varying according to the concentration of the solution.


Voice and Throat Lozenges.


Catechu                             191 grains

Tannic acid                         273 grains

Tartaric acid                       273 grains

Capsicin                            30 minims

Black-currant paste                 7 ounces

Refined sugar,

Mucilage of acacia,                 of each a sufficient quantity.


Mix to produce 7 pounds of lozenges.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Tables.



See Refrigeration,




Annealing Copper.


Copper is almost universally annealed in muffles, in which it is raised to the desired temperature, and subsequently allowed to cool either in the air or in water. A muffle is nothing more or less than a reverberatory furnace. It is necessary to watch the copper carefully, so that when it has reached the right temperature it may be drawn from the muffle and allowed to cool. This is important, for if the copper is heated too high, or is left in the muffle at the ordinary temperature of annealing too long, it is burnt, as the workmen say. Copper that has been burnt is yellow, coarsely granular, and exceedingly brittle even more brittle at a red heat than when cold.


In the case of coarse wire it is found that only the surface is burnt, while the interior is damaged less. This causes the exterior to split loose from the interior when bent or rolled, thus giving the appearance of a brittle copper tube with a copper wire snugly fitted into it.

Cracks a half inch in depth have been observed on the surface of an ingot on its first pass through the rolls, all due to this exterior burning. It is apparent that copper that has been thus overheated in the muffle is entirely unfit for rolling. It is found that the purer forms of copper are less liable to be harmed by overheating than samples containing even a small amount of impurities. Even the ordinary heating in a muffle will often suffice to burn in this manner the surface of some specimens of copper, rendering them unfit for further working. Copper that has been thus ruined is of use only to be refined again.


As may be inferred only the highest grades of refined copper are used for drawing or for rolling. This is not because the lower grades, when refined, cannot stand sufficiently high tests, but because methods of working are not adequate to prevent these grades of copper from experiencing the deterioration due to overheating.


The process of refining copper consists in an oxidizing action followed by a reducing action which, since it is performed by the aid of gases generated by stirring the melted copper with a pole, is called poling. The object of the oxidation is to oxidize and either volatilize or turn to slag all the impurities contained in the copper. This procedure is materially aided by the fact that the sub-






oxide of copper is freely soluble in metallic copper and thus penetrates to all parts of the copper, and parting with its oxygen, oxidizes the impurities. The object of the reducing part of the refining process is to change the excess of the suboxide of copper to metallic copper. Copper containing even less than 1 per cent of the suboxide of copper shows decreased malleability and ductility, and is both cold-short and red-short. If the copper to be refined contains any impurities, such as arsenic or antimony, it is well not to remove too much of the oxygen in the refining process. If this is done, overpoled copper is produced. In this condition it is brittle, granular, of a shining yellow color, and more red-short than cold-short. When the refining has been properly done, and neither too much nor too little oxygen is present, the copper is in the condition of "tough pitch," and is in a fit state to be worked.


Copper is said to be "tough pitch" when it requires frequent bending to break it, and when, after it is broken, the color is pale red, the fracture has a silky luster, and is fibrous like a tuft of silk. On hammering a piece to a thin plate it should show no cracks at the edge. At tough pitch copper offers the highest degree of malleability and ductility of which a given specimen is capable. This is the condition in which refined copper is (or should be) placed on the market, and if it could be worked without changing this tough pitch, any specimen of copper that could be brought to this condition would be suitable for rolling or drawing. But tough pitch is changed if oxygen is either added or taken from refined copper.


By far the more important of these is the removal of oxygen, especially from those specimens that contain more than a mere trace of impurities. This is shown by the absolutely worthless condition of overpoled copper. The addition of carbon also plays a very important part in the production of overpoled copper.


That the addition of oxygen to refined copper is not so damaging is shown by the fact that at present nearly all the copper that is worked is considerably oxidized at some stage of the process, and not especially to its detriment.


Burnt copper is nothing more or less than copper in the overpoled condition. This is brought about by the action of reducing gases in the muffle. By this means the small amount of oxygen necessary to give the copper its tough pitch is removed. This oxygen is combined with impurities in the copper, and thus renders them inert. For example, the oxide of arsenic or antimony is incapable of combining more than mechanically with the copper, but when its oxygen is removed the arsenic or antimony is left free to combine with the copper. This forms a brittle alloy, and one that corresponds almost exactly in its properties with overpoled copper. To be sure overpoled copper is supposed to contain carbon, but that this is not the essential ruling principle in case of annealing is shown by the fact that pure copper does not undergo this change under conditions that ruin impure copper, and also by the fact that the same state may be produced by annealing in pure hydrogen and thus removing the oxygen that renders the arsenic or antimony inert. No attempt is made to deny the well known fact that carbon does combine with copper to the extent of 0.2 per cent and cause it to become exceedingly brittle. It is simply claimed that this is probably not what occurs in the production of so-called burnt copper during annealing. The amount of impurities capable of rendering copper easily burnt is exceedingly small. This may be better appreciated when it is considered that from 0.01 to 0.2 per cent expresses the amount of oxygen necessary to render the impurities inert. The removal of this very small amount of oxygen, which is often so small as to be almost within the limits of the errors of analysis, will suffice to render copper overpoled and ruin it for any use.


There are methods of avoiding the numerous accidents that may occur in the annealing of copper, due to a change of pitch. As already pointed out, the quality of refined copper is lowered if oxygen be either added to or taken from it. It is quite apparent, therefore, that a really good method of annealing copper will prevent any change in the state of oxidation. It is necessary to prevent access to the heated copper both of atmospheric air, which would oxidize it, and of the reducing gases used in heating the muffle, which would take oxygen away from it. Obviously the only way of accomplishing this is to inclose the copper when heated and till cool in an atmosphere that can neither oxidize nor deoxidize copper. By so doing copper may be heated to the melting point and allowed to cool again without suffering as regards its pitch. There are comparatively few gases that can be used for this purpose, but, fortunately, one which is exceedingly cheap and universally






prevalent fulfills all requirements, viz., steam. In order to apply the principles enunciated it is necessary only to anneal copper in the ordinary annealing pots such as are used for iron, care being taken to inclose the copper while heating and while cooling in an atmosphere of steam. This will effectually exclude air and prevent the ingress of gases used in heating the annealer. Twenty-four hours may be used in the process, as in the annealing of iron wire, with no detriment to the wire. This may seem incredible to those manufacturers who have tried to anneal copper wire after the manner of annealing iron wire. By this method perfectly bright annealed wire may be produced. Such a process of annealing copper offers many advantages. It allows the use of a grade of copper that has hitherto been worked only at a great disadvantage, owing to its tendency to get out of pitch. It allows the use of annealers such as are ordinarily employed for annealing iron, and thus cheapens the annealing considerably as compared with the present use of muffles. There is no chance of producing the overpoled condition from the action of reducing gases used in heating the muffles. There is no chance of producing the underpoled condition due to the absorption of suboxide of copper. None of the metal is lost as scale, and the saving that is thus effected amounts to a considerable percentage of the total value of the copper. The expense and time of cleaning are wholly saved. Incidentally bright annealed copper is produced by a process which is applicable to copper of any shape, size, or condition a product that has hitherto been obtained only by processes (mostly secret) which are too cumbersome and too expensive for extensive use; and, as is the case with at least one process, with the danger of producing the overpoled condition, often in only a small section of the wire, but thus ruining the whole piece.




Blacking Copper. To give a copper article a black covering, clean it with emery paper, heat gently in a Bunsen or a spirit flame, immerse for 10 seconds in solution of copper filings in dilute nitric acid, and heat again.


Red Coloring of Copper. A fine red color may be given to copper by gradually heating it in an air bath. Prolonged heating at a comparatively low temperature, or rapid heating at a high temperature, produces the same result. As soon as the desired color is attained the metal should be rapidly cooled by quenching in water. The metal thus colored may be varnished.


To Dye Copper Parts Violet and Orange. Polished copper acquires an orange-like color leaning to gold, when dipped for a few seconds into a solution of crystallized copper acetate. A handsome violet is obtained by placing the metal for a few minutes in a solution of antimony chloride and rubbing it afterwards with a piece of wood covered with cotton. During this operation the copper must be heated to a degree bearable to the hand. A crystalline appearance is produced by boiling the article in copper sulphate.


Pickle for Copper. Take nitric acid, 100 parts; kitchen salt, 2 parts; calcined soot, 2 parts; or nitric acid, 10 parts; sulphuric acid, 10 parts; hydrochloric acid, 1 part. As these bleaching baths attack the copper quickly, the objects must be left in only for a few seconds, washing them afterwards in plenty of water, and drying in sawdust, bran, or spent tan.


Preparations of Copper Water.


I.    Water, 1,000 parts; oxalic acid, 30 parts; spirit of wine, 100 parts; essence of turpentine, 50 parts; fine tripoli, 100 parts.


II.   Water, 1,000 parts; oxalic acid, 30 parts; alcohol, 50 parts; essence of turpentine, 40 parts; fine tripoli, 50 parts.


III.  Sulphuric acid, 300 parts; sulphate of alumina, 80 parts; water, 520 parts.


Tempered Copper. Objects made of copper may be satisfactorily tempered by subjecting them to a certain degree of heat for a determined period of time and bestrewing them with powdered sulphur during the heating. While hot the objects are plunged into a bath of blue vitriol; after the bath they may be heated again.



See Alloys.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Etching.



See Food.



See Lacquers.







See Paper, Metallic.



See Plating.



See Polishes.



See Gold.



See Solders.



See Varnishes.




The so-called "metallic" paper used for steam-engine indicator cards has a smooth surface, chemically prepared so that black lines can be drawn upon it with pencils made of brass, copper, silver, aluminum, or any of the softer metals. When used on the indicator it receives the faint line drawn by a brass point at one end of the pencil arm, and its special advantage over ordinary paper is that the metallic pencil slides over its surface with very little friction, and keeps its point much longer than a graphite pencil.


This paper can be used as a transfer paper for copying engravings or sketches, or anything printed or written in ink or drawn in pencil.


The best copies can be obtained by following the directions below: Lay the metallic transfer paper, face up, upon at least a dozen sheets of blank paper, and lay the print face down upon it. On the back of the print place a sheet of heavy paper, or thin cardboard, and run the rubbing tool over this protecting sheet. In this manner it is omparatively easy to prevent slipping, and prints 8 or 10 inches on a side may be copied satisfactorily.


Line drawings printed from relief plates, or pictures with sharp contrast of black and white, without any half-tones, give the best copies. Very few half-tones can be transferred satisfactorily; almost all give streaked, indistinct copies, and many of the results are worthless.


The transfer taken off as described is a reverse of the original print. If the question of right and left is not important this reversal will seldom be objectionable, for it is easy to read backward what few letters generally occur. However, if desired, the paper may be held up to the light and examined from the back, or placed before a mirror and viewed by means of its reflected image, when the true relations of right and left will be seen. Moreover, if sufficiently important, an exact counterpart of the original may be taken from the reversed copy by laying another sheet face downward upon it, and rubbing on the back of the fresh sheet just as was done in making the reversed copy. The impression thus produced will be fainter than the first, but almost always it can be made dark enough to show a distinct outline which may afterwards be retouched with a lead pencil.


For indicator cards the paper is prepared by coating one surface with a suitable compound, usually zinc oxide mixed with a little starch and enough glue to make it adhere. After drying it is passed between calendar rolls under great pressure. The various brands manufactured for the trade, though perhaps equally good for indicator diagrams, are not equally well suited for copying. If paper of firmer texture could be prepared with the same surface finish, probably much larger copies could be produced.


Other kinds of paper, notably the heavy plate papers used for some of the best trade catalogues, possess this transfer property to a slight degree, though they will not receive marks from a metallic pencil. The latter feature would seem to recommend them for transfer purposes, making them less likely to become soiled by contact with metallic objects, but so far no kind has been found which will remove enough ink

to give copies anywhere near as dark as the indicator paper.


Fairly good transfers can be made from almost any common printers' ink, but some inks copy much better than others, and some yield only the faintest impressions. The length of time since a picture was printed does not seem to determine its copying quality. Some very old prints can be copied better than new ones; in fact, it was by accidental transfer to an indicator card from a book nearly a hundred years old that the peculiar property of this "metallic" paper was discovered.


Copying Process on Wood. If wood surfaces are exposed to direct sunlight the wood will exhibit, after 2 weeks action, a browning of dark tone in the exposed places. Certain parts of the surface being covered up during the entire exposure to the sun, they retain their original shade and are set off clearly and sharply against the parts browned by the sunlight. Based on this property of the






wood is a sun-copying process on wood. The method is used for producing tarsia in imitation on wood. A pierced stencil of tin, wood, or paper is laid on a freshly planed plate of wood, pasting it on in places to avoid shifting, and put into a common copying frame. To prevent the wood from warping a stretcher is employed, whereupon expose to the sun for from 8 to 14 days. After the brown shade has appeared the design obtained is partly fixed by polishing or by a coating of varnish, lacquer, or wax. Best suited for such works are the pine woods, especially the 5-year fir and the cembra pine, which, after the exposure, show a yellowish brown tone of handsome golden gloss, that stands out boldly, especially after subsequent polishing, and cannot be replaced by any staifi or by pyrography. The design is sharper and clearer than that produced by painting. In short, the total effect is pleasing.


How to Reproduce Old Prints. Prepare a bath as follows: Sulphuric acid,

3 to 5 parts (according to the antiquity of print, thickness of paper, etc.); alcohol, 3 to 5 parts; water, 100 parts. In this soak the print from 5 to 15 minutes (the time depending on age, etc., as above), remove, spread face downward on a glass or ebonite plate, and wash thoroughly in a gentle stream of running water. If the paper is heavy, reverse the sides, and let the water flow over the face of the print. Remove carefully and place on a heavy sheet of blotting paper, cover with another, and press out every drop of water possible. Where a wringing machine is convenient and sufficiently wide, passing the blotters and print through the rollers is better than mere pressing with the hands. The print, still moist, is then laid face upward on a heavy glass plate (a marble slab or a lithographers' stone answers equally well), and smoothed out. With a very soft sponge go over the surface with a thin coating of gum-arabic water. The print is now ready for inking, which is done exactly as in lithographing, with a roller and printers' or lithographers' ink, cut with oil of turpentine. Suitable paper is then laid on and rolled with a dry roller. This gives a reverse image of the print, which is then applied to a zinc plate or a lithographers' stone, and as many prints as desired pulled off in the usual lithographing method. When carefully done and the right kind of paper used, it is said that the imitation of the original is perfect in every detail.


To Copy Old Letters, Manuscripts, etc. If written in the commercial ink of the period from 1860 to 1864, which was almost universally an iron and tannin or gallic-acid ink, the following process may succeed: Make a thin solution of glucose, or honey, in water, and with this wet the paper in the usually observed way in copying recent documents in the letter book, put in the press, and screw down tightly. Let it remain in the press somewhat longer than in copying recent documents. When removed, before attempting to separate the papers, expose to the fumes of strong water of ammonia, copy side downward.



See also Ropes.


Strong Twine. An extraordinarily strong pack thread or cord, stronger even than the so-called "Zuckerschnur," may be obtained by laying the thread of fibers in a strong solution of alum, and then carefully drying them.


Preservation of Fishing Nets. The following recipe for the preservation of fishing nets is also applicable to ropes, etc., in contact with water. Some have been subjected to long test.


For 40 parts of cord, hemp, or cotton, 3 parts of kutch, 1 part of blue vitriol, part of potassium chromate, and 2i parts of wood tar are required. The kutch is boiled with 150 parts of water until dissolved, and then the blue vitriol is added. Next, the net is entered and the tar added. The whole should be stirred well, and the cordage must boil

5 to 8 minutes. Now take out the netting, lay it in another vessel, cover up well, and leave alone for 12 hours. After that it is dried well, spread out in a clean place, and coated with linseed oil. Not before 6 hours have elapsed should it be folded together and put into the water. The treatment with linseed oil may be omitted.



See Lubricants.



See Waterproofing.



See Wines and Liquors.




Impervious Corks. Corks which have been steeped in petrolatum are said to be an excellent substitute for glass stoppers. Acid in no way affects them and chemical fumes do not cause decay in them, neither do they become fixed by a blow or long disuse.






Non-Porous Corks. For benzine, turpentine, and varnish cans, immerse the corks in hot melted paraffine. Keep them under about 5 minutes; hold them down with a piece of wire screen cut to fit the dish in which you melt the paraffine. When taken out lay them on a screen till cool. Cheap corks can in this way be made gas- and air-tight, and can be cut and bored with ease.


Substitute for Cork. Wood pulp or other ligneous material may be treated to imitate cork. For the success of the composition it is necessary that the constituents be mingled and treated under special conditions. The volumetric proportions in which these constituents combine with the best results are the following: Wood pulp, 3 parts; cornstalk pith, 1 part; gelatin, 1 part; glycerine, 1 part; water, 4 parts; 20 per cent formic aldehyde solution, 1 part; but the proportions may be varied. After disintegrating the ligneous substances, and while these are in a moist and hot condition they are mingled with the solution of gelatin, glycerine, and water. The mass is stirred thoroughly so as to obtain a homogeneous mixture. The excess of moisture is removed. As a last operation the formic aldehyde is introduced, and the mass is left to coagulate in this solution. The formic aldehyde renders the product insoluble in nearly all liquids.

So it is in this last operation that it is necessary to be careful in producing the composition properly. When the operation is terminated the substance is submitted to pressure during its coagulation, either by molding it at once into a desired form, or into a mass which is afterwards converted into the finished product.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under Miscellaneous Methods.



See Adhesives, under Pastes.



See Preserving.



See Waterproofing.




I.    Salicylic-Acid Corn Cure. Extract cannabis indica, 1 part, by measure; salicylic acid, 10 parts, by measure; oil of turpentine, 5 parts, by measure; acetic acid, glacial, 2 parts, by measure; cocaine, alkaloidal, 2 parts, by measure; collodion, elastic, sufficient to make 100 parts. Apply a thin coating every night, putting each layer directly on the preceding one. After a few applications, the mass drops off, bringing the indurated portion, and frequently the whole of the

corn, off with it.


II.   Compound Salicylated Collodion Corn Cure. Salicylic acid, 11 parts, by weight; extract of Indian hemp, 2 parts, by weight; alcohol, 10 parts, by weight; flexible collodion, U.S.P., a sufficient quantity to make 100 parts, by weight.


The extract is dissolved in the alcohol and the acid in about 50 parts, by weight, of collodion, the solutions mixed, and the liquid made up to the required amount. The Indian hemp is presumably intended to prevent pain; whether it serves this or any other useful purpose seems a matter of doubt. The acid is frequently used without this addition.


III.  Extract of cannabis indica, 90 grains; salicylic acid, 1 ounce; alcohol, 1 ounce; collodion enough to make 10 ounces. Soften the extract with the alcohol, then add the collodion, and lastly the acid.


IV.   Resorcin, 1 part, by weight; salicylic acid, 1 part, by weight; lactic acid, 1 part, by weight; collodion elasticum, 10 parts, by weight. Paint the corn daily for 5 or 6 days with the above solution and take a foot bath in very hot water. The corn will readily come off.


Corn Plaster. Yellow wax, 24 parts, by weight; Venice turpentine, 3 parts, by weight; rosin, 2 parts, by weight; salicylic acid, 2 parts, by weight; balsam of Peru, 2 parts, by weight; lanolin, 4 parts, by weight.


Corn Cure. Melt soap plaster, 85 parts, by weight, and yellow wax, 5 parts by weight, in a vapor bath, and stir finely ground salicylic acid, 10 parts, by weight, into it.


Removal of Corns. The liquid used by chiropodists with pumice stone for the removal of corns and callosities is usually nothing more than a solution of potassa or concentrated lye, the pumice stone being dipped into the solution by the operator just before using.


Treatment of Bunions. Wear right and left stockings and shoes, the inner edges of the sole of which are perfectly straight. The bunion is bathed night and morning in a 4 per cent solution of carbolic acid for a few minutes, followed by plain water. If, after several weeks, the bursa is still distended with fluid, it is aspirated. If the bunion is due to flatfoot, the arch of the foot must be restored by a plate. When the joints are enlarged because of gout or rheuma-






tism, the constitutional conditions must be treated. In other cases, osteotomy and tenotomy are required.


The Treatment of Corns. Any corn may be speedily and permanently cured.

The treatment is of three kinds preventive, palliative, and curative.


I.    The preventive treatment lies in adopting such measures as will secure freedom from pressure and friction for the parts most liable to corns. To this end a well-fitting shoe is essential. The shoes should be of. well-seasoned leather, soft and elastic, and should be cut to a

proper model. 


II.   The palliative treatment is generally carried out with chemical substances. The best method, is, briefly, as follows: A ring of glycerine jelly is painted around the circumference of the corn, to form a raised rampart. A piece of salicylic plaster mull is then cut to the size and shape of the central depression, and applied to the surface of the corn. This is then covered with a layer of glycerine jelly, and before it sets a pad of cotton wool is applied to the surface. This process is repeated as often as is necessary, until the horny layer separates and is cast off.


If the point of a sharp, thin-bladed knife be introduced at the groove which runs around the margin of the corn, and be made to penetrate toward its central axis, by the exercise of a little manual dexterity the horny part of the corn can be easily made to separate from the parts beneath.


III.  Any method of treatment to be curative must secure the removal of the entire corn, together with the underlying bursa. It is mainly in connection with the latter structure that complications, which alone make a corn a matter of serious import, are likely to arise. Freeland confidently advises the full and complete excision of corns, on the basis of his experience in upward of 60 cases.


Every precaution having been taken to render the operation aseptic, a spot is selected for the injection of the anaesthetic solution. The skin is rendered insensitive with ethyl chloride, and 5 minims of a 4 per cent solution of cocaine is injected into the subcutaneous tissue beneath the corn. After a wait of a few minutes the superficial parts of the site of the incision are rendered insensitive with ethyl chloride. Anaesthesia is now complete.


Two semielliptieal incisions meeting at their extremities are made through the skin around the circumference of the growth, care being taken that they penetrate well into the subcutaneous tissue. Seizing the parts included in the incision with a pair of dissecting forceps, a wedge-shaped piece of tissue including the corn, a layer of skin and subcutaneous tissue, and the bursa if present is dissected out. The oozing is pretty free, and it is sometimes necessary to torsion a small vessel; but the hemorrhage is never severe. The edges of the wound are brought together by one or two fine sutures; an antiseptic dressing is applied, and the wound is left to heal primary union in a few days being the rule. The rapidity of the healing is often phenomenal. There is produced a scar tissue at the site of the corn, but this leads to no untoward results.







Oil of almonds                      425 parts

Lanolin                             185 parts

White wax                           62 parts

Spermaceti                          62 parts

Borax                               4.5 parts

Rose water                          300 parts


Melt together the first four ingredients, then incorporate the solution of borax in the rose water.



Tragacanth                          125 parts

Boric acid                          100 parts

Glycerine                           140 parts

Expressed oil of almonds            50 parts

Glyconine                           50 parts

Oil of lavender                     0.5 parts

Water                               enough to make 1,000 parts


Mix the tragacanth and the boric acid with the glycerine; add the almond oil, lavender oil, and egg glycerite, which have been previously well incorporated, and, lastly, add the water in divided portions until a clear jelly of the desired consistency is obtained.



Oil of almonds                            26 ounces

Castor oil (odorless)                     6 ounces

Lard (benzoated)                          8 ounces

White wax                                 8 ounces

Rose water (in winter less,

in summer more, than quantity named)      12 ounces

Orange-flower water                       8 ounces

Oil of rose                               15 minims

Extract of jasmine                        6 drachms

Extract of cassia                         4 drachms

Borax                                     2 ounces

Glycerine                                 4 ounces



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