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Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

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Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 226-250





Melt the oil of sweet almonds, wax, and lard together, and stir in the castor oil; make a solution of the borax in the glycerine and rose and orange-flower waters; add this solution, a little at a time, to the melted fat, stirring constantly to insure thorough incorporation; finally add the oil of rose dissolved in the extracts, and beat the ointment until cold.


IV.   Spermaceti (pure), 1/4 ounce; white wax (pure), 1/4 ounce; almond oil, 1/4 pound; butter of cocoa, 1/4 pound; lanolin, 2 ounces.


Melt and stir in 1 drachm of balsam of Peru. After settling, pour off the clear portion and add 2 fluidrachms of orange flower water and stir briskly until it concretes.


Camphorated Cold Cream.


Oil of sweet almonds                8 fluidounces

White wax                           1 ounce

Spermaceti                          1 ounce

Camphor                             1 ounce

Rose water                          5 fluidounces

Borax (in fine powder)              4 drachms

Oil of rose                         10 drops


Melt the wax and spermaceti, add the oil of sweet almonds, in which the camphor has been dissolved with very gentle heat; then gradually add the rose water, in which the borax has previously been dissolved, beating or agitating constantly with a wooden spatula until cold.

Lastly add the oil of rose.


Petrolatum Cold Cream.


Petrolatum (white)                  7 ounces

Paraffine                           1/2 ounce

Lanolin                             2 ounces

Water                               3 ounces

Oil of rose                         3 drops

Alcohol                             1 drachm


A small quantity of borax may be added, if desirable, and the perfume may be varied to suit the taste.




Pomades for the Lips. Lip pomatum which is said always to retain a handsome red color and never to grow rancid is prepared as follows:



Paraffine                           80.0 parts

Vaseline                            80.0 parts

Anchusine                           0.5 parts

Bergamot oil                        1.0 part

Lemon peel                          1.0 part


II.   Vaseline Pomade.


Vaseline oil, white                 1,000 parts

Wax, white                          300 parts

Geranium oil, African               40 parts

Lemon oil                           20 parts


III.  Rose Pomade.


Almond oil                          1,000 parts

Wax, white                          300 parts

Alkannin                            3 parts

Geranium oil                        20 parts


IV.   Yellow Pomade.


Vaseline oil, white                 1,000 parts

Wax, white                          200 parts

Spermaceti                          200 parts

Saffron surrogate.                  10 parts

Clove oil                           20 parts


V.    White Pomade.


Vaseline oil, white                 1,000 parts

Wax, white                          300 parts

Bitter almond oil, genuine          10 parts

Lemon oil                           2 parts



Paraffine                           49.0 parts

Vaseline                            49.0 parts

Oil of lemon                        0.75 parts

Oil of violet                       0.75 parts

Carmine,                            quantity sufficient.


Lipol. For treating sore, rough, or inflamed lips, apply the following night and morning, rubbing in well with the finger tips: Camphor, 1/2 ounce; menthol, 1/2 ounce; eucalyptol, 1 drachm; petrolatum (white), 1 pound; paraffine, 1/2 pound; alkanet root, 1/2 ounce; oil of bitter almonds, 15 drops; oil of cloves, 10 drops; oil of cassia, 5 drops. Digest the root in the melted paraffine and petrolatum, strain, add the other ingredients and pour into lip jars, hot.



Powdered Nail Polishes.



Tin oxide                           8 drachms

Carmine                             1/4 drachm

Rose oil                            6 drops

Neroli oil                          5 drops



Cinnabar                            1 drachm

Infusorial earth                    8 drachms



Putty powder (fine)                 4 drachms

Carmine                             2 grains

Oil of rose                         1 drop



White castile soap                        1 part

Hot water                                 16 parts

Zinc chloride solution, 10 per cent,      quantity sufficient.


Dissolve the soap in the water and to the solution add the zinc-chloride solution until no further precipitation occurs. Let stand over night; pour off the supernatant fluid, wash the precipitate






well with water, and dry at the ordinary temperature. Carmine may be added if desired.


Polishing Pastes for the Nails.



Talcum                              5 drachms

Stannous oxide                      3 drachms

Powdered tragacanth                 5 grains

Glycerine                           1 drachm

Rose water,                         quantity sufficient.

Solution of carmine                 sufficient to tint.


Make paste.


For softening the nails, curing hangnails, etc., an ointment is sometimes used consisting of white petrolatum, 8 parts; powdered castile soap, 1 part; and perfume to suit.



Eosine                              10 grains

White wax                           1/2 drachm

Spermaceti                          1/2 drachm

Soft paraffine                      1 ounce

Alcohol,                            a sufficient quantity.


Dissolve the cosine in as little alcohol as will suffice, melt the other ingredients together, add the solution, and stir until cool.


Nail-Cleaning Washes.



Tartaric acid                       1 drachm

Tincture of myrrh                   1 drachm

Cologne water                       2 drachms

Water                               3 ounces


Dissolve the acid in the water; mix the tincture of myrrh and cologne, and add to the acid solution.


Dip the nails in this solution, wipe, and polish with chamois skin.



Oxalic acid                         30 grains

Rose water                          1 ounce


Nail Varnish.


Paraffine wax                       60 grains

Chloroform                          2 ounces

Oil of rose                         3 drops




I.    Beef-Marrow Pomade.


Vaseline oil, yellow                20,000 parts

Ceresine, yellow                    3,000 parts

Beef marrow                         2,000 parts

Saffron substitute                  15 parts

Lemon oil                           50 parts

Bergamot oil                        20 parts

Clove oil                           5 parts

Lavender oil                        10 parts


II.   China Pomade.


Vaseline oil, yellow                20,000 parts

Ceresine, yellow                    5,000 parts

Brilliant, brown                    12 parts

Peru balsam                         50 parts

Lemon oil                           5 parts

Bergamot oil                        5 parts

Clove oil                           5 parts

Lavender oil                        5 parts


III.  Crystalline Honey Pomade. Nut oil, 125 drachms; spermaceti, 15 drachms: gamboge, 2 drachms; vervain oil, 10 drops; cinnamon oil, 20 drops; bergamot oil, 30 drops; rose oil, 3 drops. The spermaceti is melted in the nut oil on a water bath and digested with the gamboge for 20 minutes; it is next strained, scented, and poured into cans which are standing in water. The cooling must take place very slowly. Instead of gamboge, butter color may be used. Any desired scent mixture may be employed.


IV.   Herb Pomade.


Vaseline oil, yellow                20,000 parts

Ceresine, yellow                    5,000 parts

Chlorophyll                         20 parts

Lemon oil                           50 parts

Clove oil                           20 parts

Geranium oil, African               12 parts

Curled mint oil                     4 parts


V.    Rose Pomade.


Vaseline oil, white                 20,000 parts

Ceresine, white                     5,000 parts

Alkannin                            15 parts

Geranium oil, African               50 parts

Palmarosa oil                       30 parts

Lemon oil                           20 parts


VI.   Strawberry Pomade. When the strawberry season is on, and berries are plenty and cheap, the following is timely:


Strawberries, ripe and fresh        4 parts

Lard, sweet and fresh               25 parts

Tallow, fresh                       5 parts

Alkanet tincture,                   quantity sufficient.

Essential oil,                      quantity sufficient to perfume.


Melt lard and tallow together on the water bath at the temperature of boiling water. Have the strawberries arranged on a straining cloth. Add the alkanet tincture to the melted grease, stir in, and then pour the mixture over the berries. Stir the strained fats until the mass be-






gins to set, then add the perfume and stir in. A little artificial essence of strawberries may be added. The odor usually employed is rose, about 1 drop to every 2 pounds.


VII.  Stick Pomade.


Tallow                              500 parts

Ceresine                            150 parts

Wax, yellow                         50 parts

Rosin, light                        200 parts

Paraffine oil (thick)               300 parts

Oil of cassia                       5 parts

Oil of bergamot                     5 parts

Oil of clove                        2 parts


VIII. Vaseline Pomade. Melt 250 parts of freshly rendered lard and 25 parts of white wax at moderate heat and mix well with 200 parts of vaseline. Add 15 parts of bergamot oil, 3 parts of lavender oil, 2 parts of geranium oil, and 2 parts of lemon oil, mixing well.


IX.   Witch-Hazel Jelly.


Oil of sweet almonds                256 parts

Extract of witchhazel fluid         10 parts

Glycerine                           32 parts

Soft soap                           20 parts

Tincture of musk,                   quantity sufficient to perfume.


Mix in a large mortar the glycerine and soft soap and stir until incorporated. Add and rub in the witch-hazel, and then add the oil, slowly, letting it fall in a very thin, small stream, under constant agitation; add the perfume, keeping up the agitation until complete incorporation is attained. Ten drops of musk to a quart of jelly is sufficient. Any other perfume may be used.


Colors for Pomade. Pomade may be colored red by infusing alkanet in the grease; yellow may be obtained by using annotto in the same way; an oil-soluble chlorophyll will give a green color by admixture.


In coloring grease by means of alkanet or annotto it is best to tie the drug up in a piece of coarse cloth, place in a small portion of the grease, heat gently, squeezing well with a rod from time to time; and then adding this strongly colored grease to the remainder. This procedure obviates exposing the entire mass to heat, and neither decantation nor straining is needed.


Brocq's Pomade for Itching.


Acid phenic                         1 part

Acid salicylic                      2 parts

Acid tartaric                       3 parts

Glycerole of starch                 60 to 100 parts


Mix and make a pomade.

White Cosmetique.


Jasmine pomade                      2 ounces

Tuberose pomade                     2 ounces

White wax                           2 ounces

Refined suet                        4 ounces

Rose oil                            15 minims


Melt the wax and suet over a water bath, then add the pomades, and finally the otto.


Glycerine and Cucumber Jelly.


Gelatin                             160 to 240 grains

Boric acid                          240 grains

Glycerine                           6 fluidounces

Water                               10 fluidounces


Perfume to suit. The perfume must be one that mixes without opalescence, otherwise it mars the beauty of the preparation. Orange flower water or rose water could be substituted for the water if desired, or another perfume consisting of


Spirit of vanillin (15 grains

  per ounce)                        2 fluidrachms

Spirit of coumarin (15 grains

  per ounce)                        2 fluidrachms

Spirit of bitter almonds (1/8)      8 minims


to the quantities given above would prove agreeable.


Cucumber Pomade.


Cucumber pomade                     2 ounces

Powdered white soap                 1/2 ounce

Powdered borax                      2 drachms

Cherry-laurel water                 3 ounces

Rectified spirit                    3 ounces

Distilled water                     to make 48 ounces


Rub the pomade with the soap and borax until intimately mixed, then add the distilled water (which may be warmed to blood heat), ounce by ounce, to form a smooth and uniform cream. When 40 ounces of water have been so incorporated, dissolve any essential oils desired as perfume in the spirit, and add the cherry-laurel water, making up to 48 ounces with plain water.




Grease Paints. Theatrical face paints are sold in sticks, and there are many varieties of color. Yellows are obtained with ocher; browns with burnt umber; and blue is made with ultramarine. These colors should in each case be levigated finely along with their own weight






of equal parts of precipitated chalk and oxide of zinc and diluted with the same to the tint required, then made into sticks with mutton suet (or vaseline or paraffine, equal parts) well perfumed. By blending these colors, other tints may thus be obtained.


White Grease Paints.



Prepared chalk                      4 av. ounces

Zinc oxide                          4 av. ounces

Bismuth subnitrate                  4 av. ounces

Asbestos powder                     4 av. ounces

Sweet almond oil,                   about 2 1/2 fluidounces

Camphor                             40 grains

Oil peppermint                      3 fluidrachms

Esobouquet extract                  3 fluidrachms


Sufficient almond oil should be used to form a mass of proper consistence.



Zinc oxide                          8 parts

Bismuth subnitrate                  8 parts

Aluminum oxychloride                8 parts

Almond oil,                         quantity sufficient, or 5-6 parts.

Perfume,                            quantity sufficient.


Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum oxychloride thoroughly; make into a paste with the oil. Any perfume may be added, but that generally used is composed of 1 drachm of essence of bouquet, 12 grains of camphor, and 12 minims of oil of peppermint for every 3 1/2 ounces of paste.


Bright Red.


Zinc oxide                          10 parts

Bismuth subnitrate                  10 parts

Aluminum oxychloride                10 parts

Almond oil,                         quantity sufficient.


Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum salts, and to every 4 ounces of the mixture add 2 1/4 grains of cosine dissolved in a drachm of essence of bouquet, 12 minims oil of peppermint, and 12 grains of camphor. Make the whole into a paste with almond oil.




Cacao butter                        4 av. ounces

White wax                           4 av. ounces

Olive oil                           2 fluidounces

Oil of rose                         8 drops

Oil of bergamot                     3 drops

Oil of neroli                       2 drops

Tincture musk                       2 drops

Carmine                             90 grains

Ammonia water                       3 fluidrachms


Deep, or Bordeaux, Red.


Zinc oxide                          30 parts

Bismuth subnitrate                  30 parts

Aluminum oxychloride                30 parts

Carmine                             1 part

Ammonia water                       5 parts

Essence bouquet                     3 parts

Peppermint, camphor, etc.,          quantity sufficient.


Mix the zinc, bismuth, and aluminum salts. Dissolve the carmine in the ammonia and add solution to the mixture. Add 24 grains of camphor, and 24 minims of oil of peppermint dissolved in the essence bouquet, and make the whole into a paste with oil of sweet almonds.




Vermilion                           18 parts

Tincture of saffron                 12 parts

Orris root, powdered                30 parts

Chalk, precipitated                 120 parts

Zinc oxide                          120 parts

Camphor                             2 parts

Essence bouquet                     9 parts

Oil of peppermint                   2 parts

Almond oil,                         quantity sufficient.


Mix as before.




Zinc carbonate                      250 parts

Bismuth subnitrate                  250 parts

Asbestos                            250 parts

Expressed oil of almonds            100 parts

Camphor                             55 parts

Oil of peppermint                   55 parts

Perfume                             25 parts

Eosine                              1 part


Dark Red. Like the preceding, but colored with a solution of carmine.




Zinc oxide                          2 ounces

Bismuth subnitrate                  2 ounces

Aluminum plumbate                   2 ounces

Eosine                              1 drachm

Essence bouquet                     2 drachms

Camphor                             6 drachms

Oil of peppermint                   20 minims

Almond oil,                         quantity sufficient.


Dissolve the cosine in the essence bouquet, and mix with the camphor and peppermint; add the powder and make into a paste with almond oil.


Black Grease Paints.



Soot                                2 av. ounces

Sweet almond oil                    2 fluidounces

Cacao butter                        6 av. ounces

Perfume,                            sufficient.






The soot should be derived from burning camphor and repeatedly washed with alcohol. It should be triturated to a smooth mixture with the oil; then add to the melted cacao butter; add the perfume, and form into sticks.


Brown or other colors may be obtained by adding appropriate pigments, such as finely levigated burned umber, sienna, ocher, jeweler's rouge, etc., to the foregoing base instead of lampblack.



Best lampblack                      1 drachm

Cacao butter                        3 drachms

Olive oil                           3 drachms

Oil of neroli                       2 drops


Melt the cacao butter and oil, add the lampblack, and stir constantly as the mixture cools, adding the perfume toward the end.



Lampblack                           1 part

Cacao butter                        6 parts

Oil neroli,                         sufficient.


Melt the cacao butter and the lampblack, and while cooling make an intimate mixture, adding the perfume toward the last.



Lampblack                           1 part

Expressed oil of almonds            1 part

Oil cocoanut                        1 part

Perfume,                            sufficient.


Beat the lampblack into a stiff paste with glycerine. Apply with a sponge; if necessary, mix a little water with it when using.


V.    Beat the finest lampblack into a stiff paste with glycerine and apply with a sponge; if necessary, add a little water to the mixture when using. Or you can make a grease paint as follows: Drop black, 2 drachms; almond oil, 2 drachms; cocoanut oil, 6 drachms; oil of lemon, 5 minims; oil of neroli, 1 minim. Mix.   


Fatty Face Powders. These have a small percentage of fat mixed with them in order to make the powder adhere to the skin.


Dissolve 1 drachm anhydrous lanolin in 2 drachms of ether in a mortar.

Add 3 drachms of light magnesia. Mix well, dry, and then add the following: French chalk, 2 ounces; powdered starch, 1 1/2 ounces; boric acid, 1 drachm; perfume, a sufficient quantity. A good perfume is coumarin, 2 grains, and attar of rose, 2 minims.


Nose Putty.


I.    Mix 1 ounce wheat flour with 2 drachms of powdered tragacanth and tint with carmine. Take as much of the powder as necessary, knead into a stiff paste with a little water and apply

to the nose, having previously painted it with spirit gum.


II.   White wax, 8 parts; rosin, white, 8 parts; mutton suet, 4 parts; color to suit. Melt together.


Rose Powder. As a base take 200 parts of powdered iris root, add 600 parts of rose petals, 100 parts of sandal wood, 100 parts of patchouli, 3 parts of oil of geranium, and 2 parts of true rose oil.


Rouge Tablets. There are two distinct classes of these tablets: those in which the coloring matter is carmine, and those in which the aniline colors are used. The best are those prepared with carmine, or ammonium carminate, to speak more correctly. The following is an excellent formula:


Ammonium carminate                  10 parts

Talc, in powder                     25 parts

Dextrin                             8 parts

Simple syrup,                       sufficient.

Perfume, to taste,                  sufficient.


Mix the talc and dextrin and add the perfume, preferably in the shape of an essential oil (attar of rose, synthetic oil of jasmine, or violet, etc.), using 6 to 8 drops to every 4 ounces of other ingredients. Incorporate the ammonium carminate and add just enough simple syrup to make a mass easily rolled out. Cut into tablets of the desired size. The ammonium carminate is made by adding 1 part of carmine to 2 1/2 parts of strong ammonia water. Mix in a vial, cork tightly, and set aside until a solution is formed, shaking occasionally. The ammonium carminate is made by dissolving carmine in ammonia water to saturation.


Rouge Palettes. To prepare rouge palettes rub up together:


Carmine                             9 parts

French chalk                        50 parts

Almond oil                          12 parts


Add enough tragacanth mucilage to make the mass adhere and spread the whole evenly on the porcelain palette.


Liquid Rouge.



Carmine                             4 parts

Stronger ammonia water              4 parts

Essence of rose                     16 parts

Rose water to make                  500 parts


Mix.  A very delightful violet odor, if this is preferred, is obtained by using ionone in place of rose essence. A cheaper preparation may be made as follows:







Eosine                              1 part

Distilled water                     20 parts

Glycerine                           5 parts

Cologne water                       75 parts

Alcohol                             100 parts




Rub together with 10 parts of almond oil and add sufficient mucilage of tragacanth to make the mass adhere to the porcelain palette.



Carmine                             1 part

Stronger ammonia water              1 part

Attar of rose                       4 parts

Rose water                          125 parts


Mix.  Any other color may be used in place of rose, violet (ionone), for instance, or heliotrope. A cheaper preparation may be made by substituting cosine for the carmine, as follows:



Eosine                              1 part

Distilled water                     20 parts

Glycerine                           5 parts

Cologne water                       75 parts

Alcohol                             100 parts




Peach Tint.



Buffalo cosine                      4 drachms

Distilled water                     16 fluidounces





Pure hydrochloric acid              2 1/2 drachms

Distilled water                     64 fluidounces




Pour a into b, shake, and set aside for a few hours; then pour off the clear portion and collect the precipitate on a filter. Wash with the same amount of b and immediately throw the precipitate into a glass measure, stirring in with a glass rod sufficient of b to measure 16 ounces in all. Pass through a hair sieve to get out any filtering paper. To every 16 ounces add 8 ounces of glycerine.


Theater Rouge. Base:


Cornstarch                          4 drachms

Powdered white talcum               6 drachms





Carminoline                         10 grains

Base                                6 drachms

Water                               4 drachms


Dissolve the carminoline in the water, mix with the base and dry.



Geranium red                        10 grains

Base                                6 drachms

Water                               4 drachms


Mix as above and dry.




Wrinkles on the face yield to a wash consisting of 50 parts milk of almonds (made with rose water) and 4 parts aluminum sulphate. Use morning and night.


Rough skin is to be washed constantly in Vichy water. Besides this, rough places are to have the following application twice daily either a few drops of:



Rose water                          100 parts

Glycerine                           25 parts

Tannin                              3/4 part


Mix.  Or use:



Orange-flower water                 100 parts

Glycerine                           10 parts

Borax                               2 parts


Mix.  Sig.: Apply twice daily.


"Beauty Cream." This formula gives the skin a beautiful, smooth, and fresh appearance, and, at the same time, serves to protect and preserve it:


Alum, powdered                      10 grams

Whites of                           2 eggs

Boric acid                          3 grams

Tincture of benzoin                 40 drops

Olive oil                           40 drops

Mucilage of acacia                  5 drops

Rice flour,                         quantity sufficient.

Perfume,                            quantity sufficient.


Mix the alum and the white of eggs, without any addition of water whatever, in an earthen vessel, and dissolve the alum by the aid of very gentle heat (derived from a lamp, or gaslight, regulated to a very small flame), and constant, even, stirring. This must continue until the aqueous content of the albumen is completely driven off. Care must be taken to avoid coagulation of the albumen (which occurs very easily, as all know). Let the mass obtained in this manner get completely cold, then throw into a Wedgwood mortar, add the boric acid, tincture of benzoin, oil, mucilage (instead of which a solution of fine gelatin may be used), etc., and rub up together, thickening it with the addition of sufficient rice flour to give the desired consistence, and perfuming at will. Instead of olive oil any pure fat, or fatty oil, may be used, even vaseline or glycerine.


Face Bleach or Beautifier.


Syrupy lactic acid                  40 ounces

Glycerine                           80 ounces

Distilled water                     5 gallons


Mix.  Gradually add


Tincture of benzoin                 3 ounces


Color by adding






Carmine No. 40                      40 grains

Glycerine                           1 ounce

Ammonia solution                    1/2 ounce

Water to 3 ounces


Heat this to drive off the ammonia, and mix all. Shake, set aside; then filter, and add


Solution of ionone                  1 drachm


Add a few drachms of kaolin and filter until bright.





Lactic acid                         1 drachm

Boric acid                          1 drachm

Ceresine                            1 drachm

Paraffine oil                       6 drachms

Hydrous wool fat                    1 1/2 ounces

Castor oil                          6 drachms


II.   Unna advises hydrogen dioxide in the treatment of blackheads, his prescription being:


Hydrogen dioxide                    20 to 40 parts

Hydrous wool fat                    10 parts

Petrolatum                          30 parts



Thymol                              1 part

Boric acid                          2 parts

Tincture of witch hazel             18 parts

Rose water sufficient to make       200 parts


Mix.  Apply to the face night and morning with a sponge, first washing the face with hot water and castile soap, and drying it with a coarse towel, using force enough to start the dried secretions. An excellent plan is to steam the face by holding it over a basin of hot water, keeping the head covered with a cloth.



Ichthyol                            1 drachm

Zinc oxide                          2 drachms

Starch                              2 drachms

Petrolatum                          3 drachms


This paste should be applied at night. The face should first be thoroughly steamed or washed in water as hot as can be comfortably borne. All pustules should then be opened and blackheads emptied with as little violence as possible. After careful drying the paste should be thoroughly rubbed into the affected areas. In the morning, after removing the paste with a bland soap, bathe with cool water and dry with little friction.




Chapped Skin.



Glycerine                           8 parts

Bay rum                             4 parts

Ammonia water                       4 parts

Rose water                          4 parts


Mix the bay rum and glycerine, add the ammonia water, and finally the rose water. It is especially efficacious after shaving.


II.   As glycerine is bad for the skin of many people, here is a recipe which will be found more generally satisfactory as it contains less glycerine: Bay rum, 3 ounces; glycerine, 1 ounce; carbolic acid, 1/2 drachm (30 drops). Wash the hands well and apply while hands are soft, preferably just before going to bed. Rub in thoroughly. This rarely fails to cure the worst "chaps" in two nights.


III.  A sure remedy for chapped hands consists in keeping them carefully dry and greasing them now and then with an anhydrous fat (not cold cream). The best substances for the purpose are unguentum cereum or oleum olivarum.


If the skin of the hands is already cracked the following preparation will heal it:


Finely ground zinc oxide, 5.0 parts; bismuth oxychloride, 2.0 parts; with fat oil, 12.0 parts; next add glycerine, 5.0 parts; lanolin, 30.0 parts; and scent with rose water, 10.0 parts.


IV.   Wax salve (olive oil 7 parts, and yellow wax 3 parts), or pure olive oil.


Hand-Cleaning Paste. Cleaning pastes are composed of soap and grit, either with or without some free alkalI. Any soap may be used, but a white soap is preferred. Castile soap does not make as firm a paste as soap made from animal fats, and the latter also lather better. For grit, anything may be used, from powdered pumice to fine sand.


A good paste may be made by dissolving soap in the least possible quantity of hot water, and as it cools and sets stirring in the grit. A good formula is:


White soap                          2 1/2 pounds

Fine sand                           1 pound

Water                               5 1/2 pints


Lotion for the Hands.


Boric acid                          1 drachm

Glycerine                           6 drachms


Dissolve by heat and mix with


Lanolin                             6 drachms

Vaseline                            1 ounce


Add any perfume desired. The borated glycerine should be cooled before mixing it with the lanolin.


Cosmetic Jelly.


Tragacanth (white ribbon)           60 grains

Rose water                          14 ounces


Macerate for two days and strain forcibly through coarse muslin or cheese






cloth. Add glycerine and alcohol, of each 1 ounce. Perfume to suit. Use immediately after bathing, rubbing in well until dry.


Perspiring Hands.


I.    Take rectified eau de cologne, 50 parts (by weight); belladonna dye, 8 parts; glycerine, 3 parts; rub gently twice or three times a day with half a tablespoonful of this mixture. One may also employ chalk, carbonate of magnesia, rice starch, hot and cold baths of the hands (as hot and as cold as can be borne), during 6 minutes, followed by a solution of 4 parts of tannin in 32 of glycerine.


II.   Rub the hands several times per day with the following mixture:


By weight

Rose water                          125 parts

Borax                               10 parts

Glycerine                           8 parts


Hand Bleach. Lanolin, 30 parts; glycerine, 20 parts; borax, 10 parts;

eucalyptol, 2 parts ; essential oil of almonds, 1 part. After rubbing the hands with this mixture, cover them with gloves during the night.


For the removal of developing stains, see Photography.




Massage Application.


White potash soap, shaved           20 parts

Glycerine                           30 parts

Water                               30 parts

Alcohol (90 per cent)               10 parts


Dissolve the soap by heating it with the glycerine and water, mixed. Add the alcohol, and for every 30 ounces of the solution add 5 or 6 drops of the mistura oleoso balsamica, German Pharmacopoeia. Filter while hot.


Medicated Massage Balls. They are the balls of paraffine wax molded with a smooth or rough surface with menthol, camphor, oil of wintergreen, oil of peppermint, etc., added before shaping. Specially useful in headaches, neuralgias, and rheumatic affections, and many other afflictions of the skin and bones. The method of using them is to roll the ball over the affected part by the aid of the palm of the hand with pressure. Continue until relief is obtained or a sensation of warmth. The only external method for the treatment of all kinds of headaches is the menthol medicated massage ball. This may be made with smooth or corrugated surfaces. Keep wrapped in foil in cool places.


Casein Massage Cream. The basis of the modern massage cream is casein.

Casein is now produced very cheaply in the powdered form, and by treatment with glycerine and perfumes it is possible to turn out a satisfactory cream. The following formula is suggested:


Skimmed milk                        1 gallon

Water of ammonia                    1 ounce

Acetic acid                         1 ounce

Oil of rose geranium                1 drachm

Oil of bitter almond                1 drachm

Oil of anise                        2 drachms

Cold cream (see below),             enough.

Carmine                             enough to color.


Add the water of ammonia to the milk and let it stand 24 hours. Then add the acetic acid and let it stand another 24 hours. Then strain through cheese cloth and add the oils. Work this thoroughly in a Wedgwood mortar, adding enough carmine to color it a delicate pink. To the product thus obtained add an equal amount of cold cream made by the formula herewith given:


White wax                           4 ounces

Spermaceti                          4 ounces

White petrolatum                    12 ounces

Rose water                          14 ounces

Borax                               80 grains


Melt the wax, spermaceti, and petrolatum together over a water bath; dissolve the borax in the rose water and add to the melted mass at one time. Agitate violently. Presumably the borax solution should be of the same temperature as the melted mass.


Massage Skin Foods.


This preparation is used in massage for removing wrinkles:



White wax                           1/2 ounce

Spermaceti                          1/2 ounce

Cocoanut oil                        1 ounce

Lanolin                             1 ounce

Oil of sweet almonds                2 ounces


Melt in a porcelain dish, remove from the fire, and add


Orange-flower water                 1 ounce

Tincture of benzoin                 3 drops


Beat briskly until creamy.



Snow-white cold cream               4 ounces

Lanolin                             4 ounces

Oil of theobroma                    4 ounces

White petrolatum oil                4 ounces

Distilled water                     4 ounces


In hot weather add


Spermaceti                          1 1/2 drachms

White wax                           2 1/2 drachms






In winter the two latter are left out and the proportion of cocoa butter is modified. Prepared and perfumed in proportion same as cold cream.



White petrolatum                    7 av. ounces

Paraffine wax                       1/2 ounce

Lanolin                             2 av. ounces

Water                               3 fluidounces

Oil of rose                         3 drops

Vanillin                            2 grains

Alcohol                             1 fluidrachm


Melt the paraffine, add the lanolin and petrolatum, and when these have melted pour the mixture into a warm mortar, and, with constant stirring, incorporate the water. When nearly cold add the oil and vanillin, dissolved in the alcohol. Preparations of this kind should be rubbed into the skin vigorously, as friction assists the absorbed fat in developing the muscles, and also imparts softness and fullness to the skin.



See also Cleaning Methods and Photography for removal of stains caused

by photographic developers.


Astringent Wash for Flabby Skin.


This is used to correct coarse pores, and to remedy an oily or flabby skin. Apply with sponge night and morning:


Cucumber juice                      1 1/2 ounces

Tincture of benzoin                 1/2 ounce

Cologne                             1 ounce

Elder-flower water                  5 ounces


Put the tincture of benzoin in an 8-ounce bottle, add the other ingredients, previously mixed, and shake slightly. There will be some precipitation of benzoin in this mixture, but it will settle out, or it may be strained out through cheese cloth.


Bleaching Skin Salves. A skin-bleaching action, due to the presence of hydrogen peroxide, is possessed by the following mixtures:



Lanolin                             30 parts

Bitter almond oil                   10 parts


Mix and stir with this salve base a solution of


Borax                               1 part

Glycerine                           15 parts

Hydrogen peroxide                   15 parts


For impure skin the following composition is recommended:



White mercurial ointment            5 grams

Zinc ointment                       5 grams

Lanolin                             30 grams

Bitter almond oil                   10 grams


And gradually stir into this a solution of


Borax                               2 grams

Glycerine                           30 grams

Rose water                          10 grams

Concentrated nitric acid            5 drops



Lanolin                             30 grams

Oil sweet almond                    10 grams

Borax                               1 gram

Glycerine                           15 grams

Solution hydrogen peroxide          15 grams


Mix the lanolin and oil, then incorporate the borax previously dissolved in the mixture of glycerine and peroxide solution.



Ointment ammoniac mercury           5 grams

Ointment zinc oxide                 5 grams

Lanolin                             30 grams

Oil sweet almond                    10 grams

Borax                               2 grams

Glycerine                           30 grams

Rose water                          10 grams

Nitric acid, C.P.                   5 drops


Prepare in a similar manner as the foregoing. Rose oil in either ointment makes a good perfume. Both ointments may, of course, be employed as a general skin bleach, which, in fact, is their real office - cosmetic creams.


Emollient Skin Balm.


Quince seed                         1/2 ounce

Water                               7 ounces

Glycerine                           1 1/2 ounces

Alcohol                             4 1/2 ounces

Salicylic acid                      6 grains

Carbolic acid                       10 grains

Oil of bay                          10 drops

Oil of cloves                       5 drops

Oil of orange peel                  10 drops

Oil of wintergreen                  8 drops

Oil of rose                         2 drops


Digest the quince seed in the water for 24 hours, and then press through a cloth; dissolve the salicylic acid in the alcohol; add the carbolic acid to the glycerine; put all together, shake well, and



Skin Lotion.


Zinc sulphocarbolate                30 grains

Alcohol (90 per cent)               4 fluidrachms

Glycerine                           2 fluidrachms

Tincture of cochineal               1 fluidrachm

Orange-flower water                 1 1/2 fluidounces

Rose water (triple) to make         6 fluidounces






Skin Discoloration. Discoloration of the neck may be removed by the use of acids, the simplest of which is that in buttermilk, but if the action of this is too slow try 4 ounces of lactic acid, 2 of glycerine, and 1 of rose water. These will mix without heating. Apply several times daily with a soft linen rag; pour a small quantity into a saucer and dip the cloth into this. If the skin becomes sore use less of the remedy and allay the redness and smarting with a good cold cream. It is always an acid that removes freckles and discolorations, by burning them off. It is well to be slow in its use until you find how severe its action is. It is not wise to try for home making any of the prescriptions which include corrosive sublimate or any other deadly poison. Peroxide of hydrogen diluted with 5 times as much water, also will bleach discolorations. Do not try any of these bleaches on a skin freshly sunburned. For that, wash in hot water, or add to the hot water application enough witch-hazel to scent the water, and after that has dried into the skin it will be soon enough to try other applications.


Detergent for Skin Stains. Moritz Weiss has introduced a detergent paste which will remove stains from the skin without attacking it, is non-poisonous, and can be used without hot water. Moisten the hands with a little cold water, apply a small quantity of the paste to the stained skin, rub the hands together for a few minutes, and rinse with cold water. The preparation is a mixture of soft soap and hard tallow, melted together over the fire and incorporated with a little emery powder, flint, glass, sand, quartz, pumice stone, etc., with a little essential oil to mask the smell of the soap. The mixture sets to a mass like putty, but does not dry hard. The approximate proportions of the ingredients are: Soft soap, 30 per cent; tallow, 15 per cent; emery powder, 55 per cent, and a few drops of essential oil.


If an extra detergent quality is desired, 4 ounces of sodium carbonate may be added, and the quantity of soap may be reduced. Paste thus made will attack grease, etc., more readily, but it is harder on the skin.


Removing Inground Dirt.


Egg albumen                         8 parts

Boric acid                          1 part

Glycerine                           32 parts

Perfume to suit.

Distilled water to make.            50 parts


Dissolve the boric acid in a sufficient quantity of water; mix the albumen and glycerine and pass through a silk strainer. Finally, mix the two fluids and add the residue of water.


Every time the hands are washed, dry on a towel, and then moisten them lightly but thoroughly with the liquid, and dry on a soft towel without rubbing. At night, on retiring, apply the mixture and wipe slightly or just enough to take up superfluous liquid; or, better still, sleep in a pair of cotton gloves.




Almond Cold Creams. A liquid almond cream may be made by the appended formula. It has been known as milk of almond:



Sweet almonds                       5 ounces

White castile soap                  2 drachms

White wax                           2 drachms

Spermaceti                          2 drachms

Oil of bitter almonds               10 minims

Oil of bergamot                     20 minims

Alcohol                             6 fluidounces

Water,                              a sufficient quantity.


Beat the almonds in a smooth mortar until as much divided as their nature will admit; then gradually add water in very small quantities, continuing the beating until a smooth paste is obtained; add to this, gradually, one pint of water, stirring well all the time. Strain the resulting emulsion without pressure through a cotton cloth previously well washed to remove all foreign matter. If new, the cloth will contain starch, etc., which must be removed. Add, through the strainer, enough water to bring the measure of the strained liquid to 1 pint.

While this operation is going on let the soap be shaved into thin ribbons, and melted, with enough water to cover it, over a very gentle fire or on a water bath. When fluid add the wax and spermaceti in large pieces, so as to allow them to melt slowly, and thereby better effect union with the soap. Stir occasionally. When all is melted place the soapy mixture in a mortar, run into it slowly the emulsion, blending the two all the while with the pestle. Care must be taken not to add the emulsion faster than it can be incorporated with the soap. Lastly add the alcohol in which the perfumes have been previously dissolved, in the same manner, using great care.


This preparation is troublesome to make and rather expensive, and it is perhaps no better for the purpose than glycerine. The mistake is often made of applying the latter too freely, its "stickiness" being unpleasant, and it is






best to dilute it largely with water. Such a lotion may be made by mixing


Glycerine                           1 part

Rose water                          9 parts


Plain water may, of course, be used as the diluent, but a slightly perfumed preparation is generally considered more desirable. The perfume may easily be obtained by dissolving a very small proportion of handkerchief "extract" or some essential oil in the glycerine, and then mixing with plain water.



White wax                           1/4 ounce

Spermaceti                          2 1/2 ounces

Oil of sweet almonds                2 1/2 ounces


Melt, remove from the fire, and add


Rose water                          1 1/2 ounces


Beat until creamy: not until cold. When the cream begins to thicken add a few drops of oil of rose. Only the finest almond oil should be used. Be careful in weighing the wax and spermacetI. These precautions will insure a good product.



White wax                           4 ounces

Spermaceti                          3 ounces

Sweet almond oil                    6 fluidounces

Glycerine                           4 fluidounces

Oil of rose geranium                1 fluidrachm

Tincture of benzoin                 4 fluidrachms


Melt the wax and spermaceti, add the oil of sweet almonds, then beat in the glycerine, tincture of benzoin, and oil of rose geranium. When all are incorporated to a smooth, creamy mass, pour into molds.



Sweet almonds, blanched             5 ounces

Castile soap, white                 120 grains

White wax                           120 grains

Spermaceti                          120 grains

Oil of bitter almonds               10 drops

Oil of bergamot                     20 drops

Alcohol                             6 fluidounces

Water,                              sufficient.


Make an emulsion of the almonds with water so as to obtain 16 fluidounces of product, straining through cotton which has previously been washed to remove starch. Dissolve the soap with the aid of heat in the necessary amount of water to form a liquid, add the wax and spermaceti, continue the heat until the latter is melted, transfer to a mortar, and incorporate the almond emulsion slowly with constant stirring until all has been added and a smooth cream has been formed. Finally, add the two volatile oils.


V.    Melt, at moderate heat,


By weight.

White wax                     100 parts

Spermaceti                    1,000 parts


Then stir in


By weight.

Almond oil                    500 parts

Rose water                    260 parts


And scent with


By weight.

Bergamot oil                  10 parts

Geranium oil                  5 parts

Lemon oil                     4 parts



By weight.

Castor oil                    500 parts

White wax                     100 parts

Almond oil                    150 parts


Melt at moderate heat and scent with


By weight.

Geranium oil                  6 parts

Lemon oil                     5 parts

Bergamot oil                  10 parts



By weight.

Almond oil                    400 parts

Lanoline                      200 parts

White wax                     60 parts

Spermaceti                    60 parts

Rose water                    300 parts



By weight.

White wax                     6 parts

Tallow, freshly tried out     4 parts

Spermaceti                    2 parts

Oil of sweet almonds          6 parts


Melt together and while still hot add, with constant stirring, 1 part of sodium carbonate dissolved in 79 parts of hot water. Stir until cold. Perfume to the taste.



Ointment of rose water        1 ounce

Oil of sweet almonds          1 fluidounce

Glycerine                     1 fluidounce

Boric acid                    100 grains

Solution of soda              2 1/4 fluidounces

Mucilage of quince seed       4 fluidounces

Water                         enough to make 40 fluidounces

Oil of rose,

oil of bitter almonds,        of each sufficient to perfume.


Heat the ointment, oil, and solution of soda together, stirring constantly until an emulsion or saponaceous mixture is






formed. Then warm together the glycerine, acid, and mucilage and about 30 fluidounces of water; mix with the emulsion, stir until cold, and add the remainder of the water. Lastly, add the volatile oils.


The rose-water ointment used should be the "cold cream" of the United States Pharmacopoeia.



Spermaceti                          2 ounces

White wax                           2 ounces

Sweet almond oil                    14 fluidounces

Water, distilled                    7 fluidounces

Borax, powder                       60 grains

Coumarin                            1/2 grain

Oil of bergamot                     24 drops

Oil of rose                         6 drops

Oil of bitter almonds               8 drops

Tincture of ambergris               5 drops


Melt the spermaceti and wax, add the sweet almond oil, incorporate the water in which the borax has previously been dissolved, and finally add the oils of bergamot, rose, and bitter almond.



Honey                               2 av. ounces

Castile soap, white powder          1 av. ounce

Oil sweet almonds                   26 fluidounces

Oil bitter almonds                  1 fluidrachm

Oil bergamot                        1/2 fluidrachm

Oil cloves                          15 drops

Peru balsam                         1 fluidrachm

Liquor potassa.

Solution carmine,                   of each sufficient.


Mix the honey with the soap in a mortar, and add enough liquor potassa

(about 1 fluidrachm) to produce a nice cream. Mix the volatile oils and balsam with the sweet almond oil, mix this with the cream, and continue the trituration until thoroughly mixed. Finally add, if desired, enough carmine solution to impart a rose tint.



White wax                           800 parts

Spermaceti                          800 parts

Sweet almond oil                    5,600 parts

Distilled water                     2,800 parts

Borax                               50 parts

Bergamot oil                        20 parts

Attar of rose                       5 parts

Coumarin                            0.1 part


Add for each pound of the cream 5 drops of etheric oil of bitter almonds, and 3 drops tincture of ambra. Proceed as in making cold cream.


The following also makes a fine cream:



Spermaceti                          3 parts

White wax                           2 parts

Oil of almonds, fresh               12 parts

Rose water, double                  1 part

Glycerine, pure                     1 part


Melt on a water bath the spermaceti and wax, add the oil (which should be fresh), and pour the whole into a slightly warmed mortar, under constant and lively stirring, to prevent granulation. Continue the trituration until the mass has a white, creamy appearance, and is about the consistence of butter at ordinary temperature. Add, little by little, under constant stirring, the orange-flower water and glycerine mixed, and finally the perfume as before. Continue the stirring for 15 or 20 minutes, then immediately put into containers.


Chappine Cream.


Quince seed                         2 drachms

Glycerine                           1 1/2 ounces

Water                               1 1/2 ounces

Lead acetate                        10 grains

Flavoring,                          sufficient.


Macerate the quince seed in water, strain, add the glycerine and lead acetate, previously dissolved in sufficient water; flavor with jockey club or orange essence.


Cucumber Creams.



White wax                           3 ounces

Spermaceti                          3 ounces

Benzoinated lard                    8 ounces

Cucumbers                           3 ounces


Melt together the wax, spermaceti, and lard, and infuse in the liquid the cucumbers previously grated. Allow to cool, stirring well; let stand a day, remelt, strain and again stir the "cream" until cold.



Benzoinated lard                    5 ounces

Suet                                3 ounces

Cucumber juice                      10 ounces


Proceed as in making cold cream.


Glycerine Creams.



Oil of sweet almonds                100 parts

White wax                           13 parts

Glycerine, pure                     25 parts


Add a sufficient quantity of any suitable perfume.


Melt, on the water bath, the oil, wax, and glycerine together, remove and as the mass cools down add the perfume in sufficient quantity to make a creamy mass.







Quince seed                         1 ounce

Boric acid                          16 grains

Starch                              1 ounce

Glycerine                           16 ounces

Carbolic acid                       30 minims

Alcohol                             12 ounces

Oil of lavender                     30 minims

Oil of rose                         10 drops

Extract of white rose               1 ounce

Water enough to make                64 ounces


Dissolve the boric acid in a quart of water and in this solution macerate the quince seed for 3 hours; then strain. Heat together the starch and the glycerine until the starch granules are broken, and mix with this the carbolic acid. Dissolve the oils and the extract of rose in the alcohol, and add to the quince seed mucilage; then mix all together, strain, and add water enough to make the product weigh 64 ounces.



Glycerine                           1 ounce

Borax                               2 drachms

Boracic acid                        1 drachm

Oil rose geranium                   30 drops

Oil bitter almond                   15 drops

Milk                                1 gallon


Heat the milk until it curdles and allow it to stand 12 hours. Strain it through cheese cloth and allow it to stand again for 12 hours. Mix in the salts and glycerine and triturate in a mortar, finally adding the odors and coloring if wanted. The curdled milk must be entirely free from water to avoid separation. If the milk will not curdle fast enough the addition of 1 ounce of water ammonia to a gallon will hasten it. Take a gallon of milk, add 1 ounce ammonia water, heat (not boil), allow to stand 24 hours, and no trouble will be found in forming a good base for the cream.


IV.   This is offered as a substitute for cucumber cream for toilet uses. Melt 15 parts, by weight, of gelatin in hot water containing 15 parts, by weight, of boracic acid as well as 150 parts, by weight, of glycerine; the total amount of water used should not exceed 300 parts, by weight. It may be perfumed or not.


Lanolin Creams.



Anhydrous lanolin                   650 parts

Peach-kernel oil                    200 parts

Water                               150 parts


Perfume with about 15 drops of ionone or 20 drops of synthetic ylang-




Lanolin                             40 parts

Olive oil                           15 parts

Paraffine ointment                  10 parts

Aqua naphse                         10 parts

Distilled water                     15 parts

Glycerine                           5 parts

Boric acid                          4 parts

Borax                               4 parts

Geranium oil,                       sufficient.

Extract, triple, of ylang-ylang,    quantity sufficient.



Anhydrous lanolin                   650 drachms

Almond oil                          200 drachms

Water                               150 drachms

Oil of ylang-ylang                  5 drops


Preparations which have been introduced years ago for the care of the skin and complexion are the glycerine gelees, which have the advantage over lanolin that they go further, but present the drawback of not being so quickly absorbed by the skin. These products are filled either into glasses or into tubes. The latter way is preferable and is more and more adopted, owing to the convenience of handling.


A good recipe for such a gelée is the following:


Moisten white tragacanth powder, 50 parts, with glycerine, 200 parts, and spirit of wine, 100 parts, and shake with a suitable amount of perfume; then quickly mix and shake with warm distilled water, 650 parts.


A transparent slime will form immediately which can be drawn off at once.


Mucilage Creams.



Starch                              30 parts

Carrageen mucilage                  480 parts

Boric acid                          15 parts

Glycerine                           240 parts

Cologne water                       240 parts


Boil the starch in the carrageen mucilage, add the boric acid and the glycerine. Let cool, and add the cologne water.



Linseed mucilage                    240 parts

Boric acid                          2 parts

Salicylic acid                      1.3 parts

Glycerine                           60 parts

Cologne water                       120 parts

Rose water                          120 parts


Instead of the cologne water any extracts may be used. Lilac and ylang-

ylang are recommended.


Witch-Hazel Creams.



Quince seed                         90 grains

Boric acid                          8 grains

Glycerine                           4 fluidounces

Alcohol                             6 fiuidounces

Carbolic acid                       6 drachms

Cologne water                       4 fluidounces

Oil lavender flowers                40 drops






Glycerite starch                    4 av. ounces

Distilled witch-hazel extract       enough to make 32 fluidounces


Dissolve the boric acid in 16 ounces of the witch-hazel extract, macerate the quince seed in the solution for 3 hours, strain, add the glycerine, carbolic acid, and glycerite, and mix well. Mix the alcohol, cologne water, lavender oil, and mucilages, incorporate with the previous mixture, and add enough witch-hazel extract to bring to the measure of 32 fluidounces.



Quince seed                         4 ounces

Hot water                           16 ounces

Glycerine                           32 ounces

Witch-hazel water                   128 ounces

Boric acid                          6 ounces

Rose extract                        2 ounces

Violet extract                      1 ounce


Macerate the quince seed in the hot water; add the glycerine and witch hazel, in which the boric acid has been previously dissolved; let the mixture stand for 2 days, stirring occasionally; strain and add the perfume.


Skin Cream for Collapsible Tubes.



White vaseline                      6 ounces

White wax                           1 ounce

Spermaceti                          5 drachms

Subchloride bismuth                 6 drachms

Attar of rose                       6 minims

Oil of bitter almonds               1 minim

Rectified spirit                    1/2 ounce


Melt the vaseline, wax, and spermaceti together, and while cooling incorporate the subchloride of bismuth (in warm mortar). Dissolve the oils in the alcohol, and add to the fatty mixture, stirring all until uniform and cold. In cold weather the quantities of wax and spermaceti may be reduced.



Lanolin                             1 ounce

Almond oil                          1 ounce

Oleate of zinc (powder)             3 drachms

Extract of white rose               1 1/2 drachms

Glycerine                           2 drachms

Rose water                          2 drachms


Face Cream Without Grease.

Quince seed                         10 parts

Boiling water                       1,000 parts

Borax                               5 parts

Boric acid                          5 parts

Glycerine                           100 parts

Alcohol, 94 per cent                125 parts

Attar of rose, quantity             sufficient to perfume.


Macerate the quince seed in half of the boiling water, with frequent agitations, for 2 hours and 30 minutes, then strain off. In the residue of the boiling water dissolve the borax and boric acid, add the glycerine and the perfume, the latter dissolved in the alcohol. Now add, little by little, the colate of quince seed, under constant agitation, which should be kept up for 5 minutes after the last portion of the colate is added.




Cucumber Milk.


Simple cerate                       2 pounds

Powdered borax                      11 1/2 ounces

Powdered castile soap               10 ounces

Glycerine                           26 ounces

Alcohol                             24 ounces

Cucumber juice                      32 ounces

Water to                            5 gallons

lonone                              1 drachm

Jasmine                             1/2 drachm

Neroli                              1/2 drachm

Rhodinol                            15 minims


To the melted cerate in a hot water bath add the soap and stir well, keeping up the heat until perfectly mixed. Add 8 ounces of borax to 1 gallon of boiling water, and pour gradually into the hot melted soap and cerate; add the remainder of the borax and hot water, then the heated juice and glycerine, and lastly the alcohol. Shake well while cooling, set aside for 48 hours, and siphon off any water that may separate. Snake well, and repeat after standing again if necessary; then perfume.


Cucumber Juice. It is well to make a large quantity, as it keeps indefinitely. Washed unpeeled cucumbers are grated and pressed: the juice is heated, skimmed and boiled for 5 minutes, then cooled and filtered. Add 1 part of alcohol to 2 parts of juice, let stand for 12 hours or more, and filter until clear.


Glycerine Milk.


Glycerine                           1,150 parts

Starch, powdered                    160 parts

Distilled water                     400 parts

Tincture of benzoin                 20 parts


Rub up 80 parts of the starch with the glycerine, then put the mixture on the steam bath and heat, under continuous stirring, until it forms a jellylike mass. Remove from the bath and stir in the remainder of the starch. Finally, add the water and tincture and stir till homogeneous.


Lanolin Toilet Milk.


White castile soap, powdered        22 grains

Lanolin                             1 ounce

Tincture benzoin                    12 drachms

Water,                              enough.






Dissolve the soap in 2 fluidounces of warm water, also mix the lanolin with 2 fluidounces of warm water; then incorporate the two with each other, finally adding the tincture. The latter may be replaced by 90 grains of powdered borax.


Jasmine Milk. To 25 parts of water add gradually, with constant stirring, 1 part of zinc white, 2 quarts of grain spirit, and 0.15 to 0.25 part of glycerine; finally stir in 0.07 to 0.10 part of jasmine essence. Filter the mixture and fill into glass bottles. For use as a cosmetic, rub on the raspberry paste on retiring at night, and in the morning use the jasmine milk to remove the paste from the skin. The two work together in their effect.




I.    Apply over the affected skin a solution of corrosive sublimate, 1 in 500, or, if the patient can stand it, 1 in 300, morning and evening, and for the night apply emplastrum hydrargyri compositum to the spots. In the morning remove the plaster and all remnants of it by rubbing fresh butter or cold cream over the spots.


For redness of the skin apply each other day zinc oxide ointment or ointment of bismuth subnitrate.


II.   Besnier recommends removal of the mercurial ointment with green soap, and the use, at night, of an ointment composed of vaseline and Vigo's plaster (emplastrum hydrargyri compositum), in equal parts. In the morning wash off with soap and warm water, and apply the following:


Vaseline, white                     20 parts

Bismuth carbonate                   5 parts

Kaolin                              5 parts


Mix, and make an ointment.


III.  Leloir has found the following of service. Clean the affected part with green soap or with alcohol, and then apply several coats of the following:


Acid chrysophanic                   15 parts

Chloroform                          100 parts


Mix.  Apply with a camel's-hair pencil.


When the application dries thoroughly, go over it with a layer of traumaticine. This application will loosen itself in several uays, when the process should be repeated.


IV.   When the skin is only slightly discolored use a pomade of salicylic acid, or apply the following:


Acid chrysophanic,                  from 1 to 4 parts

Acid salicylic                      1 to 2 parts

Collodion                           40 parts


V.    When there is need for a more complicated treatment, the following is used:



Corrosive sublimate                 1 part

Orange-flower water                 7,500 parts

Acid, hydrochloric, dilute          500 parts



Bitter almonds                      4,500 parts

Glycerine                           2,500 parts

Orange-flower water                 25,000 parts


Rub up to an emulsion in a porcelain capsule. Filter and add, drop by drop, and under constant stirring, 5 grams of tincture of benzoin. Finally mix the two solutions, adding the second to the first. 


This preparation is applied with a sponge, on retiring, to the affected places, and allowed to dry on.


VI.   According to Brocq the following should be penciled over the affected spots:


Fresh pure milk                     50 parts

Glycerine                           30 parts

Acid, hydrochloric, concentrated    5 parts

Ammonium chlorate                   3 parts


VII.  Other external remedies that may be used are lactic acid diluted with 3 volumes of water, applied with a glass rod: dilute nitric acid, and, finally, peroxide of hydrogen, which last is a very powerful agent. Should it cause too much inflammation, the latter may be assuaged by using an ointment of zinc oxide or bismuth subnitrate or one may use the following:


Kaolin                              4 parts

Vaseline                            10 parts

Glycerine                           4 parts

Magnesium carbonate                 2 parts

Zinc oxide                          2 parts


Freckle Remedies.



Poppy oil                           1 part

Lead acetate                        2 parts

Tincture benzoin                    1 part

Tincture quillaia                   5 parts

Spirit nitrous ether                1 part

Rose water                          95 parts


Saponify the oil with the lead acetate; add the rose water, and follow with the tinctures.



Chloral hydrate                     2 drachms

Carbolic acid                       1 drachm






Tincture iodine                     60 drops

Glycerine                           1 ounce


Mix and dissolve. Apply with a camel's-hair pencil at night.



Distilled vinegar                   660 parts

Lemons, cut in small pieces         135 parts

Alcohol, 85 per cent                88 parts

Lavender oil                        23 parts

Water                               88 parts

Citron oil                          6 parts


This mixture is allowed to stand for 3 or 4 days in the sun and filtered. Coat, by means of a sponge before retiring, the places of the skin where the freckles are and allow to dry.


Freckles and Liver Spots, Modern dermatological methods of treating freckles and liver spots are based partly on remedies that cause desquamation and those that depigmentate (or destroy or neutralize pigmentation). Both methods may be distinguished in respect to their effects and mode of using into the following: The active ingredients of

the desquamative pastes are reductives which promote the formation of epithelium and hence expedite desquamation.


There are many such methods, and especially to be mentioned is that of

Unna, who uses resorcin for the purpose. Lassar makes use of a paste of naphthol and sulphur.


Sunburn Remedies.



Zinc sulphocarbolate                1 part

Glycerine                           20 parts

Rose water                          70 parts

Alcohol, 90 per cent                8 parts

Cologne water                      1 part

Spirit of camphor                   1 part



Borax                               4 parts

Potassium chlorate                  2 parts

Glycerine                           10 parts

Alcohol                             4 parts

Rose water to make                  90 parts



Citric acid                         2 drachms

Ferrous sulphate (cryst.)           18 grains

Camphor                             2 grains

Elder-flower water                  3 fluidounces



Potassium carbonate                 3 parts

Sodium chloride                     2 parts

Orange-flower water                 15 parts

Rose water                          65 parts



Boroglycerine, 50 percent           1 part

Ointment of rose water              9 parts



Sodium bicarbonate                  1 part

Ointment of rose water              7 parts



Bicarbonate of soda                 2 drachms

Powdered borax                      1 drachm

Compound tincture of lavender       1 1/2 drachms

Glycerine                           1 ounce

Rose water                          4 ounces


Dissolve the soda and borax in the glycerine and rose water, and add the tincture. Apply with a small piece of sponge 2 or 3 times a day. Then gently dry by dabbing with a soft towel.



Quince seeds                        2 drachms

Distilled water                     10 ounces

Glycerine                           2 ounces

Alcohol, 94 per cent                1 ounce

Rose water                          2 ounces


Boil the seeds in the water for 10 minutes, then strain off the liquid, and when cold add to it the glycerine, alcohol, and rose water.



White soft soap                     2 1/2 drachms

Glycerine                           1 1/2 drachms

Almond oil                          11 drachms


Well mix the glycerine and soap in a mortar, and very gradually add the oil, stirring constantly until perfectly mixed.



Subnitrate of bismuth               1 1/2 drachms

Powdered French chalk               30 grains

Glycerine                           2 drachms

Rose water                          1 1/2 ounces


Mix the powders, and rub down carefully with the glycerine; then add the rose water. Shake the bottle before use.



Glycerine cream                     2 drachms

Jordan almonds                      4 drachms

Rose water                          5 ounces

Essential oil of almonds            3 drops


Blanch the almonds, and then dry and beat them up into a perfectly smooth paste; then mix in the glycerine cream and essential oil. Gradually add the rose water, stirring well after each addition; then strain through muslin.


Tan and Freckle Lotion.


Solution A:


Potassium iodide, iodine, glycerine, and infusion rose.


Dissolve the potassium iodide in a






small quantity of the infusion and a drachm of the glycerine; with this fluid moisten the iodine in a glass of water and rub it down, gradually adding more liquid, until complete solution has been obtained; then stir in the remainder of the ingredients, and bottle the mixture.


Solution B:


Sodium thiosulphate and rose water.


With a small camel's-hair pencil or piece of fine sponge apply a little of solution A to the tanned or freckled surface, until a slight or tolerably uniform brownish yellow skin has been produced. At the expiration of 15 or 20 minutes moisten a piece of cambric, lint, or soft rag with B and lay it upon the affected part, removing, squeezing away the liquid, soaking it afresh, and again applying until the iodine stain has disappeared. Repeat the process thrice daily, but diminish the frequency of application if tenderness be produced.


A Cure for Tan. Bichloride of mercury, in coarse powder, 10 grains; distilled water, 1 pint. Agitate the two together until a complete solution is obtained. Add 1/2 ounce of glycerine. Apply with a small sponge as often as agreeable. This is not strong enough to blister and skin the face in average cases. It may be increased or reduced in strength by adding to or taking from the amount of bichloride of mercury. Do not forget that this last ingredient is a powerful poison and should be kept out of the reach of children and ignorant persons.


Improved Carron Oil. Superior to the old and more suitable. A desirable preparation for burns, tan, freckle, sunburn, scalds, abrasions, or lung affections. Does not oxidize so quickly or dry up so rapidly and less liable to rancidity.


Linseed oil                         2 ounces

Limewater                           2 ounces

Paraffine, liquid                   1 ounce


Mix the linseed oil and water, and add the paraffine. Shake well before using.





Corrosive sub1imate                 1 part

White sugar                         190 parts

White of egg                        34 parts

Lemon juice                         275 parts

Water to make                       2,500 parts


Mix the sublimate, sugar, and albumen intimately, then add the lemon juice and water. Dissolve, shake well, and after standing an hour, filter. Apply in the morning after the usual ablutions, and let dry on the face.


II.   Bichloride of mercury, in coarse powder, 8 grains; witch-hazel, 2 ounces; rose water, 2 ounces.


Agitate until a solution is obtained. Mop over the affected parts. Keep out of the way of ignorant persons and children.




Almond Powders for the Toilet.



Almond meal                         6,000 parts

Bran meal                           3,000 parts

Soap powder                         600 parts

Bergarnot oil                       50 parts

Lemon oil                           15 parts

Clove oil                           15 parts

Neroli oil                          6 parts



Almond meal                         7,000 parts

Bran meal                           2,000 parts

Violet root                         900 parts

Borax                               350 parts

Bitter almond oil                   18 parts

Palmarosa oil                       36 parts

Bergamot oil                        10 parts



Almond meal                         3,000 parts

Bran meal                           3,000 parts

Wheat flour                         3,000 parts

Sand                                100 parts

Lemon oil                           40 parts

Bitter almond oil                   10 parts


Bath Powder.


Borax                               4 ounces

Salicylic acid                      1 drachm

Extract of cassia                   1 drachm

Extract of jasmine                  1 drachm

Oil of lavender                     20 minims


Rub the oil and extracts with the borax and salicylic acid until the alcohol has evaporated. Use a heaping teaspoonful to the body bath.


Brunette or Rachelle.


Base                                9 pounds

Powdered Florentine orris           1 pound

Perfume                             the same.

Powdered yellow ocher               (av. ) 3 ounces 120 grains

Carmine No. 40                      60 grains


Rub down the carmine and ocher with alcohol in a mortar, and spread on glass to dry; then mix and sift.


Violet Poudre de Riz.



Cornstarch                          7 pounds

Rice flour                          1 pound

Powdered talc                       1 pound

Powdered orris root                 1 pound

Extract of cassia                   3 ounces

Extract of jasmine                  1 ounce






II.   Cheaper.


Potato starch                       8 pounds

Powdered talc                       1 pound

Powdered orris                      1 pound

Extract of cassia                   3 ounces


Barber's Powder.


Cornstarch                          5 pounds

Precipitated chalk                  3 pounds

Powdered talc                       2 pounds

Oil of neroli                       1 drachm

Oil of cedrat                       1 drachm

Oil of orange                       2 drachms

Extract of jasmine                  1 ounce


Rose Poudre de Riz.



Cornstarch                          9 pounds

Powdered talc                       1 pound

Oil of rose                         1 1/4 drachms

Extract of jasmine                  6 drachms



Potato starch                       9 pounds

Powdered talc                       1 pound

Oil of rose                         1/2 drachm

Extract of jasmine                  1/2 ounce


Ideal Cosmetic Powder. The following combines the best qualities that a

powder for the skin should have:


Zinc, white 5                       0 parts

Calcium carbonate, precipitated     300 parts

Steatite, best white                50 parts

Starch, wheat, or rice              100 parts

Extract white rose, triple          3 parts

Extract jasmine, triple             3 parts

Extract orange flower, triple       3 parts

Extract of cassia, triple           3 parts

Tincture of myrrh                   1 part


Powder the solids and mix thoroughly by repeated siftings.


Flesh Face Powder.


Base                                9 pounds

Powdered Florentine orris           1 pound

Carmine No. 40                      250 grains

Extract of jasmine                  100 minims

Oil of neroli                       20 minims

Vanillin                            5 grains

Artificial musk                     30 grains

White heliotropin                   30 grains

Coumarin                            1 grain


Rub the carmine with a portion of the base and alcohol in a mortar, mixing the perfume the same way in another large mortar, and adding the orris. Mix and sift all until specks of carmine disappear on rubbing.


White Face Powder.


Base                                9 pounds

Powdered Florentine orris           1 pound


Perfume the same. Mix and sift.


Talcum Powders. Talc, when used as a toilet powder should be in a state of very fine division. Antiseptics are sometimes added in small proportion, but these are presumably of little or no value in the quantity allowable, and may prove irritating. For general use, at all events, the talcum alone is the best and the safest. As a perfume, rose oil may be employed, but on account of its cost, rose geranium oil is probably more frequently used. A satisfactory proportion is 1/2 drachm of the oil to a pound of the powder. In order that the perfume may be thoroughly disseminated throughout the powder, the oil should be triturated first with a small portion of it; this should then be further triturated with a larger portion, and, if the quantity operated on be large, the final mixing may be effected by sifting. Many odors besides that of rose would be suitable for a toilet powder. Ylang-ylang would doubtless prove very attractive, but expensive.


The following formulas for other varieties of the powder may prove useful:


Violet Talc.



Powdered talc                       14 ounces

Powdered orris root                 2 ounces

Extract of cassia                   1/2 ounce

Extract of jasmine                  1/4 ounce


Rose Talc.



Powdered talc                       5 pounds

Oil of rose                         1/2 drachm

Extract of jasmine                  4 ounces


Tea-Rose Talc.



Powdered talc                       5 pounds

Oil of rose                         50 drops

Oil of wintergreen                  4 drops

Extract of jasmine                  2 ounces


Borated Apple Blossom.



Powdered talc                       22 pounds

Magnesium carbonate                 2 3/4 pounds

Powdered boric acid                 1 pound




Carnation pink blossom (Schimmers) 2 ounces

Extract of trefle                   2 drachms


To 12 drachms of this mixture add:


Neroli                              1 drachm

Vanillin                            1/2 drachm

Alcohol to                          3 ounces


Sufficient for 25 pounds.







Talcum                              8 ounces

Starch                              8 ounces

Oil of neroli                       10 drops

Oil of ylang-ylang                  5 drops



Talcum                              12 ounces

Starch                              4 ounces

Orris root                          2 ounces

Oil of bergamot                     12 drops



Talcum                              14 ounces

Starch                              2 ounces

Lanolin                             1/2 ounce

Oil of rose                         10 drops

Oil of neroli                       5 drops




Pumillo Toilet Vinegar.


Alcohol, 80 per cent                1,600 parts

Vinegar, 10 per cent                840 parts

Oil of pinu spumillo                44 parts

Oil of lavender                     4 parts

Oil of lemon                        2 parts

Oil of bergamot                     2 parts


Dissolve the oils in the alcohol, add the vinegar, let stand for a week and filter.


Vinaigre Rouge.


Acetic acid                         24 parts

Alum                                3 parts

Peru balsam                         1 part

Carmine, No. 40                     12 parts

Ammonia water                       6 parts

Rose water, distilled               575 parts

Alcohol                             1,250 parts


Dissolve the balsam of Peru in the alcohol, and the alum in the rose water. Mix the two solutions, add the acetic acid, and let stand overnight. Dissolve the carmine in the ammonia water and add to mixture. Shake thoroughly, let stand for a few minutes, then decant.




"Beauty Water."


Fresh egg albumen                   500 parts

Alcohol                             125 parts

Lemon oil                           2 parts

Lavender oil                        2 parts

Oil of thyme                        2 parts


Mix the ingredients well together. When first mixed the liquid becomes flocculent, but after standing for 2 or 3 days clears up sometimes becomes perfectly clear, and may be decanted. It forms a light, amber-colored liquid that remains clear for months.


At night, before retiring, pour about a teaspoonful of the water in the palm of the hand, and rub it over the face and neck, letting it dry on. In the morning, about an hour before the bath, repeat the operation, also letting the liquid dry on the skin. The regular use of this preparation for 4 weeks will give the skin an extraordinary fineness, clearness, and freshness.


Rottmanner's Beauty Water. Koiler says that this preparation consists of 1 part of camphor, 5 parts of milk of sulphur, and 50 parts of rose water.


Birch Waters. Birch water, which has many cosmetic applications, especially as a hair wash, or an ingredient in hair washes, may be prepared as follows:



Alcohol, 96 per cent                3,500 parts

Water                               700 parts

Potash soap                         200 parts

Glycerine                           150 parts

Oil of birch buds                   50 parts

Essence of spring flowers           100 parts

Chlorophyll,                        quantity sufficient to color.


Mix the water with 700 parts of the alcohol, and in the mixture dissolve the soap. Add the essence of spring flowers and birch oil to the remainder of the alcohol, mix well, and to the mixture add,

little by little, and with constant agitation, the soap mixture. Finally, add the glycerine, mix thoroughly, and set aside for

8 days, filter and color the filtrate with chlorophyll, to which is added a little tincture of saffron. To use, add an equal volume of water to. produce a lather.



Alcohol, 96 per cent                2,000 parts

Water                               500 parts

Tincture of cantharides             25 parts

Salicylic acid                      25 parts

Glycerine                           100 parts

Oil of birch buds                   40 parts

Bergamot oil                        30 parts

Geranium oil                        5 parts


Dissolve the oils in the alcohol, add the acid and tincture of cantharides; mix the water and glycerine and add, and, finally, color as before.



Alcohol                             30,000 parts

Birch juice                         3,000 parts

Glycerine                           1,000 parts

Bergamot oil                        90 parts

Vanillin                            10 parts

Geranium oil                        50 parts

Water                               14,000 parts



Alcohol                             40,000 parts

Oil of birch                        150 parts

Bergamot oil                        100 parts

Lemon oil                           50 parts






Palmarosa oil                       100 parts

Glycerine                           2,000 parts

Borax                               150 parts

Water                               20,000 parts


Violet Ammonia Water. Most preparations of this character consist of either coarsely powdered ammonium carbonate, with or without the addition of ammonia water, or of a coarsely powdered mixture, which slowly evolves the odor of ammonia, the whole being perfumed by the addition of volatile oil, pomade essences, or handkerchief extract. The following are typical formulas:


I.    Moisten coarsely powdered ammonium carbonate, contained in a suitable bottle, with a mixture of concentrated tincture of orris root, 2 1/2 ounces; aromatic spirit of ammonia, 1 drachm; violet extract, 3 drachms.


II.   Fill suitable bottles with coarsely powdered ammonium carbonate and add to the salt as much of the following solution as it will absorb: Oil of orris, 5 minims; oil of lavender flowers, 10 minims; violet extract, 30 minims; stronger water of ammonia, 2 fluidounces.


III.  The following is a formula for a liquid preparation: Extract violet, 8 fluidrachms; extract cassia, 8 fluidrachms; spirit of rose, 4 fluidrachms; tincture of orris, 4 fluidrachms ; cologne spirit, 1

pint; spirit of ammonia, 1 ounce. Spirit of ionone may be used instead of extract of violet.


Violet Witch-Hazel.


Spirit of ionone                    1/2 drachm

Rose water                          6 ounces

Distilled extract of witch-hazel    enough to make 16 ounces






I.    Bleaching by Steaming. The singed and washed cotton goods are passed through hydrochloric acid of 2º Bé. Leave them in heaps during 1 hour, wash, pass through sodium hvpochlorite of 10º Bé. diluted with 10 times the volume of water. Let the pieces lie in heaps for 1 hour, wash, pass through caustic soda lye of 38º Bé. diluted with 8 times its volume of water, steam, put again through sodium chloride, wash, acidulate slightly with hydrochloric acid, wash and dry. Should the whiteness not be sufficient, repeat the operations.


II.   Bleaching with Calcium Sulphite. The cotton goods are impregnated with 1 part, by weight, of water, 1 part of caustic lime, and 1/2 part of bisulphite of 40º Bé.; next steamed during 1-2 hours at a pressure of 1/2 atmosphere, washed, acidulated, washed and dried. The result is as white a fabric as by the old method with caustic lime, soda, and calcium chloride. The bisulphite may also be replaced by calcium hydrosulphite, and, instead of steaming, the fabric may be boiled for several hours with calcium sulphite.


III.  Bleaching of Vegetable Fibers with Hydrogen Peroxide. Pass the pieces through a solution containing caustic soda, soap, hydrogen peroxide, and burnt magnesia. The pieces are piled in heaps on carriages; the latter are shoved into the well-known apparatus of Mather & Platt (kier), and the liquid is pumped on for 6 hours, at a pressure of 2/3 atmosphere. Next wash, acidulate, wash and dry. The bleaching may also be done on an ordinary reeling vat. For 5 pieces are needed about 1,000 parts, by weight, of water; 10 parts, by weight, of solid caustic soda; 1 part of burnt magnesia; 30 parts, by weight, of hydrogen peroxide. After 3-4 hours' boiling, wash, acidulate, wash and dry. The bleaching may also be performed by passing through barium peroxide, then through sulphuric acid or hydrochloric acid, and next through soda lye. It is practicable also to commence with the latter and finally give a treatment with hydrogen peroxide.


The whiteness obtained by the above process is handsomer than that produced by the old method with hypochlorites, and the fabric is weakened to a less extent.




I.    Cotton, when freed from extraneous matter by boiling with potash, and afterwards with hydrochloric acid, yields pure cellulose or absorbent cotton, which, according to the U.S.P., is soluble in copper ammonium sulphate solution. The B.P. is more specific and states that cotton is soluble in a concentrated solution of copper ammonium sulphate. The standard test solution (B.P.) is made by dissolving 10 parts of copper sulphate in 160 parts of distilled water, and cautiously adding solution of ammonia to the liquid until the precipitate first formed is nearly dissolved. The product is then filtered and the filtrate made up to 200 parts with distilled






water. The concentrated solution is prepared by using a smaller quantity of distilled water.


II.   Schweitzer's reagent for textile fibers and cellulose is made by dissolving 10 parts of copper sulphate in 100 parts of water and adding a solution of 5 parts of potassium hydrate in 50 parts of water; then wash the precipitate and dissolve in 20 per cent ammonia until saturated. This solution dissolves cotton, linen, and silk, but not wool. The reagent is said to be especially useful in microscopy, as it rapidly dissolves cellulose, but has no action on lignin.


III.  Jandrier's Test for Cotton in Woolen Fabrics. Wash the sample of fabric and treat with sulphuric acid (20º Bé.) for half an hour on the water bath. To 100 to 200 parts of this solution add 1 part resorcin, and overlay on concentrated sulphuric acid free from nitrous products. The heat developed is sufficient to give a color at the contact point of the liquids, but intensity of color may be increased by slightly heating. If the product resulting from treating the cotton is made up 1 in 1,000, resorcin will give an orange color; alphanaphtol a purple; gallic acid a green gradually becoming violet down in the acid; hydroquinone or pyrogallol a brown; morphine or codeine, a lavender; thymol or menthol a pink. Cotton may be detected in colored goods, using boneblack to decolorize the solution, if necessary.


IV.   Overbeck's test for cotton in woolen consists in soaking the fabric in an aqueous solution of alloxantine (1 in 10), and after drying expose to ammonia vapor and rinse in water. Woolen material is colored crimson, cotton remains blue.


V.    Liebermann's Test. Dye the fabric for half an hour in fuchsine solution rendered light yellow by caustic soda solution and then washed with water silk is colored dark red; wool, light red; flax, pink; and cotton remains colorless.


To Distinguish Cotton from Linen. Take a sample about an inch and a half square of the cloth to be tested and plunge it into a tepid alcoholic solution of cyanine. After the coloring matter has been absorbed by the fiber, rinse it in water and then plunge into dilute sulphuric acid. If it is of cotton the sample will be almost completely bleached, while linen preserves the blue color almost unchanged. If the sample be then plunged in ammonia, the blue will be strongly reinforced.


Aromatic Cotton. Aromatic cotton is produced as follows : Mix camphor, 5 parts; pine-leaf oil, 5 parts; clove oil,v5 parts; spirit of wine (90 per cent), 80 parts; and distribute evenly on cotton, 500 parts, by means of an atomizer. The cotton is left pressed together in a tightly closed tin vessel for a few days.


Cotton Degreasing. Cotton waste, in a greasy condition, is placed in an acid-proof apparatus, where it is simultaneously freed from grease, etc., and prepared for bleaching by the following process, which is performed without the waste being removed from the apparatus: (1) treatment with a solvent, such as benzine; (2) steaming, for the purpose of vaporizing and expelling from the cotton waste the solvent still remaining in it after as much as possible of this has been recovered by draining; (3) treatment with a mineral acid; (4) boiling with an alkali lye; (5) washing with water.




Cottonseed hulls or other material containing fiber difficult of digestion are thoroughly mixed with about 5 per cent of their weight of hydrochloric acid (specific gravity, 1.16), and heated in a closed vessel, provided with a stirrer, to a temperature of 212º to 300º F. The amount of acid to be added depends on the material employed and on the duration of the heating. By heating for 30 minutes the above percentage of acid is required, but the quantity may be reduced if the heating is prolonged. After heating, the substance is ground and at the same time mixed with some basic substances such as sodium carbonate, chalk, cottonseed kernel meal, etc., to neutralize the acid. During the heating, the acid vapors coming from the mixture may be led into a second quantity of material contained in a separate vessel, air being drawn through both vessels to facilitate the removal of the acid vapors.



See Oil.



See Foods.



See Foods and Lard.



See Confectionery.



See Veterinary Formulas.







See Cold and Cough Mixtures.


Court Plasters

(See also Plasters.)


Liquid Court Plaster.


I.    If soluble guncotton is dissolved in acetone in the proportion of about 1 part, by weight, of the former to 35 or 40 parts, by volume, of the latter, and half a part each of castor oil and glycerine be added, a colorless, elastic, and flexible film will form on the skin wherever it is applied. Unlike ordinary collodion it will not be likely to dry and peel off. If tinted very slightly with alkanet and saffron it can be made to assume the color of the skin so that when applied it is scarcely observable. A mixture of warm solution of sodium silicate and casein, about 9 parts of the former to 1 part of the latter, gelatinizes and forms a sort of liquid court plaster.


II.   In order to make liquid court plaster flexible, collodion, U.S.P., is the best liquid that can possibly be recommended. It may be made by weighing successively into a tarred bottle:


Collodion                           4 av. ounces

Canada turpentine                   95 grains

Castor oil                          57 grains


Before applying, the skin should be perfectly dry; each application or layer should be permitted to harden. Three or four coats are usually sufficient.


III.  Procure an ounce bottle and fill it three-fourths full of flexible collodion, and fill up with ether. Apply to cuts, bruises, etc., and it protects them and will not wash off. If the ether evaporates, leaving it too thick for use, have more ether put in to liquefy it. It is a good thing to have in the house and in the tool chest.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Pencils.




Heat 4 parts of water and 1 part of white wax over a fire until the wax has completely dissolved. Stir in 1 part of purified potash. When an intimate combination has taken place, allow to cool and add a proportionate quantity of gum arabic. With this mixture the desired colors are ground thick enough so that they can be conveniently rolled into a pencil with chalk. The desired shades must be composed on the grinding slab as they are wanted, and must not be simply left in their natural tone. Use, for instance, umber, Vandyke brown, and white lead for oak; umber alone would be too dark for walnut use. All the earth colors can be conveniently worked up. It is best to prepare 2 or 3 crayons of each set, mixing the first a little lighter by the addition of white lead and leaving the others a little darker. The pencils should be kept in a dry place and are more suitable for graining and marbling than brushes, since they can be used with either oil or water.



See Etching, and Glass.



(See also Milk.)


Whipped Cream. There are many ways to whip cream. The following is very highly indorsed: Keep the cream on ice until ready to whip. Take 2 earthen vessels about 6 inches in diameter. Into 1 bowl put 1 pint of rich sweet cream, 2 teaspoonfuls powdered sugar, and 5 drops of best vanilla extract. Add the white of 1 egg and beat with large egg beater or use whipping apparatus until 2 inches of froth has formed; skim off the froth into the other vessel and so proceed whipping and skimming until all the cream in the first vessel has been exhausted. The whipped cream will stand up all day and should be let stand in the vessel on ice.


Special machines have been constructed for whipping cream, but most dispensers prepare it with an ordinary egg beater. Genuine whipped cream is nothing other than pure cream into which air has been forced by the action of the different apparatus manufactured for the purpose; care must, however, be exercised in order that butter is not produced instead of whipped cream. To avoid this the temperature of the cream must be kept at a low degree and the whipping must not be too violent or prolonged; hence the following rules must be observed in order to produce the desired result:






1. Secure pure cream and as fresh as possible.


2. Surround the bowl in which the cream is being whipped with cracked ice, and perform the operation in a cool place.


3. As rapidly as the whipped cream arises, skim it off and place it in another bowl, likewise surrounded with ice.


4. Do not whip the cream too long or too violently.


5. The downward motion of the beater should be more forcible than the upward, as the first has a tendency to force the air into the cream, while the second, on the contrary, tends to expel it.


6. A little powdered sugar should be added to the cream after it is whipped, in order to sweeten it.


7. Make whipped cream in small quantities and keep it on ice.


I.    Cummins's Whipped Cream. Place 12 ounces of rich cream on the ice for about 1 hour; then with a whipper beat to a consistency that will withstand its own weight.


II.   Eberle's Whipped Cream. Take a pint of fresh, sweet cream, which has been chilled by being placed on the ice, add to it a heaping tablespoonful of powdered sugar and 2 ounces of a solution of gelatin (a spoonful dissolved in 2 ounces of water), whip slowly for a minute or two until a heavy froth gathers on top. Skim off the dense froth, and put in container for counter use; continue this until you have frothed all that is possible.


III.  Foy's Whipped Cream. Use only pure cream; have it ice cold, and in

a convenient dish for whipping with a wire whipper. A clear, easy, quick, and convenient way is to use a beater. Fill about one-half full of cream, and beat vigorously for 2 or 3 minutes; a little powdered sugar may be added before beating. The cream may be left in the beater, and placed on ice.


IV.   American Soda Fountain Company's Whipped Cream. Take 2 earthen bowls and 2 tin pans, each 6 or 8 inches greater in diameter than the bowls; place a bowl in each pan, surround it with broken ice, put the cream to be whipped in 1 bowl, and whip it with a whipped cream churn. The cream should be pure and rich, and neither sugar nor gelatin should be added to it. As the whipped cream rises and fills the bowl, remove the churn, and skim off the whipped cream into the other bowl.


The philosophy of the process is that the churn drives air into the cream, and blows an infinity of tiny bubbles, which forms the whipped cream; therefore, in churning, raise the dasher gently and slowly, and bring it down quickly and forcibly. When the second bowl is full of whipped cream, pour off the liquid cream, which has settled to the bottom, into the first bowl, and whip it again. Keep the whipped cream on ice.


The addition of an even teaspoonful of salt to 1 quart of sweet cream, before whipping, will make it whip up very readily and stiff, and stand up much longer and better.




One of the best starting points for the preparation is the "creosote" obtained from blast furnaces, which is rich in cresols and contains comparatively little phenols. The proportions used are: Creosote, 30 parts; soft soap, 10 parts; and solution of soda (10 per cent), 30 parts. Boil the ingredients together for an hour, then place aside to settle. The dark fluid is afterwards drained from any oily portion floating upon the top.



See Cosmetics.



See Cosmetics.



See Soap.



See Ceramics.



See Adhesives.




The substance known as "crocus," which is so exceedingly useful as a polishing medium for steel, etc., may be very generally obtained in the cinders produced from coal containing iron. It will be easily recognized by its rusty color, and should be collected and reduced to a powder for future use. Steel burnishers may be brought to a high state of polish with this substance by rubbing them upon a buff made of soldiers' belt or hard wood. After this operation, the burnisher should be rubbed on a second buff charged with jewelers' rouge.



See Adhesives, under Cements.







See Gardens, Chemical.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Cosmetics.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Laundry Preparations.



See Condiments.




Corn flour                          7 pounds

Arrowroot                           8 pounds

Oil of almond                       20 drops

Oil of nutmegs                      10 drops

Tincture of saffron to color.


Mix the tincture with a little of the mixed flours; then add the essential oils and make into a paste; dry this until it can be reduced to a powder, and then mix all the ingredients by sifting several times through a fine hair sieve.



See Adhesives.



See Lubricants.



See Alloys.




Damaskeening, practiced from most ancient times, consists in ornamentally inlaying one metal with another, followed usually by polishing. Generally gold or silver is employed for inlaying. The article to be decorated by damaskeening is usually of iron (steel) or copper; in Oriental (especially Japanese) work, also frequently of bronze, which has been blackened, or, at least, darkened, so that the damaskeening is effectively set off from the ground. If the design consists of lines, the grooves are dug out with the graver in such a manner that they are wider at the bottom, so as to hold the metal forced in. Next, the gold or silver pieces suitably formed are laid on top and hammered in so as to fill up the opening. Finally the surface is gone over again, so that the surface of the inlay is perfectly even with the rest. If the inlays, however, are not in the form of lines, but are composed of larger pieces of certain outlines, they are sometimes allowed to project beyond the surface of the metal decorated. At times there are inlays again in the raised portions of another metal; thus, Japanese bronze articles often contain figures of raised gold inlaid with silver.


Owing to the high value which damaskeening imparts to articles artistically decorated, many attempts have been made to obtain similar effects in a cheaper manner. One is electroetching, described further on. Another process for the wholesale manufacture of objects closely resembling damaskeened work is the following: By means of a steel punch, on which the decorations to be produced project in relief, the designs are stamped by means of a drop hammer or a stamping press into gold plated or silver plated sheet metal on the side which is to show the damaskeening, finally grinding off the surface, so that the sunken portions are again level. Naturally, the stamped portion, as long as the depth of the stamping is at least equal to the thickness of the precious metal on top, will appear inlaid.


It is believed that much of the early damaskeening was done by welding together iron and either a steel or an impure or alloyed iron, and treating the surface with a corroding acid that affected the steel or alloy without changing the iron.


The variety or damaskeening known as koftgari or kuft-work, practiced in India, was produced by rough-etching a metallic surface and laying on gold-leaf, which was imbedded so that it adhered only to the etched parts of the design.


Damaskeening by Electrolysis. Damaskeening of metallic plates may be done by electrolysis. A copper plate is covered with an isolating layer of feeble thickness, such as wax, and the desired design is scratched in it by the use of a pointed tool. The plate is suspended in a bath of sulphate of copper, connecting it with the positive pole of a battery, while a second copper plate is connected with the negative pole. The current etches grooves wherever the wax has been removed. When enough has






been eaten away, remove the plate from the bath, cleanse it with a little hydrochloric acid to remove any traces of oxide of copper which might appear on the lines of the design; then wash it in plenty of water and place it in a bath of silver or nickel, connecting it now with the negative pole, the positive pole being represented by a leaf of platinum. After a certain time the hollows are completely filled with a deposit of silver or nickel, and it only remains to polish the plate, which has the appearance of a piece damaskeened by hand.


Damaskeening on Enamel Dials. Dip the dial into molten yellow wax, trace on the dial the designs desired, penetrating down to the enamel. Dip the dial in a fluorhydric acid a sufficient length of time that it may eat to the desired depth. Next, wash in several waters, remove the wax bv means of turpentine, i.e, leave the piece covered with wax immersed in essence of turpentine. By filling up the hollows thus obtained with enamel very pretty effects are produced.



See Hair Preparations.



See also Chromos, Copying Processes, and Transfer Processes.


The decalcomania process of transferring pictures requires that the print (usually in colors) be made on a specially prepared paper. Prints made on decalcomania paper may be transferred in the reverse to china ware, wood, celluloid, metal, or any hard smooth surface, and being varnished after transfer (or burnt in, in the case of pottery) acquire a fair degree of permanence. The original print is destroyed by the transfer.


Applying Decalcomania Pictures on Ceramic' Products under a Glaze. A biscuit-baked object is first coated with a mixture of alcohol, shellac, varnish, and liquid glue. Then the prepared picture print is transferred on to this adhesive layer in the customary manner. The glaze, however, does not adhere to this coating and would, therefore, not cover the picture when fused on. To attain this, the layer bearing the transfer picture, as well as the latter, are simultaneously coated with a dextrin solution of about 10 per cent. When this dextrin coating is dry, the picture is glazed.


The mixing proportions of the two solutions employed, as well as of the adhesive and the dextrin solutions, vary somewhat according to the physical conditions of the porcelain, its porosity, etc. The following may serve for an example: Dissolve 5 parts of shellac or equivalent gum in 25 parts of spirit and emulsify this liquid with 20 parts of varnish and 8 parts of liquid glue. After drying, the glaze is put on and the ware thus prepared is placed in the grate fire.


The process described is especially adapted for film pictures, i.e, for such as bear the picture on a cohering layer, usually consisting of collodion. It cannot be employed outright for gum pictures, i.e, for such pictures as are composed of different pressed surfaces, consisting mainly of gum or similar material. If this process is to be adapted to these pictures as well, the ware, which has been given the biscuit baking, is first provided with a crude glaze coating, whereupon the details of the process are carried out as described above with the exception that there is another glaze coating between the adhesive coat and the biscuit-baked ware. In this case the article is also immediately placed in the grate fire. It is immaterial which of the two kinds of metachromatypes (transfer pictures) is used, in every case the baking in the muffle, etc., is dropped. The transfer pictures may also be produced in all colors for the grate fire.


Decalcomania Paper. Smooth unsized paper, not too thick, is coated with

the following solutions:


I.    Gelatin, 10 parts, dissolved in 300 parts warm water. This solution is applied with a sponge. The paper should be dried flat.


II.   Starch, 50 parts; gum tragacanth, dissolved in 600 parts of water.

(The gum tragacanth is soaked in 300 parts of water; in the other 300 parts the starch is boiled to a paste; the two are then poured together and boiled.) The dried paper is brushed with this paste uniformly, a fairly thick coat being applied. The paper is then allowed to dry again.


III.  One part blood albumen is soaked in 3 parts water for 24 hours. A small quantity of sal ammoniac is added.


The paper, after having been coated with these three solutions and dried, is run through the printing press, the pictures, however, being printed reversed so that it may appear in its true position when transferred. Any colored inks may be used.



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