The Science Notebook
Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

Home  Terms of Use  Safety  Contact Us  Experiment Pages  Downloads  Supplies  Useful Links!

Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 251-275






IV.   A transfer paper, known as "decalqué rapide," invented by J. B. Duramy, consists of a paper of the kind generally used for making pottery transfers, but coated with a mixture of gum and arrowroot solutions in the proportion of 2 1/2 parts of the latter to 100 of the former. The coating is applied in the ordinary manner, but the paper is only semi-glazed. Furthermore, to decorate pottery ware by means of this new transfer paper, there is no need to immerse the ware in a bath in order to get the paper to draw off, as it will come away when moistened with a damp sponge, after having been in position for less than 5 minutes, whereas the ordinary papers require a much longer time.


Picture Transferrer. A very weak solution of soft soap and pearlashes is used to transfer recent prints, such as illustrations from papers, magazines, etc., to unglazed paper, on the decalcomania principle. Such a solution is:



Soft soap                           1/2 ounce

Pearlash                            2 drachms

Distilled water                     16 fluidounces


The print is laid upon a flat surface, such as a drawing board, and moistened with the liquid. The paper on which the reproduction is required is laid over this, and then a sheet of thicker paper placed on the top, and the whole rubbed evenly and hard with a blunt instrument, such as the bowl of a spoon, until the desired depth of color in the transferrer is obtained. Another and more artistic process is to cover the print with a transparent sheet of material coated with wax, to trace out the pictures with a point and to take rubbings of the same after powdering with plumbago.



Hard soap                           1 drachm

Glycerine                           30 grains

Alcohol                             4 fluidrachms

Water                               1 fluidounce


Dampen the printed matter with the solution by sponging, and proceed as

with I.    



See Horn.



See Alloys.



See Pyrotechnics.



See Cements,






A perfect tooth powder that will clean the teeth and mouth with thoroughness need contain but few ingredients and is easily made. For the base there is nothing better than precipitated chalk; it possesses all the detergent and polishing properties necessary for the thorough cleansing of the teeth, and it is too soft to do any injury to soft or to defective or thinly enameled teeth. This cannot be said of pumice, cuttlebone, charcoal, kieselguhr, and similar abradants that are used in tooth powders. Their use is reprehensible in a tooth powder. The use of pumice or other active abradant is well enough occasionally, by persons afflicted with a growth of tartar on the teeth, but even then it is best applied by a competent dentist. Abrading powders have much to answer for in hastening the day of the toothless race.


Next in value comes soap. Powdered white castilesoap is usually an ingredient of tooth powders. There is nothing so effective for removing sordes or thickened mucus from the gums or mouth. But used alone or in too large proportions, the taste is unpleasant. Orris possesses no cleansing properties, but is used for its flavor and because it is most effective for masking the taste of the soap. Sugar or saccharine may be used for sweetening, and for flavoring almost anything can be used. Flavors should, in the main, be used singly, though mixed flavors lack the clean taste of simple flavors.


The most popular tooth powder sold is the white, saponaceous, wintergreen-flavored powder, and here is a formula for this type:



Precipitated chalk                  1 pound

White castile soap                  1 ounce

Florentine orris                    2 ounces

Sugar (or saccharine, 2 grains)     1 ounce

Oil of wintergreen                  1/4 ounce


The first four ingredients should be in the finest possible powder and well dried. Triturate the oil of wintergreen with part of the chalk, and mix this with the balance of the chalk. Sift each ingredient separately through a sieve (No. 80 or finer), and mix well together, afterwards sifting the mixture 5 or 6 times. The finer the sieve and the more the mixture is sifted, the finer and lighter the powder will be,






This powder will cost about 15 cents a pound.


Pink, rose-flavored powder of the Caswell and Hazard, Hudnut or McMahan type, once so popular in New York. It was made in two styles, with and without soap.



Precipitated chalk                  1 pound

Florentine orris                    2 ounces

Sugar                               1 1/2 ounces

White castile soap                  1 ounce

No. 40 carmine                      15 grains

Oil of rose                         12 drops

Oil of cloves                       4 drops


Dissolve the carmine in an ounce of water of ammonia and triturate this with part of the chalk until the chalk is uniformly dyed. Then spread it in a thin layer on a sheet of paper and allow the ammonia to evaporate. When there is no ammoniacal odor left, mix this dyed chalk with the rest of the chalk and sift the whole several times until thoroughly mixed. Then proceed to make up the powder as in the previous formula, first sifting each ingredient separately and then together, being careful thoroughly to triturate the oils of rose and cloves with the orris after it is sifted and before it is added to the other powders. The oil of cloves is used to back up the oil of rose. It strengthens and accentuates the rose odor. Be careful not to get a drop too much, or it will predominate over the rose.


Violet Tooth Powder.


Precipitated chalk                  1 pound

Florentine orris                    4 ounces

Castile soap                        1 ounce

Sugar                               1 1/2 ounces

Extract of violet                   1/4 ounce

Evergreen coloring, R.&F.,          quantity sufficient.


Proceed as in the second formula, dyeing the chalk with the evergreen coloring to the desired shade before mixing.



Precipitated chalk                  16 pounds

Powdered orris                      4 pounds

Powdered cuttlefish bone            2 pounds

Ultramarine                         9 1/2 ounces

Geranium lake                       340 grains

Jasmine                             110 minims

Oil of neroli                       110 minims

Oil of bitter almonds               35 minims

Vanillin                            50 grains

Artificial musk (Lautier's)         60 grains

Saccharine                          140 grains


Rub up the perfumes with 2 ounces of alcohol, dissolve the saccharine in warm water, add all to the orris, and set aside to dry. Rub the colors up with water and some chalk, and when dry pass all through a mixer and sifter twice to bring out the color.


Camphorated and Carbolated Powders. A camphorated tooth powder may be made by leaving out the oil of wintergreen in the first formula and adding 1 1/2 ounces of powdered camphor.


Carbolated tooth powder may likewise be made with the first formula by substituting 2 drachms of liquefied carbolic acid for the oil of wintergreen. But the tooth powder gradually loses the odor and taste of the acid. It is not of much utility anyway, as the castile soap in the powder is of far greater antiseptic power than the small amount of carbolic acid that can safely be combined in a tooth powder. Soap is one of the best antiseptics.


Alkaline salts, borax, sodium bicarbonate, etc., are superfluous in a powder already containing soap. The only useful purpose they might serve is to correct acidity of the mouth, and that end can be reached much better by rinsing the mouth with a solution of sodium bicarbonate. Acids have no place in tooth powders, the French Codex to the contrary notwithstanding.


Peppermint as a Flavor. In France and all over Europe peppermint is the popular flavor, as wintergreen is in this country.


English apothecaries use sugar of milk and heavy calcined magnesia in many of their tooth powders. Neither has any particular virtue as a tooth cleanser, but both are harmless. Cane sugar is preferable to milk sugar as a sweetener, and saccharine is more efficient, though objected to by some; it should be used in the proportion of 2 to 5 grains to the pound of powder, and great care taken to have it thoroughly distributed throughout.


An antiseptic tooth powder, containing the antiseptic ingredients of listerine, is popular in some localities.



Precipitated chalk                  1 pound

Castile soap                        5 drachms

Borax                               3 drachms

Thymol                              20 grains

Menthol                             20 grains

Eucalyptol                          20 grains

Oil of wintergreen                  20 grains

Alcohol                             1/2 ounce


Dissolve the thymol and oils in the alcohol, and triturate with the chalk, and proceed as in the first formula.






One fault with this powder is the disagreeable taste of the thymol. This may be omitted and the oil of wintergreen increased to the improvement of the taste, but with some loss of antiseptic power.


Antiseptic Powder.



Boric acid                          50 parts

Salicylic acid                      50 parts

Dragon's blood                      20 parts

Calcium carbonate                   1,000 parts

Essence spearmint                   12 parts


Reduce the dragon's blood and calcium carbonate to the finest powder, and mix the ingredients thoroughly. The powder should be used twice a day, or even oftener, in bad cases. It is especially recommended in cases where tne enamel has become eroded from the effects of iron.


Menthol Tooth Powder. Menthol leaves a cool and pleasant sensation in the mouth, and is excellent for fetid breath. It may be added to most formulas by taking an equal quantity of oil of wintergreen and dissolving in alcohol.


Menthol                             1 part

Salol                               8 parts

Soap, grated fine                   20 parts

Calcium carbonate                   20 parts

Magnesia carbonate                  60 parts

Essential oil of mint               2 parts


Powder finely and mix.  If there is much tartar on the teeth it will be well to add to this formula from 10 to 20 parts of pumice, powdered very finely.


Tooth Powders and Pastes. Although the direct object of these is to keep the teeth clean and white, they also prevent decay, if it is only by force of mere cleanliness, and in this way (and also by removing decomposing particles of food) tend to keep the breath sweet and wholesome. The necessary properties of a tooth powder are cleansing power unaccompanied by any abrading or chemical action on the teeth themselves, a certain amount of antiseptic power to enable it to deal with particles of stale food, and a complete absence of any disagreeable taste or smell. These conditions are easy to realize in practice, and there is a very large number of efficient and good powders, as well as not a few which are apt to injure the teeth if care is not taken to rinse out the mouth very thoroughly after using. These powders include some of the best cleansers, and have hence been admitted in the following recipes, mostly taken from English collections.



Charcoal and sugar, equal weights. Mix and flavor with clove oil.



Charcoal                            156 parts

Red kino                            156 parts

Sugar                               6 parts


Flavor with peppermint oil.



Charcoal                            270 parts

Sulphate of quinine                 1 part

Magnesia                            1 part


Scent to liking.



Charcoal                            30 parts

Cream of tartar                     8 parts

Yellow cinchona bark                4 parts

Sugar                               15 parts


Scent with oil of cloves.



Sugar                               120 parts

Alum                                10 parts

Cream of tartar                     20 parts

Cochineal                           3 parts



Cream of tartar                     1,000 parts

Alum                                190 parts

Carbonate of magnesia               375 parts

Sugar                               375 parts

Cochineal                           75 parts

Essence Ceylon cinnamon             90 parts

Essence cloves                      75 parts

Essence English peppermint          45 parts



Sugar                               200 parts

Cream of tartar                     400 parts

Magnesia                            400 parts

Starch                              400 parts

Cinnamon                            32 parts

Mace                                11 parts

Sulphate of quinine                 16 parts

Carmine                             17 parts


Scent with oil of peppermint and oil of rose.



Bleaching powder                    11 parts

Red coral                           12 parts



Red cinchona bark                   12 parts

Magnesia                            50 parts

Cochineal                           9 parts

Alum                                6 parts

Cream of tartar                     100 parts






English peppermint oil              4 parts

Cinnamon oil                        2 parts


Grind the first five ingredients separately, then mix the alum with the cochineal, and then add to it the cream of tartar and the bark. In the meantime the magnesia is mixed with the essential oils, and finally the whole mass is mixed through a very fine silk sieve.



Whitewood charcoal                  250 parts

Cinchona bark                       125 parts

Sugar                               250 parts

Peppermint oil                      12 parts

Cinnamon oil                        8 parts



Precipitated chalk                  750 parts

Cream of tartar                     250 parts

Florence orris root                 250 parts

Sal ammoniac                        60 parts

Ambergris                           4 parts

Cinnamon                            4 parts

Coriander                           4 parts

Cloves                              4 parts

Rosewood                            4 parts



Dragon's blood                      250 parts

Cream of tartar                     30 parts

Florence orris root                 30 parts

Cinnamon                            16 parts

Cloves                              8 parts



Precipitated chalk                  500 parts

Dragon's blood                      250 parts

Red sandalwood                      125 parts

Alum                                125 parts

Orris root                          250 parts

Cloves                              15 parts

Cinnamon                            15 parts

Vanilla                             8 parts

Rosewood                            15 parts

Carmine lake                        250 parts

Carmine                             8 parts



Cream of tartar                     150 parts

Alum                                25 parts

Cochineal                           12 parts

Cloves                              25 parts

Cinnamon                            25 parts

Rosewood                            6 parts


Scent with essence of rose.



Coral                               20 parts

Sugar                               20 parts

Wood charcoal                       6 parts

Essence of vervain                  1 part



Precipitated chalk                  500 parts

Orris root                          500 parts

Carmine                             1 part

Sugar                               1 part

Essence of rose                     4 parts

Essence of neroli                   4 parts



Cinchona bark                       50 parts

Chalk                               100 parts

Myrrh                               50 parts

Orris root                          100

Cinnamon                            50 parts

Carbonate of ammonia                100 parts

Oil of cloves                       2 parts



Gum Arabic                          30 parts

Cutch                               80 parts

Licorice juice.                     550 parts

Cascarilla                          20 parts

Mastic                              20 parts

Orris root                          20 parts

Oil of cloves                       5 parts

Oil of peppermint                   15 parts

Extract of amber                    5 parts

Extract of musk                     5 parts



Chalk                               200 parts

Cuttlebone                          100 parts

Orris root                          100 parts

Bergamot oil                        2 parts

Lemon oil                           4 parts

Neroli oil                          1 part

Portugal oil                        2 parts



Borax                               50 parts

Chalk                               100 parts

Myrrh                               25 parts

Orris root                          22 parts

Cinnamon                            25 parts



Wood charcoal                       30 parts

White honey                         30 parts

Vanilla sugar                       30 parts

Cinchona bark                       16 parts


Flavor with oil of peppermint.



Syrup of 33º B.                     38 parts

Cuttlebone                          200 parts

Carmine lake                        30 parts

English oil of peppermint           5 parts







Red coral                           50 parts

Cinnamon1                           2 parts

Cochineal                           6 parts

Alum                                2 1/8 parts

Honey                               125 parts

Water                               6 parts


Triturate the cochineal and the alum with the water. Then, after allowing them to stand for 24 hours, put in the honey, the coral, and the cinnamon. When the effervescence has ceased, which happens in about 48 hours, flavor with essential oils to taste.



Well-skimmed honey                  50 parts

Syrup of peppermint                 50 parts

Orris root                          12 parts

Sal ammoniac                        12 parts

Cream of tartar                     12 parts

Tincture of cinnamon                3 parts

Tincture of cloves                  3 parts

Tincture of vanilla                 3 parts

Oil of cloves                       1 part



Cream of tartar                     120 parts

Pumice                              120 parts

Alum                                30 parts

Cochineal                           30 parts

Bergamotoil                         3 parts

Clove                               3 parts


Make to a thick paste with honey or sugar.



Honey                               250 parts

Precipitated chalk                  250 parts

Orris root                          250 parts

Tincture of opium                   7 parts

Tincture of myrrh                   7 parts

Oil of rose                         2 parts

Oil of cloves                       2 parts

Oil of nutmeg                       2 parts



Florentine orris                    6 parts

Magnesium carbonate                 2 parts

Almond soap                         12 parts

Calcium carbonate                   60 parts

Thymol                              1 part

Alcohol,                            quantity sufficient.


Powder the solids and mix.    Dissolve the thymol in as little alcohol as possible, and add perfume in a mixture in equal parts of oil of peppermint, oil of clove, oil of lemon, and oil of eucalyptus.

About 1 minim of each to every ounce of powder will be sufficient.


XXVIII.     Myrrh, 10 parts; sodium chloride, 10 parts; soot, 5 parts; soap, 5 parts; lime carbonate, 500 parts.


XXIX. Camphor, 5 parts; soap, 10 parts; saccharine, 0.25 parts; thymol,

0.5 parts; lime carbonate, 500 parts. Scent, as desired, with rose oil, sassafras oil, wintergreen oil, or peppermint oil.


XXX.  Powdered camphor, 6 parts; myrrh, 15 parts; powdered Peruvian bark, 6 parts; distilled water, 12 parts; alcohol of 80º F., 50 parts. Macerate the powders in the alcohol for a week and then filter.


XXXI. Soap, 1; saccharine, 0.025; thymol, 0.05; lime carbonate, 50; sassafras essence, enough to perfume.


XXXII.      Camphor, 0.5; soap, 1; saccharine, 0.025; calcium carbonate, 50; oil of sassafras, or cassia, or of gaultheria, enough to perfume.


XXXIII.     Myrrh, 1; sodium chloride, 1; soap, 50; lime carbonate, 50; rose oil as required.


XXXIV.      Precipitated calcium carbonate, 60 parts; quinine sulphate, 2 parts; saponine, 0.1 part; saccharine, 0.1 part; carmine as required; oil of peppermint, sufficient.


XXXV. Boracic acid, 100 parts; powdered starch, 50 parts; quinine hydrochlorate, 10 parts; saccharine, 1 part; vanillin (dissolved in alcohol), 1.5 parts.


Neutral Tooth Powder. Potassium chlorate, 200 parts; starch, 200 parts; carmine lake, 40 parts; saccharine (in alcoholic solution), 1 part; vanillin (dissolved in alcohol), 1 part.


Tooth Powder for Children.


Magnesia carbonate                  10 parts

Medicinal soap                      10 parts

Sepia powder                        80 parts

Peppermint oil,                     quantity sufficient to flavor.


Flavorings for Dentifrice.



Sassafras oil, true                 1 drachm

Pinus pumilio oil                   20 minims

Bitter orange oil                   20 minims

Wintergreen oil                     2 minims

Anise oil                           4 minims

Rose geranium oil                   1 minim

Alcohol                             1 ounce


Use according to taste.



Oil of peppermint, English 4 parts

Oil of aniseed 6 parts






Oil of clove                        1 part

Oil of cinnamon                     1 part

Saffron                             1 part

Deodorized alcohol                  350 parts

Water                               300 parts


Or, cassia, 4 parts, and vanilla, 1/2 part, may be substituted for the saffron.




A French Dentifrice.


I.    A preparation which has a reputation in France as a liquid dentifrice is composed of alcohol, 96 per cent, 1,000 parts; Mitcham peppermint oil, 30 parts; aniseed oil, 5 parts; oil of Acorus calamus, 0.5 parts. Finely powdered cochineal and cream of tartar, 5 parts each, are used to tint the solution. The mixed ingredients are set aside for 14 days before filtering.




II.   The liquid tooth preparation "Sozodont" is said to contain: Soap

powder, 60 parts; glycerine, 60 parts; alcohol, 360 parts; water. 220 parts; oils of peppermint, of aniseed, of clover, and of cinnamon, 1 part each; oil of wintergreen, 1-200 part.



Thymol                        2 grains

Benzoic acid                  24 grains

Tincture eucalyptus           2 drachms

Alcohol                       quantity sufficient to make 2 ounces.


Mix.  Sig.: A teaspoonful diluted with half a wineglassful of water.



Carbolic acid, pure                 2 ounces

Glycerine, 1,260º                   1 ounce

Oil wintergreen                     6 drachms

Oil cinnamon                        3 drachms

Powdered cochineal                  1/2 drachm

S.V.  R                             40 ounces

Distilled water                     40 ounces


Dissolve the acid in the glycerine with the aid of a gentle heat and the essential oils in the spirit; mix together, and add the water and cochineal; then let the preparation stand for a week and filter. A mixture of caramel and cochineal coloring, N.F., gives an agreeable red color for saponaceous tooth washes. It is not permanent, however.


Variations of this formula follow:



White castile soap                  1 ounce

Tincture of asarum                  2 drachms

Oil of peppermint                   1/2 drachm

Oil of wintergreen                  1/2 drachm

Oil of cloves                       5 drops


Oil of cassia                       5 drops

Glycerine                           4 ounces

Alcohol                             14 ounces

Water                               14 ounces



White castile soap                  1 1/2 ounces

Oil of orange                       10 minims

Oil of cassia                       5 minims

Oil of wintergreen                  15 minims

Glycerine                           3 ounces

Alcohol                             8 ounces

Water                               enough to make 1 quart.



White castile soap                  3 ounces

Glycerine                           5 ounces

Water                               20 ounces

Alcohol                             30 ounces

Oil of peppermint                   1 drachm

Oil of wintergreen                  1 drachm

Oil of orange peel                  1 drachm

Oil of anise                        1 drachm

Oil of cassia                       1 drachm


Beat up the soap with the glycerine; dissolve the oils in the alcohol and add to the soap and glycerine. Stir well until the soap is completely dissolved.



White castile soap                  1 ounce

Orris root                          4 ounces

Rose leaves                         4 ounces

Oil of rose                         1/2 drachm

Oil of neroli                       1/2 drachm

Cochineal                           1/2 ounce

Diluted alcohol                     2 quarts


If the wash is intended simply as an elixir for sweetening the breath, the following preparation, resembling the celebrated eau de botot, will be found very desirable:



Oil of peppermint                   30 minims

Oil of spearmint                    15 minims

Oil of cloves                       5 minims

Oil of red cedar wood               60 minims

Tincture of myrrh                   1 ounce

Alcohol                             1 pint


Care must be taken not to confound the oil of cedar tops with the oil of cedar wood. The former has an odor like turpentine; the latter has the fragrance of the red cedar wood.


For a cleansing wash, a solution of soap is to be recommended. It may be made after the following formula:



White castile soap                  1 ounce

Alcohol                             6 ounces

Glycerine                           4 ounces

Hot water                           6 ounces

Oil of peppermint                   15 minims

Oil of wintergreen                  20 minims

Oil of cloves                       5 minims

Extract of vanilla                  1/2 ounce


Dissolve the soap in the hot water and add the glycerine and extract of vanilla. Dissolve the oils in the alcohol, mix the solutions, and after 24 hours filter through paper.






It is customary to color such preparations. An agreeable brown-yellow tint may be given by the addition of a small quantity of caramel. A red color may be given by cochineal. The color will fade, but will be found reasonably permanent when kept from strong light.




Tooth Soaps.



White castile soap                  225 parts

Precipitated chalk                  225 parts

Orris root                          225 parts

Oil of peppermint                   7 parts

Oil of cloves                       4 parts

Water,                              a sufficient quantity.



Castile soap                        100 drachms

Precipitated chalk                  100 drachms

Powdered orris root                 100 drachms

White sugar                         50 drachms

Rose water                          50 drachms

Oil of cloves                       100 drops

Oil of peppermint                   3 drachms


Dissolve the soap in water, add the rose water, then rub up with the sugar with which the oils have been previously triturated, the orris root and the precipitated chalk.


III.  Potassium chlorate, 20 drachms; powdered white soap, 10 drachms; precipitated chalk, 20 drachms; peppermint oil, 15 drops; clove oil, 5 drops; glycerine, sufficient to mass. Use with a soft brush.


Saponaceous Tooth Pastes.



Precipitated carbonate of lime      90 parts

Soap powder                         30 parts

Ossa sepia, powdered                15 parts

Tincture of cocaine                 45 parts

Oil of peppermint                   6 parts

Oil of ylang-ylang                  0.3 parts

Glycerine                           30 parts


Rose water to cause liquefaction. Carmine solution to color.



Precipitated carbonate of lime      150 parts

Soap powder                         45 parts

Arrowroot                           45 parts

Oil of eucalyptus                   2 parts

Oil of peppermint                   1 part

Oil of geranium                     1 part

Oil of cloves                       0.25 parts

Oil of aniseed                      0.25 parts

Glycerine                           45 parts


Chloroform water to cause liquefaction. Carmine solution to color.


Cherry Tooth Paste.



Clarified honey                     100 drachms

Precipitated chalk                  100 drachms

Powdered orris root                 100 drachms

Powdered rose leaves                60 drops

Oil of cloves                       55 drops

Oil of mace                         55 drops

Oil of geranium                     55 drops


Chinese Tooth Paste.



Powdered pumice                     100 drachms

Starch                              20 drachms

Oil of peppermint                   40 drops

Carmine                             1/4 drachm


Eucalyptus Paste. Forty drachms precipitated chalk, 11 drachms soap powder, 11 drachms wheaten starch, 1/4 drachm carmine, 30 drops oil of peppermint, 30 drops oil of geranium, 60 drops eucalyptus oil, 2 drops oil of cloves, 12 drops oil of anise mixed together and incorporated to a paste, with a mixture of equal parts of glycerine and spirit.


Myrrh Tooth Paste.


Precipitated chalk                  8 ounces

Orris                               8 ounces

White castile soap                  2 ounces

Borax                               2 ounces

Myrrh                               1 ounce

Glycerine,                          quantity sufficient.


Color and perfume to suit.


A thousand grams of levigated powdered oyster shells are rubbed up with

12 drachms of cochineal to a homogeneous powder. To this is added 1 drachm of potassium permanganate and 1 drachm boric acid and rubbed well up. Foam up 200 drachms castile soap and 5 drachms chemically pure glycerine and mix it with the foregoing mass, adding by teaspoonful 150 grams of boiling strained honey. The whole mass is again thoroughly rubbed up, adding while doing so 200 drops honey. Finally the mass should be put into a mortar and pounded for an hour and then kneaded with the hands for 2 hours.


Tooth Paste to be put in Collapsible Tubes. 


Calcium carbonate, levigated        100 parts

Cuttlefish bone, in fine powder     25 parts

Castile soap, old white, powdered   25 parts

Tincture of carmine, ammoniated     4 parts

Simple syrup                        25 parts






Menthol                             2 parts

Alcohol                             5 parts

Attar of rose or other perfume,     quantity sufficient.


Rose water sufficient to make a paste. Beat the soap with a little rose water, then warm until softened, add syrup and tincture of carmine. Dissolve the perfume and menthol in the alcohol and add to soap mixture. Add the solids and incorporate thoroughly. Finally, work to a proper consistency for filling into collapsible tubes, adding water, if necessary.





Quillaia bark                       125 parts

Glycerine                           95 parts

Alcohol                             155 parts


Macerate for 4 days and add:


Acid, carbol. cryst                 4 parts

Ol. geranii                         0.6 parts

Ol. Caryophyll                      0.6 parts

Ol. rosse                           0.6 parts

Ol. cinnam                          0.6 parts

Tinct. Ratanhse                     45 parts

Aqua rosse                          900 parts


Macerate again for 4 days and filter.


Thymol                              20 parts

Peppermint oil                      10 parts

Clove oil                           5 parts

Sage oil                            5 parts

Marjoram oil                        3 parts

Sassafras oil                       3 parts

Wintergreen oil                     0.5 parts

Coumarin                            0.5 parts

Alcohol, dil                        1,000 parts


A teaspoonful in a glass of water.



Tincture orris (1 in 4)             1 1/2 parts

Lavender water                      1/2 part

Tinct. cinnamon (1 in 8)            1 part

Tinct. yellow cinch bark            1 part

Eau de cologne                      2 parts


Orris and Rose.



Orris root                          30 drachms

Rose leaves                         8 drachms

Soap bark                           8 drachms

Cocnineal                           3 1/2 drachms

Diluted alcohol                     475 drachms

Oil rose                            30 drops

Oil neroli                          40 drops


Myrrh Astringent.



Tincture myrrh                      125 drachms

Tincture benzoin                    50 drachms

Tincture cinchona                   8 drachms

Alcohol                             225 drachms

Oil of rose                         30 drops


Boro tonic.



Acid boric                          20 parts

Oil wintergreen                     10 parts

Glycerine                           110 parts

Alcohol                             150 parts

Distilled water                     enough to make 600 parts


Sweet Salicyl.



Acid salicylic                      4 parts

Saccharine                          1 part

Sodium bicarbonate                  1 part

Alcohol                             200 parts


Foaming Orange.



Castile soap                        29 drachms

Oil orange                          10 drops

Oil cinnamon                        5 drops

Distilled water                     30 drachms

Alcohol                             90 drachms


Australian Mint.



Thymol                              0.25 parts

Acid benzoic                        3 parts

Tincture eucalyptus                 15 parts

Alcohol                             100 parts

Oil peppermint                      0.75 parts


Fragrant Dentine.



Soap bark                           125 parts

Glycerine                           95 parts

Alcohol                             155 parts

Rose water                          450 parts


Macerate for 4 days and add:


Carbolic acid, cryst                4 parts

Oil geranium                        0.6 parts

Oil cloves                          0.6 parts

Oil rose                            0.6 parts

Oil cinnamon                        0.6 parts

Tincture rhatany                    45 parts

Rose water                          450 parts


Allow to stand 4 days; then filter.





Thymol                              20 parts

Oil peppermint                      10 parts

Oil cloves                          5 parts

Oil sage                            5 parts

Oil marjoram                        3 parts

Oil sassafras                       3 parts

Oil wintergreen                     0.5 parts

Coumarin                            0.5 parts

Diluted alcohol                     1,000 parts


The products of the foregoing formulas are used in the proportion of 1 teaspoonful in a half glassful of water.





Soap bark, powder                   2 ounces

Cocnineal powder                    60 grains

Glycerine                           3 ounces






Alcohol                             10 ounces

Water                               sufficient to make 32 ounces


Mix the soap, cochineal, glycerine, alcohol, and water together; let macerate for several days; filter and flavor; if same produces turbidity, shake up the mixture with magnesium carbonate, and filter through paper.





Soap bark, powder                   2 ounces

Cudbear, powder                     4 drachms

Glycerine                           4 ounces

Alcohol                             14 ounces

Water                               sufficient to make 32 ounces


Mix, and let macerate with frequent agitation, for several days; filter; add flavor; if necessary filter again through magnesium carbonate or paper pulp.


Sweet Anise.



Soap bark                           2 ounces

Aniseed                             4 drachms

Cloves                              4 drachms

Cinnamon                            4 drachms

Cochineal                           60 grains

Vanilla                             60 grains

Oil of peppermint                   1 drachm

Alcohol                             16 ounces

Water                               sufficient to make 32 ounces


Reduce the drugs to coarse powder, dissolve the oil of peppermint in the alcohol, add equal parts of water, and macerate therein the powders for 5 to 6 days, with frequent agitation; place in percolator and percolate until 32 fluidounces have been obtained. Let stand for a week and filter through paper; if necessary to make it perfectly bright and clear, shake up with some magnesia, and again filter.





White castile soap                  2 ounces

Glycerine                           2 ounces

Alcohol                             8 ounces

Water                               4 ounces

Oil peppermint                      20 drops

Oil wintergreen                     30 drops

Solution of carmine N.F.            sufficient to color.


Dissolve the soap in the alcohol and water, add the other ingredients, and filter.



Crystallized carbolic acid          4 parts

Eucalyptol                          1 part

Salol                               2 parts

Menthol                             0.25 parts

Thymol                              0.1 part

Alcohol                             100 parts


Dye with cochineal (1 per cent).


Jackson's Mouth Wash. Fresh lemon peel, 10 parts; fresh sweet orange peel, 10 parts; angelica root, 10 parts; guaiacum wood, 30 parts; balsam of Tolu, 12 parts; benzoin, 12 parts; Peruvian balsam, 4 parts; myrrh, 3 parts; alcohol (90 per cent), 500 parts.


Tablets for Antiseptic Mouth Wash. Heliotropine, 0.01 part; saccharine,

0.01 part; salicylic acid, 0.01 part; menthol, 1 part; milk sugar, 5 parts. These tablets may be dyed green, red, or blue, with chlorophyll, cosine, and indigo carmine, respectively.




Depilatory Cream. The depilatory cream largely used in New York hospitals for the removal of hair from the skin previous to operations:



Barium sulphide                     3 parts

Starch                              1 part

Water,                              sufficient quantity.


The mixed powders are to be made into a paste with water, and applied in a moderately thick layer to the parts to be denuded of hair, the excess of the latter having been previously trimmed off with a pair of scissors. From time to time a small part of the surface should be examined, and when it is seen that the hair can be removed, the mass should be washed off. The barium sulphide should be quite fresh. It can be prepared by making barium sulphate and its own weight of charcoal into a paste with linseed oil, rolling the paste into the shape of a sausage, and placing it upon a bright fire to incinerate. When it has ceased to burn, and is a white hot mass, remove from the fire, cool, and powder.


The formula is given with some reserve, for preparations of this kind are usually unsafe unless used with great care. It should be removed promptly when the skin begins to burn.



Barium sulphide                     25 parts

Soap                                5 parts

Talc                                35 parts

Starch                              35 parts

Benzaldehyde                        sufficient to make 120 parts


Powder the solids and mix.    To use, to a part of this mixture add 3 parts of water, at the time of its application, and with a camel's-hair pencil paint the mixture evenly over the spot to be freed of hair. Let remain in contact with the






skin for 5 minutes, then wash off with a sponge, and in the course of 5 minutes longer the hair will come off on slight friction with the sponge.


Strontium sulphide is an efficient depilatory. A convenient form of applying it is as follows:



Strontium sulphide                  2 parts

Zinc oxide                          3 parts

Powdered starch                     3 parts


Mix well and keep in the dry state until wanted for use, taking then a sufficient quantity, forming into a paste with warm water and applying to the surface to be deprived of hair. Allow to remain from 1 to 5 minutes, according to the nature of the hair and skin; it is not advisable to continue the application longer than the last named period. Remove in all cases at once when any caustic action is felt. After the removal of the paste, scrape the skin gently but firmly with a blunt-edged blade (a paper knife, for instance) until the loosened hair is removed. Then immediately wash the denuded surface well with warm water, and apply cold cream or some similar emollient as a dressing.



                                    By weight

Alcohol                             12 parts

Collodion                           35 parts

Iodine                              0.75 parts

Essence of turpentine               1.5 parts

Castor oil                          2 parts


Apply with a brush on the affected parts for 3 or 4 days in thick coats. When the collodion plaster thus formed is pulled off, the hairs adhere to its inner surface.


V.    Rosin sticks are intended for the removal of hairs and are made from colophony with an admixture of 10 per cent of yellow wax.   The sticks are heated like a stick of sealing wax until soft or semi-liquid (142º F.), and lightly applied on the place from which the hair is to be removed, and the mass is allowed to cool. These rosin sticks are said to give good satisfaction.



See Watchmakers' Formulas.



See Plating.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Photography.



See Adhesives.



See Adhesives, under Jewelers' Cements.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Watchmakers' Formulas.



See Milk.



See also Gems and Jewelers' Formulas.


To Distinguish Genuine Diamonds. If characters or marks of any kind are drawn with an aluminum pencil on glass, porcelain, or any substance containing silex, the marks cannot be erased by rubbing, however energetic the friction, and even acids will not cause them to disappear entirely, unless the surface is entirely freed from greasy matter, which can be accomplished by rubbing with whiting and passing a moistened cloth over the surface at the time of writing. So, in order to distinguish the true diamond from the false, it is necessary only

to wipe the stone carefully and trace a line on it with an aluminum pencil, and then rub it briskly with a moistened cloth. If the line continues visible, the stone is surely false. If, on the contrary, the stone is a true diamond, the line will disappear without leaving a trace, and without injury to the stone.


The common test for recognizing the diamond is the file, which does not cut it, though it readily attacks imitations. There are other stones not affected by the file, but they have characteristics of color and other effects by which they are readily distinguished.


This test should be confirmed by others. From the following the reader can select the most convenient:


A piece of glass on which the edge of a diamond is drawn, will be cut without much pressure; a slight blow is sufficient to separate the glass. An imitation may scratch the glass, but this will not be cut as with the diamond.






If a small drop of water is placed upon the face of a diamond and moved about by means of the point of a pin, it will preserve its globular form, provided the stone is clean and dry. If the attempt is made on glass, the drop will spread.


A diamond immersed in a glass of water will be distinctly visible, and will shine clearly through the liquid. The imitation stone will be confounded with the water and will be nearly invisible.


By looking through a diamond with a glass at a black point on a sheet of white paper, a single distinct point will be seen. Several points, or a foggy point will appear if the stone is spurious.


Hydrofluoric acid dissolves all imitations, but has no effect on true diamonds. This acid is kept in gutta-percha bottles.


For an eye practiced in comparisons it is not difficult to discern that the facets in the cut of a true diamond are not as regular as are those of the imitation; for in cutting and polishing the real stone an effort is made to preserve the original as much as possible, preferring some slight irregularities in the planes and edges to the loss in the weight, for we all know that diamonds are sold by weight. In an imitation, however, whether of paste or another less valuable stone, there is always an abundance of cheap material which may be cut away and thereby form a perfect-appearing stone.


Take a piece of a fabric, striped red and white, and draw the stone to be tested over the colors. If it is an imitation, the colors will be seen through it, while a diamond will not allow them to be seen.


A genuine diamond, rubbed on wood or metal, after having been previously exposed to the light of the electric arc, becomes phosphorescent in darkness, which does not occur with imitations.


Heat the stone to be tested, after giving it a coating of borax, and let it fall into cold water. A diamond will undergo the test without the slightest damage; the glass will be broken in pieces.


Finally, try with the fingers to crush an imitation and a genuine diamond between two coins, and you will soon see the difference.



See Adhesives, under Jewelers' Cements.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Cholera Remedies.


Die Venting. Many pressmen have spent hours and days in the endeavor to produce sharp and full impressions on figured patterns. If all the deep recesses in deep-figured dies are vented to allow the air to escape when the blow is struck, it will do much to obtain perfect impressions, and requires only half the force that is necessary in unvented dies.

This is not known in many shops and consequently this little air costs much in power and worry.





Sodium bicarbonate                  93 parts

Sodium chlorate                     4 parts

Calcium carbonate                   3 parts

Pepsin                              5 parts

Ammonium carbonate                  1 part



Sodium bicarbonate                  120 parts

Sodium chlorate                     5 parts

Sal physiologic (see below)         4 parts

Magnesium carbonate                 10 parts



Pepsin, saccharated (U.S.P.)        10 drachms

Pancreatin                          10 drachms

Diastase                            50 drachms

Acid, lactic                        40 drops

Sugar of milk                       40 drachms



Pancreatin                          3 parts

Sodium bicarbonate                  15 parts

Milk sugar                          2 parts


Sal Physiologicum. The formula for this ingredient, the so-called nutritive salt (Nahrsalz), is as follows:


Calcium phosphate                   40 parts

Potassium sulphate                  2 parts

Sodium phosphate                    20 parts

Sulphuric, precipitated             5 parts

Sodium chlorate                     60 parts

Magnesium phosphate                 5 parts

Carlsbad salts, artificial          60 parts

Silicic acid                        10 parts

Calcium fluoride                    2 1/2 parts


Digestive Tablets.


Powdered double refined sugar       300 parts

Subnitrate bismuth                  60 parts

Saccharated pepsin                  45 parts

Pancreatin                          45 parts

Mucilage                            35 parts

Ginger                              30 parts


Mix and divide into suitable sizes,







See Photography.



See Plating and Brass.



See Metals.



See Disinfectants and Veterinary Formulas.



See Household Formulas




Disinfecting Fluids.



Creosote                            40 gallons

Rosin, powdered                     56 pounds

Caustic soda lye 38º Tw             9 gallons

Boiling water                       12 gallons

Methylated spirit                   1 gallon

Black treacle                       14 pounds


Melt the rosin and add the creosote; run in the lyes; then add the matter and methylated spirit mixed together, and add the treacle; boil all till dissolved and mix well together.



Hot water                           120 pounds

Caustic soda lye, 38 Bº             120 pounds

Rosin                               300 pounds

Creosote                            450 pounds


Boil together the water, lye, and rosin, till dissolved; turn off steam and stir in the creosote; keep on steam to nearly boiling all the time, but so as not to boil over, until thoroughly incorporated.



Fresh - made soap (hard yellow)     7 pounds

Gas tar                             21 pounds

Water, with 2 pounds soda           21 pounds


Dissolve soap (cut in fine shavings) in the gas tar; then add slowly the soda and water which has been dissolved.



Rosin                               1 cwt.

Caustic soda lye, 18 B              16 gallons

Black tar oil                       1/2 gallon

Nitro-naphthalene dissolved in

  boiing water (about 1/2 gallon)   2 pounds


Melt the rosin, add the caustic lye; then stir in the tar oil and add the nitronaphthalene.



Camphor                             1 ounce

Carbolic acid (75 per cent)         12 ounces

Aqua ammonia                        10 drachms

Soft salt water                     8 drachms


To be diluted when required for use.



Heavy tar oil                       10 gallons

Caustic soda dissolved

in 5 gallons water 600º F           30 pounds


Mix the soda lyes with the oil, and heat the mixture gently with constant stirring; add, when just on the boil, 20 pounds of refuse fat or tallow and 20 pounds of soft soap; continue the heat until thoroughly saponified, and add water gradually to make up 40 gallons.

Let it settle; then decant the clear liquid.


Disinfecting Fluids or Weed-Killers.


I.    Cold water, 20 gallons; powdered rosin, 56 pounds; creosote oil, 40 gallons; sulphuric acid, 1/2 gallon; caustic soda lye, 30º B., 9 gallons.


Heat water and dissolve the rosin; then add creosote and boil to a brown mass and shut off steam; next run in sulphuric acid and then the lyes.



Water                               40 gallons

Powdered black rosin                56 pounds

Sulphuric acid                      2 1/2 gallons

Creosote                            10 gallons

Melted pitch                        24 pounds

Pearlash boiled in 10

  gallons water                     56 pounds


Boil water and dissolve rosin and acid; then add creosote and boil well again; add pitch and run in pearlash solution (boiling); then shut off steam.


III.  (White). Water, 40 gallons; turpentine, 2 gallons; ammonia, 1/2 gallon; carbolic crystals, 14 pounds; caustic lyes, 2 gallons; white sugar, 60 pounds, dissolved in 40 pounds water.


Heat water to boiling, and add first turpentine, next ammonia, and then carbolic crystals. Stir well until thoroughly dissolved, and add lyes and sugar solution.





Sulphate of iron                    100 parts

Sulphate of zinc                    50 parts

Oak bark, powder                    40 parts

Tar                                 5 parts

Oil                                 5 parts


II.   Mix together chloride of lime and burnt umber, add water, and set on plates.






Blue Sanitary Powder.


Powdered alum                       2 pounds

Oil of eucalyptus                   12 ounces

Rectified spirits of tar            6 ounces

Rectified spirit of turpentine      2 ounces

Ultramarine blue (common)           3/4 ounces

Common salt                         14 pounds


Mix alum with about 3 pounds of salt in a large mortar, gradually add oil of eucalyptus and spirits, then put in the ultramarine blue, and lastly remaining salt, mixing all well, and passing through a sieve.


Carbolic Powder. (Strong). Slaked lime in fine powder, 1 cwt.; carbolic acid, 75 per cent, 2 gallons.


Color with aniline dye and then pass through a moderately fine sieve and put into tins or casks and keep air-tight.


Pink Carbolized Sanitary Powder.


Powdered alum                       6 ounces

Powdered green copperas             5 pounds

Powdered red lead                   5 pounds

Calvert's No. 5 carbolic acid       12 1/2 pounds

Spirit of turpentine                1 1/2 pounds

Calais sand                         10 pounds

Slaked lime                         60 pounds


Mix carbolic acid with turpentine and sand, then add the other ingredients, lastly the slaked lime and, after mixing, pass through a sieve. It is advisable to use lime that has been slaked some time.


Cuspidor Powder. Peat rubble is ground to a powder, and 100 parts put into a mixing machine, which can be hermetically sealed. Then 15 parts of blue vitriol are added either very finely pulverized or in a saturated aqueous solution. Next are added 2 parts of formalin, and lastly 1 part of ground cloves, orange peel, or a sufficient quantity of some volatile oil, to give the desired perfume. The mixing machine is then closed, and kept at work until the constituents are perfectly mixed; the powder is then ready to be put up for the market. Its purpose is to effect a rapid absorption of the sputum, with simultaneous destruction of any microbes present, and to prevent decomposition and consequent unpleasant odors.


Deodorants for Water-Closets.



Ferric chloride                     4 parts

Zinc chloride                       5 parts

Aluminum chloride                   5 parts

Calcium chloride                    4 parts

Magnesium chloride                  3 parts

Water                               sufficient to make 90 parts


Dissolve, and add to each gallon 10 grains thymol and 1/4 ounce oil of rosemary, previously dissolved in about 6 quarts of alcohol, and filter.



Sulphuric acid, fuming              90 parts

Potassium permanganate              45 parts

Water                               4,200 parts


Dissolve the permanganate in the water, and add under the acid. This is said to be a most powerful disinfectant, deodorizer, and germicide. It should not be used where there are metal trimmings.


Formaldehyde for Disinfecting Books, Papers, etc. The property of formaldehyde of penetrating all kinds of paper, even when folded together in several layers, may be utilized for a perfect disinfection of books and letters, especially at a temperature of 86º to 122º F. in a closed room. The degree of penetration as well as the disinfecting power of the formaldehyde depend upon the method of generating the gas.  Letters, paper in closed envelopes are completely disinfected in only 12 hours, books in 24 hours at a temperature of 122º F. when 70 cubic centimeters of formochloral - 17.5 g. - of gas per cubic meter of space are used. Books must be stood up in such a manner that the gas can enter from the sides. Bacilli of typhoid preserve their vitality longer upon unsized paper and on filtering paper than on other varieties.


There is much difference of opinion as to the disinfecting and deodorizing power of formaldehyde when used to disinfect wooden tierces. While some have found it to answer well, others have got variable results, or failed of success. The explanation seems to be that those who have obtained poor results have not allowed time for the disinfectant to penetrate the pores of the wood, the method of application being wrong. The solution is thrown into the tierce, which is then steamed out at once, whereby the aldehyde is volatilized before it has had time to do its work. If the formal and the steam, instead of being used in succession, were used together, the steam would carry the disinfectant into the pores of the wood. But a still better plan is to give the aldehyde more time.






Another point to be remembered in all cases of disinfection by formaldehyde is that a mechanical cleansing must precede the action of the antiseptic. If there are thick deposits of organic matter which can be easily dislodged with a scrubbing brush, they can only be disinfected by the use of large quantities of formaldehyde used during a long period of time.


General Disinfectants.



Alum                                10 ounces

Sodium carbonate                    10 ounces

Ammonium chloride                   2 ounces

Zinc chloride                       1 ounce

Sodium chloride                     2 ounces

Hydrochloric acid,                  quantity sufficient

Water                               to make 1 gallon


Dissolve the alum in one half gallon of boiling water, and add the sodium carbonate; then add hydrochloric acid until the precipitate formed is dissolved. Dissolve the other salt in water and add to the previous solution. Finally add enough water to make the whole measure

1 gallon, and filter.


In use, this is diluted with 7 parts of water.


II.   For the Sick Room. In using this ventilate frequently: Guaiac, 10 parts; eucalyptol, 8 parts; phenol, 6 parts; menthol, 4 parts; thymol, 2 parts; oil of cloves, 1 part; alcohol of 90 per cent, 170 parts.


Atomizer Liquid for Sick Rooms.



                                    Parts by weight

Eucalyptol                          10

Thyme oil                           5

Lemon oil                           5

La vender oil                       5

Spirit, 90 per cent                 110


To a pint of water a teaspoonful for evaporation.


Non-Poisonous Sheep Dips. Paste.



Creosote (containing 15 per cent

to 20 per cent of carbolic acid)    2 parts

Stearine or Yorkshire grease        1 part

Caustic soda lyes,

specific gravity, 1340        1 part

Black rosin,                        5 per cent to 10 per cent


Melt the rosin and add grease and soda lyes, and then add creosote cold.



Creosote                            1 part

Crude hard rosin oil                1 part


Put rosin oil in copper and heat to about 220º F., and add as much caustic soda powder, 98 per cent strength, as the oil will take up. The quantity depends upon the amount of acetic acid in the oil. If too much soda is added it will remain at the bottom. When the rosin oil has taken up the soda add creosote, and let it stand.


Odorless Disinfectants.



Ferric chloride                     4 parts

Zinc chloride                       5 parts

Aluminum chloride                   5 parts

Calcium chloride                    4 parts

Manganese chloride                  3 parts

Water                               69 parts


If desired, 10 grains thymol and 2 fluidrachms oil of rosemary, previously dissolved in about 12 fluidrachms of alcohol, may be added to each gallon.



Alum                                10 parts

Sodium carbonate                    10 parts

Ammonium chloride                   2 parts

Sodium chloride                     2 parts

Zinc chloride                       1 part

Hydrochloric acid,                  sufficient

Water                               100 parts


Dissolve the alum in about 50 parts boiling water and add the sodium carbonate. The resulting precipitate of aluminum hydrate dissolve with the aid of just sufficient hydrochloric acid, and add the other ingredients previously dissolved in the remainder of the water.



Mercuric chloride                   1 part

Cupric sulphate                     10 parts

Zinc sulphate                       50 parts

Sodium chloride                     65 parts

Water to make                       1,000 parts.


Paris Salts. The disinfectant known by this name is a mixture made from the following recipe:


Zinc sulphate                       49 parts

Ammonia alum                        49 parts

Potash permanganate                 1 part

Lime                                1 part


The ingredients are fused together, mixed with a little calcium chloride, and perfumed with thymol.


Platt's Chlorides.



Aluminum sulphate                   6 ounces

Zinc chloride                       1 1/2 ounces

Sodium chloride                     2 ounces

Calcium chloride                    3 ounces

Water enough to make                2 pints


II.   A more elaborate formula for a preparation said to resemble the proprietary article is as follows:






Zinc, in strips                     4 ounces

Lead carbonate                      2 ounces

Chlorinated lime                    1 ounce

Magnesium carbonate                 1/2 ounce

Aluminum hydrate                    1 1/2 ounces

Potassium hydrate                   1/2 ounce

Hydrochloric acid                   16 ounces

Water                               16 ounces

Whiting,                            enough


Dissolve the zinc in the acid; then add the other salts singly in the order named, letting each dissolve before the next is added. When all are dissolved add the water to the solution, and after a couple of hours add a little whiting to neutralize any excess of acid; then filter.


Zinc chloride ranks very low among disinfectants, and the use of such solutions as these, by giving a false sense of security from disease germs, may be the means of spreading rather than of checking the spread of sickness.


Disinfecting Coating. Carbolic acid, 2 parts; manganese, 3 parts; calcium chloride, 2 parts; china clay, 10 parts; infusorial earth, 4 parts; dextrin, 2 parts; and water, 10 parts.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Insecticides.




The waste portions of meat and tallow, including the skin and fiber, have for years been imported from South American tallow factories in the form of blocks. Most of the dog bread consists principally of these remnants, chopped and mixed with flour. They contain a good deal of firm fibrous tissue, and a large percentage of fat, but are lacking in nutritive salts, which must be added to make good dog bread, just as in the case of the meat flour made from the waste of meat extract factories. The flesh of dead animals is not used by any reputable manufacturers, for the reason that it gives a dark color to the dough, has an unpleasant odor, and if not properly sterilized would be injurious to dogs as a steady diet.


Wheat flour, containing as little bran as possible, is generally used, oats, rye, or Indian meal being only mixed in to make special varieties, or, as in the case of Indian meal, for cheapness. Rye flour would give a good flavor, but it dries slowly, and the biscuits would have to go through a special process of drying after baking, else they would mold and spoil. Dog bread must be made from good wheat flour, of a medium sort, mixed with 15 or 16 per cent of sweet, dry chopped meat, well baked and dried like pilot bread or crackers. This is the rule for all the standard dog bread on the market. There are admixtures which affect more or less its nutritive value, such as salt, vegetables, chopped bones, or bone meal, phosphate of lime, and other nutritive salts. In preparing the dough and in baking, care must be taken to keep it light and porous.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Soap.



See Explosives.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.




The usual method pursued by medical men in calculating the doses of medicine for children is to average the dose in proportion to their approximate weight or to figure out a dose upon the assumption that at 12 years of age half of an adult dose will be about right. Calculated on this basis the doses for those under 12 will be in direct proportion to the age in years plus 12, divided into the age. By this rule a child 1 year old should get 1 plus 12, or 13, dividing 1, or 1/13 of an adult dose. If the child is 2 years old it should get 2 plus 12, or 14, dividing 2, or 1/7 of an adult dose. A child of 3 years should get 3 plus 12, or 15, dividing 3, or 1/5 of an adult dose. A child of 4 should get 4 plus 12, or 16, dividing 4, or 1/4 of an adult dose.


As both children and adults vary materially in size when of the same age the calculation by approximate weights is the more accurate way. Taking the weight of the average adult as 150 pounds, then a boy, man, or woman, whatever the age, weighing only 75 pounds should receive only one-half of an adult dose, and a man of 300 pounds, provided his weight is the result of a properly proportioned body, and not due to mere adipose






tissue, should be double that of the average adult. If the weight is due to mere fat or to some diseased condition of the body, such a calculation would be entirely wrong. The object of the calculation

is to get as nearly as possible to the amount of dilution the dose undergoes in the blood or in the intestinal contents of the patient. Each volume of blood should receive exactly the same dose in order to give the same results, other conditions being equal.



See Veterinary Formulas.




Working designs and sketches are easily soiled and rendered unsuitable for further use. This can be easily avoided by coating them with collodion, to which 24 per cent of stearine from a good stearine candle has been added. Lay the drawing on a glass plate or a board, and pour on the collodion, as the photographer treats his plates. After 10 or 20 minutes the design will be dry and perfectly white, possessing a dull luster, and being so well protected that it may be washed off with water without fear of spoiling it.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Siccatives.



See Lubricants.



See Beverages.



See Tables.



See Oil.



See Rot.



See Lubricants.



See Oil.



See Household Formulas.




In accordance with the requirements of dyers, many of the following recipes describe dyes for large quantities of goods, but to make them equally adapted for the use of private families they are usually given in even quantities, so that it is an easy matter to ascertain the quantity of materials required for dyeing, when once the weight of the goods is known, the quantity of materials used being reduced in proportion to the smaller quantity of goods.


Employ soft water for all dyeing purposes, if it can be procured, using 4 gallons water to 1 pound of goods; for larger quantities a little less water will do. Let all the implements used in dyeing be kept perfectly clean. Prepare the goods by scouring well with soap and water, washing out the soap well, and dipping in warm water, before immersion in the dye or mordant. Goods should be well aired, rinsed, and properly hung up after dyeing. Silks and fine goods should be tenderly handled, otherwise injury to the fabric will result.


Aniline Black. Water, 20 to 30 parts; chlorate of potassa, 1 part; sal ammoniac, 1 part; chloride of copper, 1 part; aniline and hydrochloric acid, each 1 part, previously mixed together. It is essential that the preparation should be acid, and the more acid it is the more rapid will be the production of the blacks; if too much so, it may injure the fabric. The fabric or yarn is dried in ageing rooms at a low temperature for 24 hours, and washed afterwards.


Black on Cotton. For 40 pounds goods, use sumac, 30 pounds; boil 3/4 of an hour; let the goods steep overnight, and immerse them in limewater, 40 minutes, remove, and allow them to drip 3/4 of an hour; add copperas, 4 pounds, to the sumac liquor, and dip 1 hour more; next work them through limewater for 20 minutes; then make a new dye of logwood, 20 pounds, boil 2 1/2 hours, and enter the goods 3 hours; then add bichromate of potash, 1 pound, to the new dye, and dip 1 hour more. Work in clean cold water and dry out of the sun.


Black Straw Hat Varnish. Best alcohol, 4 ounces; pulverized black sealing wax, 1 ounce. Place in a phial, and put the phial into a warm place, stirring or shaking occasionally until the wax is dissolved. Apply it when warm before the fire or in the sun. This makes a beautiful gloss,






Chrome Black for Wool. For 40 pounds of goods, use blue vitriol, 3 pounds; boil a short time, then dip the wool or fabric 3/4 of an hour, airing frequently. Take out the goods, and make a dye with logwood, 24 pounds; boil hour, dip 3/4 of an hour, air the goods, and dip 1/4 of an hour longer; then wash in strong soapsuds. A good fast color.


Black Dye on Wool, for Mixtures. For 50 pounds of wool, take bichromate

of potash, 1 pound, 4 ounces; ground argal, 15 ounces; boil together and put in the fabric, stirring well, and let it remain in the dye 5 hours. Take it out, rinse slightly in clean water, then make a new dye, into which put logwood, 1 1/2 pounds. Boil 1 1/4 hours, adding chamber lye, 5 pints. Let the fabric remain in all night, and wash out in clean water.


Bismarck Brown. Mix together 1 pound Bismarck, 5 gallons water, and

3/4 pound sulphuric acid. This paste dissolves easily in hot water and may be used directly for dyeing. A liquid dye may be prepared by making the bulk of the above mixture to 2 gallons with alcohol. To dye, sour with sulphuric acid; add a quantity of sulphate of soda, immerse the wool, and add the color by small portions, keeping the temperature under 212º F. Very interesting shades may be developed by combining the color with indigo paste or picric acid.


Chestnut Brown for Straw Bonnets. For 25 hats, use ground sanders, 1 1/2 pounds; ground curcuma, 2 pounds; powdered gallnuts or sumac, 3/4 pound; rasped logwood, 1/10 pound. Boil together with the hats in a large kettle (so as not to crowd), for 2 hours, then withdraw the hats, rinse, and let them remain overnight in a bath of nitrate of 4º Bé., when they are washed. A darker brown may be obtained by increasing the quantity of sanders. To give the hats the desired luster, they are brushed with a brush of couchgrass, when dry.


Cinnamon or Brown for Cotton and Silk. Give the goods as much color, from a solution of blue vitriol, 2 ounces, to water, 1 gallon, as they will take up in dipping 15 minutes; then turn them through limewater. This will make a beautiful sky blue of much durability. The fabric should next be run through a solution of prussiate of potash, 1 ounce, to water, 1 gallon.


Brown Dye for Cotton or Linen. Give the pieces a mixed mordant of acetate of alumina and acetate of iron, and then dye them in a bath of madder, or madder and fustic. When the acetate of alumina predominates, the dye has an amaranth tint. A cinnamon tint is obtained by first giving a mordant of alum, next a madder bath, then a bath of fustic, to which a little green copperas has been added.


Brown for Silk. Dissolve annatto, 1 pound; pearlash, 4 pounds, in boiling water, and pass the silk through it for 2 hours; then take it out, squeeze well, and dry. Next give it a mordant of alum, and pass through a bath of brazil wood, and afterwards through a bath of logwood, to which a little green copperas has been added; wring it out and dry; afterwards rinse well.


Brown Dye for Wool. This may be induced by a decoction of oak bark, with variety of shade according to the quantity employed. If the goods be first passed through a mordant of alum the color will be brightened.


Brown for Cotton. Catechu or terra japonica gives cotton a brown color; blue vitriol turns it to the bronze; green copperas darkens it, when applied as a mordant and the stuff is boiled in the bath. Acetate of alumina as a mordant brightens it. The French color Carmelite is given with catechu, 1 pound; verdigris, 4 ounces; and sal ammoniac, 5 ounces.


Dark Snuff Brown for Wool. For 50 pounds of goods, take camwood, 10 pounds, boil for 20 minutes, then dip the goods for 3/4 of an hour; take them out, and add to the dye, fustic, 25 pounds, boil 12 minutes, and dip the goods 3/4 of an hour; then add blue vitriol, 10 ounces, copperas, 2 pounds, 8 ounces; dip again 40 minutes. Add more copperas if the shade is required darker.


Brown for Wool and Silk. Infusion or decoction of walnut peels dyes wool and silk a brown color, which is brightened by alum. Horse-chestnut peels also impart a brown color; a mordant of muriate of tin turns it on the bronze, and sugar of lead the reddish brown.


Alkali Blue and Nicholson's Blue. Dissolve 1 pound of the dye in 10 gallons boiling water, and add this by small portions to the dye bath, which should be rendered alkaline by borax.      The fabric should be well worked about between each addition of the color. The temperature must be kept under 212º F. To develop the color, wash with water






and pass through a bath containing sulphuric acid.


Aniline Blue. To 100 pounds of fabric, dissolve 1 1/4 pounds aniline blue in 3 quarts hot alcohol, strain through a filter, and add it to a bath of 130º F.; also 10 pounds Glauber's salts, and 5 pounds acetic acid. Immerse the goods and handle them well for 20 minutes. Next heat slowly to 200º F.; then add 5 pounds sulphuric acid diluted with water.

Let the whole boil 20 minutes longer; then rinse and dry. If the aniline be added in 2 or 3 proportions during the process of coloring, it will facilitate the evenness of the color.


Blue on Cotton. For 40 pounds of pods, use copperas, 2 pounds; boil and

dip 20 minutes; dip in soapsuds, and return to the dye 3 or 4 times; then make a new bath with prussiate of potash, pound; oil of vitriol, 1 1/4 pints; boil 1/2 hour, rinse out and dry.


Sky Blue on Cotton. For 60 pounds of goods, blue vitriol, 5 pounds. Boil a short time, then enter the goods, dip 3 hours, and transfer to a bath of strong limewater. A fine brown color will be imparted to the goods if they are then put through a solution of prussiate of potash.


Blue Dye for Hosiery. One hundred pounds of wool are colored with 4 pounds Guatemala or 3 pounds Bengal indigo, in the soda or wood vat. Then boil in a kettle a few minutes, 5 pounds of cudbear or 8 pounds of archil paste; add 1 pound of soda, or, better, 1 pail of urine; then cool the dye to about 170º F. and enter the wool. Handle well for about

20 minutes, then take it out, cool, rinse, and dry. It makes no difference whether the cudbear is put in before or after the indigo. Three ounces of aniline purple dissolved in alcohol, 1/2 pint, can be used instead of the cudbear. Wood spirit is cheaper than alcohol, and is much used by dyers for the purpose of dissolving aniline colors. It produces a very pretty shade, but should never be used on mixed goods which have to be bleached.


Dark-Blue Dye. This dye is suitable for thibets and lastings. Boil 100 pounds of the fabric for 1 1/2 hours in a solution of alum, 25 pounds; tartar, 4 pounds; mordant, 6 pounds; extract of indigo, 6 pounds; cool as usual. Boil in fresh water from 8 to 10 pounds of logwood, in a bag or otherwise, then cool the dye to 170º F. Reel the fabric quickly at first, then let it boil strongly for 1 hour. This is a very good imitation of indigo blue.


Saxon Blue. For 100 pounds thibet or comb yarn, use alum, 20 pounds; cream of tartar, 3 pounds; mordant, 2 pounds; extract of indigo, 3 pounds; or carmine, 1 pound, makes a better color. When all is dissolved, cool the kettle to 180º F.; enter and handle quickly at first, then let the fabric boil 1/2 hour, or until even. Long boiling dims the color. Zephyr worsted yarn ought to be prepared, first, by boiling it in a solution of alum and sulphuric acid; the indigo is added afterwards.


Logwood and Indigo Blue. For 100 pounds of cloth. Color the cloth first by one or two dips in the vat of indigo blue, and rinse it well, and then boil it in a solution of 20 pounds of alum, 2 pounds of half-refined tartar, and 5 pounds of mordant, for 2 hours; finally take it out and cool. In fresh water boil 10 pounds of good logwoodj for half an hour in a bag or otherwise; cool off to 170º F. before entering. Handle well over a reel, let it boil for half an hour; then take it out, cool and rinse. This is a very firm blue.


Blue Purple for Silk. For 40 pounds of goods, take bichromate of potash, 8 ounces; alum, 1 pound; dissolve all and bring the water to a boil, and put in the goods; boil 1 hour. Then empty the dye, and make a hew dye with logwood, 8 pounds, or extract of logwood, 1 pound 4 ounces, and boil in this 1 hour longer. Grade the color by using more or less logwood, as dark or light color is wanted.


Blue Purple for Wool. One hundred pounds of wool are first dipped in the blue vat to a light shade, then boiled in a solution of 15 pounds of alum and 3 pounds of half-refined tartar, for l 1/2 hours, the wool taken out, cooled, and let stand 24 hours. Then boil in fresh water 8 pounds of powdered cochineal for a few minutes, cool the kettle to 170º F. Handle the prepared wool in this for 1 hour, when it is ready to cool, rinse and dry. By coloring first with cochineal, as aforesaid, and finishing in the blue vat, the fast purple or dahlia, so much admired in German broadcloths, will be produced. Tin acids must not be used in this color.


To Make Extract of Indigo Blue. Take of vitriol, 2 pounds, and stir into it finely pulverized indigo, 8 ounces, stirring briskly for the first half hour; then






cover up, and stir 4 or 5 times daily for a few days. Add a little pulverized chalk, stirring it up, and keep adding it as long as it foams; it will neutralize the acid. Keep it closely corked.


Light Silver Drab. For 50 pounds of goods, use logwood, 1/2 pound; alum, about the same quantity; boil well, enter the goods, and dip them for 1 hour. Grade the color to any desired shade by using equal parts of logwood and alum.




Slate Dye for Silk. For a small quantity, take a pan of warm water and

about a teacupful of logwood liquor, pretty strong, and a piece of pearlash the size of a nut; take gray-colored goods and handle a little in this liquid, and it is finished. If too much logwood is used, the color will be too dark.


Slate for Straw Hats. First, soak in rather strong warm suds for 15 minutes to remove sizing or stiffening; then rinse in warm water to get out the soap. Scald cudbear, 1 ounce, in sufficient water to cover the hat; work it in this dye at 180º F., until a light purple is obtained. Have a vessel of cold water, blued with the extract of indigo, ounce, and work or stir the bonnet in this until the tint pleases. Dry, then rinse out with cold water, and dry again in the shade. If the purple is too deep in shade the final slate will be too dark.


Silver Gray for Straw. For 25 hats, select the whitest hats and soften them in a bath of crystallized soda to which some clean limewater has been added. Boil for 2 hours in a large vessel, using for a bath a decoction of the following: Alum, 4 pounds; tartaric acid, 3/8 pound; some ammoniacal cochineal, and carmine of indigo. A little sulphuric acid may be necessary in order to neutralize the alkali of the cochineal dye. If the last-mentioned ingredients are used, let the hats remain for an hour longer in the boiling bath, then rinse in slightly acidulated water.


Dark Steel. Mix black and white wool together in the proportion of 50 pounds of black wool to 7 1/2 pounds of white. For large or small quantities, keep the same proportion, mixing carefully and thoroughly.




Aniline Green for Silk. Iodine green or night green dissolves easily in warm water. For a liquid dye 1 pound may be dissolved in 1 gallon alcohol, and mixed with 2 gallons water, containing 1 ounce sulphuric acid.


Aniline Green for Wool. Prepare two baths, one containing the dissolved dye and a quantity of carbonate of soda or borax.  In this the wool is placed, and the temperature raised to 212º F. A grayish green is produced, which must be brightened and fixed in a second bath of water 100º F., to which some acetic acid has been added. Cotton requires preparation by sumac.


Green for Cotton. For 40 pounds of goods, use fustic, 10 pounds; blue vitriol, 10 ounces; soft soap, 2 1/2 quarts; and logwood chips, 1 pound 4 ounces. Soak the logwood overnight in a brass vessel, and put it on the fire in the morning, adding the other ingredients. When quite hot it is ready for dyeing; enter the goods at once, and handle well. Different shades may be obtained by letting part of the goods remain longer in the dye.


Green for Silk. Boil green ebony in water, and let it settle. Take the clear liquor as hot as the hands can bear, and handle the goods in it until of a bright yellow. Take water and put in a little sulphate of indigo; handle goods in this till of the shade desired. The ebony may previously be boiled in a bag to prevent it from sticking to the silk.


Green for Wool and Silk. Take equal quantities of yellow oak and hickory bark, make a strong yellow bath by boiling, and shade to the desired tint by adding a small quantity of extract of indigo.


Green Fustic Dye. For 50 pounds of goods, use 50 pounds of fustic with alum, 11 pounds. Soak in water until the strength is extracted, put in the goods until of a good yellow color, remove the chips, and add extract of indigo in small quantities at a time, until the color is satisfactory.




Aniline Violet and Purple. Acidulate the bath by sulphuric acid, or use sulphate of soda; both these substances render the shade bluish. Dye at 212º F. To give a fair middle shade to 10 pounds of wool, a quantity of solution equal to 1/2 to 3/4 ounces of the solid dye will be required. The color of the dyed fabric is improved by washing in soap and water, and then passing through a bath soured by sulphuric acid.


Purple.  For 40 pounds of goods, use






alum, 3 pounds; muriate of tin, 4 teacups; pulverized cochineal, 1 pound; cream of tartar, 2 pounds. Boil the alum, tin, and cream t of tartar, for 20 minutes, add the cochineal and boil 5 minutes; immerse the goods 2 hours; remove and enter them in a new dye composed of brazil wood, 3 pounds; logwood, 7 pounds; alum, 4 pounds, and muriate of tin, 8 cupfuls, adding a little extract of indigo.


Purple for Cotton. Get up a tub of hot logwood liquor, enter 3 pieces, give them 5 ends, and hedge out. Enter them in a clean alum tub, give them 5 ends, and hedge out. Get up another tub of logwood liquor, enter, give them 5 ends, and hedge out; renew the alum tub, give 5 ends in that, and finish.


Purple for Silk. For 10 pounds of goods, enter the goods in a blue dye bath, and secure a light-blue color, dry, and dip in a warm solution containing alum, 2 1/2 pounds. Should a deeper color be required, add a little extract of indigo.


Solferino and Magenta for Woolen, Silk, or Cotton. For 1 pound of woolen goods, magenta shade, 96 grains, apothecaries' weight, of aniline red, will be required. Dissolve in a little warm alcohol, using, say, 6 fluidounces, or about 6 gills alcohol per ounce of aniline. Many dyers use wood spirits because of its cheapness. For a solferino shade, use 64 grains aniline red, and dissolve in 4 ounces alcohol, to each 1 pound of goods. Cold water, 1 quart, will dissolve these small quantities of aniline red, but the cleanest and quickest way will be found by using the alcohol, or wood spirits. Clean the cloth and goods by steeping at a gentle heat in weak soapsuds, rinse in several masses of clean water and lay aside moist. The alcoholic solution of aniline is to be added from time to time to the warm or hot dye bath, till the color on the goods is of the desired shade.

The goods are to be removed from the dye bath before each addition of the alcoholic solution, and the bath is to be well stirred before the goods are returned. The alcoholic solution should be first dropped into a little water, and well mixed, and the mixture should then be strained into the dye bath. If the color is not dark enough after working from 20 to 30 minutes, repeat the removal of the goods from the bath, and the addition of the solution, and the reimmersion of the goods from 15 to 30 minutes more, or until suited, then remove from the bath and rinse in several masses of clean water, and dry in the shade. Use about 4 gallons water for dye bath for 1 pound of goods; less water for larger quantities.


Violet for Silk or Wool.A good violet dye may be given by passing the goods first through a solution of verdigris, then through a decoction of logwood, and lastly through alum water. A fast violet may be given by dyeing the goods crimson with cochineal, without alum or tartar, and after rinsing passing them through the indigo vat. Linens or cot                                         tons are first galled with 18 per cent of gallnuts, next passed through a mordant of alum, iron liquor, and sulphate of copper, working them well, then worked in a madder bath made with an equal weight of root, and lastly brightened with soap or soda.


Violet for Straw Bonnets. Take alum, 4 pounds; tartaric acid, 1 pound; chloride of tin, 1 pound. Dissolve and boil, allowing the hats to remain in the boiling solution 2 hours; then add enough decoction of logwood, carmine, and indigo to induce the desired shade, and rinse finally in water in which some alum has been dissolved.


Wine Color. For 50 pounds of goods, use camwood, 10 pounds, and boil 20 minutes; dip the goods 1/2 hour, boil again, and dip 40 minutes; then darken with blue vitriol, 15 ounces, and 5 pounds of copperas.


Lilac for Silk. For 5 pounds of silk, use archil, 7 1/2 pounds, and mix well with the liquor. Make it boil 1/4 hour, and dip the silk quickly; then let it cool, and wash in river water. A fine half violet, or lilac, more or less full, will be obtained.




Aniline Red. Inclose the aniline in a small muslin bag. Have a kettle (tin or brass) filled with moderately hot water and rub the substance out. Then immerse the goods to be colored, and in a short time they are done. It improves the color to wring the goods out of strong soapsuds before putting them in the dye. This is a permanent color on wool or silk.


Red Madder. To 100 pounds of fabric, use 20 pounds of alum, 5 pounds of tartar, and 5 pounds of muriate of tin. When these are dissolved, enter the goods and let them boil for 2 hours, then take out, let cool, and lay overnight. Into fresh water, stir 75 pounds of good






madder, and enter the fabric at 120º F. and bring it up to 200º F. in the course of an hour. Handle well to secure evenness, then rinse and dry.


Red for Wool. For 40 pounds of goods, make a tolerably thick paste of

lac dye and sulphuric acid, and allow it to stand for a day. Then take tartar, 4 pounds, tin liquor, 2 pounds 8 ounces, and 3 pounds of the paste; make a hot bath with sufficient water, and enter the goods for 3/4 hour; afterwards carefully rinse and dry.


Crimson for Silk. For 1 pound of goods, use alum, 3 ounces; dip at hand heat 1 hour; take out and drain, while making a new dye, by boiling for 10 minutes, cochineal, 3 ounces; bruised nutgalls, 2 ounces; and cream of tartar, 1/2 ounce, in 1 pail of water. When a little cool begin to dip, raising the heat to a boil, continuing to dip 1 hour. Wash and dry.


Aniline Scarlet. For every 40 pounds of goods, dissolve 5 pounds white vitriol (sulphate of zinc) at 180º F., place the goods in this bath for 10 minutes, then add the color, prepared by boiling for a few minutes, 1 pound aniline scarlet in 3 gallons water, stirring the same continually. This solution has to be filtered before being added to the bath. The goods remain in the latter for 15 minutes, when they have become browned and must be boiled for another half hour in the same bath after the solution of sal ammoniac. The more of this is added the deeper will be the shade.


Scarlet with Cochineal. For 50 pounds of wool, yarn, or cloth, use cream of tartar, 1 pound 9 ounces; cochineal, pulverized, 12 1/2 ounces; muriate of tin or scarlet spirit, 8 pounds. After boiling

the dye, enter the goods, work them well for 15 minutes, then boil them  1 1/2 hours, slowly agitating the goods while boiling, wash in clean water, and dry out of the sun.


Scarlet with Lac Dye. For 100 pounds of flannel or yarn, take 25 pounds of ground lac dye, 15 pounds of scarlet spirit (made as per directions below), 5 pounds of tartar, 1 pound of flavine, or according to shade, 1 pound of tin crystals, 5 pounds of muriatic acid. Boil all for 15 minutes, then cool the dye to 170º F. Enter the goods, and handle them quickly at first. Let boil 1 hour, and rinse while yet hot, before the gum and impurities harden. This color stands scouring with soap better than cochineal scarlet. A small quantity of sulphuric acid may be added to dissolve the gum.


Muriate of Tin or Scarlet Spirit. Take 16 pounds muriatic acid, 22º Bé.; 1 pound feathered tin, and water, 2 pounds. The acid should be put in a stoneware pot, and the tin added, and allowed to dissolve. The mixture should be kept a few days before using. The tin is feathered or granulated by melting in a) suitable vessel, and pouring it from a height of about 5 feet into a pailful of water. This is a most powerful agent in certain colors, such as scarlets, oranges, pinks, etc.


Pink for Cotton. For 40 pounds of goods, use redwood, 20 pounds; muriate of tin, 2 1/2 pounds. Boil the redwood 1 hour, turn off into a large vessel, add the muriate of tin, and put in the goods. Let it stand 5 or 10 minutes, and a good fast pink will be produced.


Pink for Wool. For 60 pounds of goods, take alum, 5 pounds 12 ounces;

boil and immerse the goods 50 minutes; then add to the dye cochineal well pulverized, 1 pound, 4 ounces; cream of tartar, 5 pounds; boil and enter the goods while boiling, until the color is satisfactory.




Aniline Yellow. This color is slightly soluble in water, and for dyers' use may be used directly for the preparation of the bath dye, but is best used by dissolving 1 pound of dye in 2 gallons alcohol. Temperature of bath should be under 200º F. The color is much improved and brightened by a trace of sulphuric acid.


Yellow for Cotton. For 40 pounds goods, use sugar of lead, 3 pounds 8 ounces; dip the goods 2 hours. Make a new dye with bichromate of potash, 2 pounds; dip until the color suits, wring out and dry. If not yellow enough repeat the operation.


Yellow for Silk. For 10 pounds of goods, use sugar of lead, 7 1/2 ounces; alum, 2 pounds. Enter the goods, and let them remain 12 hours; remove them, drain, and make a new dye with fustic, 10 pounds. Immerse until the color suits.




I.    For 50 pounds of goods, use argal, 3 pounds; muriate of tin, 1 quart; boil and dip 1 hour; then add to the dye, fustic, 25 pounds; madder, 2 1/2






quarts; and dip again 40 minutes. If preferred, cochineal, 1 pound 4 ounces, may be used instead of the madder, as a better color is induced by it.


II.   For 40 pounds of goods, use sugar of lead, 2 pounds, and boil 15 minutes. When a little cool, enter the goods, and dip for 2 hours, wring them out, make a fresh dye with bichromate of potash, 4 pounds; madder, 1 pound, and immerse until the desired color is secured. The shade may be varied by dipping in limewater.


Bronze. Sulphate or muriate of manganese dissolved in water with a little tartaric acid imparts a beautiful bronze tint. The stuff after being put through the solution must be turned through a weak lye of potash, and afterwards through another of chloride of lime, to brighten and fix it.


Prussiate of copper gives a bronze or yellowish-brown color to silk. The piece well mordanted with blue vitriol may be passed through a solution of prussiate of potash.


Mulberry for Silk. For 5 pounds of silk, use alum, 1 pound 4 ounces; dip 50 minutes, wash out, and make a dye with brazil wood, 5 ounces, and logwood, 1 1/4 ounces, bv boiling together. Dip in this 1/2 hour; tnen add more brazil wood and logwood, equal parts, until the color suits.




I.    Cut some white curd soap in small pieces, pour boiling water on them, and add a little pearlash. When the soap is quite dissolved, and the mixture cool enough for the hand to bear, plunge the feathers into it, and draw them through the hand till the dirt appears squeezed out of them; pass them through a clean lather with some blue in it; then rinse them in cold water with blue to give them a good color. Beat them against the hand to shake off the water, and dry by shaking them near a fire. When perfectly dry, coil each fiber separately with a blunt knife or ivory folder.


II.   Black. Immerse for 2 or 3 days in a bath, at first hot, of logwood, 8 parts, and copperas or acetate of iron, 1 part.


III.  Blue. Same as II, but with the indigo vat.


IV.   Brown. By using any of the brown dyes for silk or woolen.


V.    Crimson. A mordant of alum, followed by a hot bath of brazil wood, afterwards by a weak dye of cudbear.


VI.   Pink or Rose. With safflower or lemon juice.


VII.  Plum. With the red dye, followed by an alkaline bath.


VIII. Red. A mordant of alum, followed by a bath of brazil wood.


IX.   Yellow. A mordant of alum, followed by a bath of turmeric or weld.


X.    Green. Take of verdigris and verditer, of each 1 ounce; gum water,

1 pint; mix them well and dip the feathers, they having been first soaked in hot water, into the said mixture.


XI.   Purple. Use lake and indigo.


XII.  Carnation. Vermilion and smalt.




The French employ velvet, fine cambric, and kid for the petals, and taffeta for the leaves. Very recently thin plates of bleached whalebone have been used for some portions of the artificial flowers.


Colors and Stains.


I.    Blue. Indigo dissolved in oil of vitriol, and the acid partly neutralized with salt of tartar or whiting.


II.   Green. A solution of distilled verdigris.


III.  Lilac. Liquid archil.


IV.   Red. Carmine dissolved in a solution of salt of tartar, or in spirts of hartshorn.


V.    Violet. Liquid archil mixed with a little salt of tartar.


VI.   Yellow. Tincture of turmeric. The colors are generally applied with the fingers.




I.    Brown. Use tincture of logwood.


II.   Red. Use ground brazil wood, 1/2 pound; water, 1 1/2 quarts; cochineal, 1/2 ounce; boil the brazil wood in the water 1 hour; strain and add the cochineal; boil 15 minutes.


III.  Scarlet. Boil 1/2 ounce saffron in 1/2 pint of water, and pass over the work before applying the red.


IV.   Blue. Use logwood, 7 ounces; blue vitriol, 1 ounce; water, 22 ounces; boil.


V.    Purple. Use logwood, 11 ounces; alum, 6 ounces; water, 29 ounces.


VI.   Green. Use strong vinegar, 1 1/2 pints; best verdigris, 2 ounces, ground fine; sap green, 1/4 ounce; mix all together and boil.








The hats should be at first strongly galled by boiling a long time in a decoction of galls with a little logwood so that the dye may penetrate into their substance; after which a proper quantity of vitriol and decoction of logwood, with a little verdigris, are added, and the hats kept in this mixture for a considerable time. They are afterwards put into a fresh liquor of logwood, galls, vitriol, and verdigris, and, when the hats are costly, or of a hair which with difficulty takes the dye, the same process is repeated a third time. For obtaining the most perfect color, the hair or wool is dyed blue before it is formed into hats.


The ordinary bath for dyeing hats, employed by London manufacturers, consists, for 12 dozen, of 144 pounds of logwood; 12 pounds of green sulphate of iron or copperas; 7 1/2 pounds verdigris. The logwood having been introduced into the copper and digested for some time, the copperas and verdigris are added in successive quantities, and in the above proportions, along with every successive 2 or 3 dozen of hats suspended upon the dripping machine. Each set of hats, after being exposed to the bath with occasional airings during 40 minutes, is taken off the pegs, and laid out upon the ground to be more completely blackened by the peroxydizement of the iron with the atmospheric oxygen. In 3 or 4 hours the dyeing is completed. When fully dyed, the hats are well washed in running water.


Straw hats or bonnets may be dyed black by boiling them 3 or 4 hours in a strong liquor of logwood, adding a little copperas occasionally. Let the bonnets remain in the liquor all night; then take out to dry in the air. If the black is not satisfactory, dye again after drying. Rub inside and out with a sponge

moistened in fine oil; then block.


I.    Red Dye. Boil ground brazil wood in a lye of potash, and boil your straw hats in it.


II.   Blue Dye. Take a sufficient quantity of potash lye, 1 pound of litmus or lacmus, ground; make a decoction and then put in the straw, and boil it.




Felt hats are dyed by repeated immersion, drawing and dipping in a hot watery solution of logwood, 38 parts; green vitriol, 3 parts; verdigris, 2 parts; repeat the immersions and drawing with exposure to the air 13 or 14 times, or until the color suits, each step in the process lasting from 10 to 15 minutes. Aniline colors may be advantageously used instead of the above. For a stiffening, dissolve borax, 10 parts; carbonate of potash, 3 parts, in hot water; then add

shellac, 50 parts, and boil until all is dissolved; apply with a sponge or a brush, or by immersing the hat when it is cold, and dip at once in very dilute sulphuric or acetic acid to neutralize the alkali and fix the shellac. Felt hats can be bleached by the use of sulphuric acid gas.




These colors, thickened with a little gum, may be used as inks in writing, or as colors to tint maps, foils, artificial flowers, etc., or to paint on velvet:


I.    Blue. Dilute Saxon blue or sulphate of indigo with water. If required for delicate work, neutralize with chalk.


II.   Purple. Add a little alum to a strained decoction of logwood.


III.  Green. Dissolve sap [?] green in water and add a little alum.


IV.   Yellow. Dissolve annatto in a weak lye of subcarbonate of soda or



V.    Golden Color. Steep French berries in hot water, strain, and add a little gum and alum.


VI.   Red. Dissolve carmine in ammonia, or in weak carbonate of potash water, or infuse powdered cochineal in water, strain, and add a little gum in water.




To Cleanse Wool. Make a hot bath composed of water, 4 parts; and urine, 1 part; enter the wool, teasing and opening it out to admit the full action of the liquid. After 20 minutes' immersion, remove from the liquid and allow it to drain; then rinse in clean running water, and spread out to dry. The liquid is good for subsequent operations, only keep up the proportions, and use no soap.


To Extract Oil Spots from Finished Goods. Saturate the spot with benzine; then place two pieces of very soft blotting paper under and two upon it, press well with a hot iron, and tne grease will be absorbed.


New Mordant for Aniline Colors. Immerse the goods for some hours in a bath of cold water in which chloride or acetate of zinc has been dissolved until the solution shows 2º Bé. For the wool the






mordanting bath should be at a boiling heat, and the goods should also be placed in a warm bath of tannin, 90º F., for half an hour. In dyeing, a hot solution of the color must be used to which should be added, in the case of the cotton, some chloride of zinc, and, in the case of the wool, a certain amount of tannin solution.


To Render Aniline Colors Soluble in Water. A solution of gelatin in acetic acid of almost the consistence of syrups is first made, and the aniline in fine is gradually added, stirring all the time so as to make a homogeneous paste. The mixture is then to be heated over a water bath to the temperature of boiling water and kept at that heat for some time.


Limewater for Dyers’ Use. Put some lime, 1 pound, and strong limewater, 1 1/2 pounds, into a pail of water; rummage well for 7 or 8 minutes. Then let it rest until the lime is precipitated and the water clear; add this quantity to a tubful of clear water.


To Renew Old Silks. Unravel and put them in a tub, cover with cold water, and let them remain 1 hour. Dip them up and down, but do not wring; hang up to drain, and iron while very damp.


Fuller's Purifier for Cloths. Dry, pulverize, and sift the following ingredients: Fuller's earth, 6 pounds; French chalk, 4 ounces; pipe clay, 1 pound. Make into a paste with rectified oil of turpentine, 1 ounce; alcohol, 2 ounces; melted oil soap, 1 1/2 pounds. Compound the mixture into cakes of any desired size, keeping them in water, or small wooden boxes.


To Fix Dyes. Dissolve 20 ounces of gelatin in water, and add 3 ounces of bichromate of potash. This is done in a dark room. The coloring matter is then added and the goods submitted thereto, after which they are exposed to the action of light. The pigment thus becomes insoluble in water and the color is fast.




Prominent among natural dyestuffs is the coloring matter obtained from logwood and known as "haematein." The color-forming substance (or chromogen), haematoxylin, exists in the logwood partly free and partly as a glucoside. When pure, haematoxylin forms nearly colorless crystals, but on oxidation, especially in the presence of an alkali, it is converted into the coloring matter hsematein, which forms colored lakes with metallic bases, yielding violets, blues, and blacks with various mordants. Logwood comes into commerce in the form of logs, chips, and extracts. The chips are moistened with water and exposed in heaps so as to induce fermentation, alkalies and oxidizing agents being added to promote the "curing" or oxidation. When complete and the chips have assumed a deep reddish-brown color, the decoction is made which is employed in dyeing. The extract offers convenience in transportation, storage, and use. It is now usually made from logwood chips that have not been cured. The chips are treated in an extractor, pressure often being used. The extract is sometimes adulterated with chestnut, hemlock, and quercitron extracts, and with glucose or molasses.


Fustic is the heart-wood of certain species of trees indigenous to the West Indies and tropical South America. It is sold as chips and extract, yields a coloring principle which forms lemon-yellow lakes with alumina and is chiefly used in dyeing wool. Young fustic is the heart-wood of a sumac native to the shores of the Mediterranean, which

yields an orange-colored lake with alumina and tin salts.


Cutch, or catechu, is obtained from the wood and pods of the Acacia catechu, and from the betel nut, both native in India. Cutch appears in commerce in dark-brown lumps, which form a dark brown solution with water. It contains catechu-tannic acid, as tannin and catechin, and is extensively used in weighting black silks, as a mordant for certain basic coal-tar dyes, as a brown dye on cotton, and for calico printing.


Indigo, which is obtained from the glucoside indican existing in the indigo plant and in woad, is one of the oldest dyestuffs. It is obtained from the plant by a process of fermentation and oxidation. Indigo appears in commerce in dark-blue cubical cakes, varying very much in composition as they often contain indigo red and indigo brown, besides moisture, mineral matters, and glutinous substances. Consequently the color varies. Powdered indigo dissolves in concentrated fuming sulphuric acid, forming monosulphonic and disulphonic acids. On neutralizing these solutions with sodium carbonate and precipitating the indigo carmine with common salt there is obtained the indigo extract, soluble indigo, and indigo carmine of commerce. True indigo carmine is the sodium salt of the disulphonic acid, and when sold dry it is called "indigotme."


One of the most important of the recent






achievements of chemistry is the synthetic production of indigo on a commercial scale.


Artificial dyestuffs assumed preponderating importance with the discovery of the lilac color mauve by Perkin in 1856, and fuchsine or magenta by Verguin in 1895, for with each succeeding year other colors have been discovered, until at the present time there are several thousand artificial organic dyes or colors on the market. Since the first of these were prepared from aniline or its derivatives the colors were known as "aniline dyes," but as a large number are now prepared from other constituents of coal tar than aniline they are better called "coal-tar dyestuffs." There are many schemes of classification. Benedikt-Knecht divides them into I, aniline or amine dyes; II, phenol dyes; III, azo dyes; IV, quinoline and acridine derivatives; V, anthracene dyes; and VI, artificial indigo.


Of the anthracene dyes, the alizarine is the most important, since this is the coloring principle of the madder. The synthesis of alizarine from anthracene was effected by Grabe and Liebermann in 1868. This discovery produced a complete revolution in calico printing, turkey-red dyeing, and in the manufacture of madder preparations. Madder finds to-day only a very limited application in the dyeing of wool.


In textile dyeing and printing, substances called mordants are largely used, either to fix or to develop the color on the fiber. Substances of mineral origin, such as salts of aluminum, chromium, iron, copper, antimony, and tin, principally, and many others to a less extent and of organic origin, like acetic, oxalic, citric, tartaric, and lactic acid, sulphonated oils, and tannins are employed as mordants.


Iron liquor, known as black liquor or pyrolignite of iron, is made by dissolving scrap iron in pyroligneous acid. It is used as a mordant in dyeing silks and cotton and in calico printing.


Red liquor is a solution of aluminum acetate in acetic acid, and is produced by acting on calcium or lead acetate solutions with aluminum sulphate or the double alums, the supernatant liquid forming the red liquor. The red liquor of the trade is often the sulpho-acetate of alumina resulting when the quantity of calcium or lead acetate is insufficient to completely decompose the aluminum salt. Ordinarily the solutions have a dark-brown color and a strong pyroligneous odor. It is called red liquor because it was first used in dyeing reds. It is employed as a mordant by the cotton dyer and largely by the printer.


Non-Poisonous Textile and Egg Dyes for Household Use. The preparation of non-poisonous colors for dyeing fabrics and eggs at home constitutes a separate department in the manufacture of dyestuffs.


Certain classes of aniline dyes may be properly said to form the materials. The essence of this color preparation consists chiefly in diluting or weakening the coal tar dyes, made in the aniline factories, and bringing them down to a certain desired shade by the addition of certain chemicals suited to their varying characteristics, which, though weakening the color, act at the same time as the so-called



The anilines are divided with reference to their characteristic reactions into groups of basic, acid, moderately acid, as well as dyes that are insoluble in water.


In cases where combinations of one or more colors are needed, only dyes of similar reaction can be combined, that is, basic with basic, and acid with acid.


For the purpose of reducing the original intensity of the colors, and also as mordants, dextrin, Glauber's salt, alum, or aluminum sulphate is pressed into service. Where Glauber's salt is used, the neutral salt is exclusively employed, which can be had cheaply and in immense quantities in the chemical industry. Since it is customary to pack the color mixtures in two paper boxes, one stuck into the other, and moreover since certain coal-tar dyes are only used in large crystals, it is only reasonable that the mordants should be calcined and not put up in the shape of crystallized salts, particularly since these latter are prone to absorb the moisture from the air, and when thus wet likely to form a compact mass very difficult to dissolve. This inconvenience often occurs with the large crystals of fuchsine and methyl violet. Because these two colors are mostly used in combination with dextrin to color eggs, and since dextrin is also very hygroscopic, it is better in these individual cases to employ calcined Glauber's salt. In the manufacture of egg colors the alkaline coloring coal-tar dyes are mostly used, and they are to be found in a great variety of shades.


Of the non-poisonous egg dyes, there are some ten or a dozen numbers, new red, carmine, scarlet, pink, violet, blue, yellow, orange, green, brown, black, heliotrope, etc., which when mixed will


Next 25 Pages or Henley's Main Page
"The Science Notebook"  Copyright 2008-2018 - Norman Young