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Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

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Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 376-400






when the glass is liable to be damp, for in that case the effect will be a blurred one. When it is desirable to remove the coating, lukewarm water will serve the purpose without damage to the luster of the mirror.


II.   The following mixture, when applied to a mirror and left to dry, will form in many shapes, all radiating from a focus, this focus forming anywhere on the glass, and when all dry tends to form a most pleasing object to the eye.


Sour ale                            4 ounces

Magnesium sulphate                  1 ounce


Put on the mirror with a small, clean sponge and let dry. It is now ready for the artist, and he may choose his own colors and subject.


Crystalline Coatings or Frostwork on Glass or Paper. Dissolve a small quantity of dextrin (gum arabic and tragacanth are not so suitable) in aqueous salt solution as concentrated as possible, for instance, m sulphate of magnesia (bitter salt), sulphate of zinc or any other readily crystallizing salt; filter the solution through white blotting paper and coat glass panes uniformly thin with the clear filtrate, using a fine, broad badger brush; leave them lying at an ordinary medium temperature about one quarter hour in a horizontal position.


As the water slowly evaporates during this short time, handsome crystalline patterns, closely resembling frostwork, will develop gradually on the glass panes, which adhere so firmly to the glass or the paper (if well-sized glazed paper had been used) that they will not rub off easily. They can be permanently fixed by a subsequent coat of alcoholic shellac solution.


Especially handsome effects are produced with colored glass panes thus treated, and in the case of reflected light by colored paper.


For testing crystals as regards their optical behavior, among others their behavior to polarized light, it is sufficient to pour a solution of collodion wool (soluble peroxide lime for the preparation of collodion) over the surface of glass with the crystalline designs, and to pull off the dry collodion film carefully. If this is done cautiously it is not difficult to lift the whole crystalline group from the glass plate and to incorporate it with the glass-like, thin collodion film.




Here are fourteen methods of preventing frost on windows, arranged in the order of their efficacy: 1, Flame of an alcohol lamp; 2, sulphuric acid; 3, aqua ammonia; 4, glycerine; 5, aqua regia; 6, hydrochloric acid; 7, benzine; 8, hydrioaic acid; 9, boric acid; 10, alcohol; 11,

nitric acid; 12, cobalt nitrate; 13, infusion of nutgalls; 14, tincture of ferrous sulphate. By the use of an alcohol lamp (which, of course, has to be handled with great care) the results are immediate, and the effect more nearly permanent than by any other methods. The sulphuric acid application is made with a cotton cloth swab, care being taken not to allow any dripping, and so with all other acids. The effect of the aqua ammonia is almost instantaneous, but the window is frosted again in a short time. With the glycerine there are very good results but slight stains on the window which may be easily removed.


The instructions for glycerine are: Dissolve 2 ounces of glycerine in 1 quart of 62 per cent alcohol containing, to improve the odor, some oil of amber. When the mixture clarifies it is rubbed over the inner surface of the glass. This, it is claimed, not only prevents the formation of frost, but also prevents sweating.


To Prevent Dimming of Eyeglasses, etc. Mix olein-potash soap with about

3 per cent of glycerine and a little oil turpentine. Similar mixtures have also been recommended for polishing physicians' reflectors, show-windows, etc., to prevent dimming.



See also Etching and Inks.


Composition for Writing on Glass. To obtain mat designs on glass, take sodium fluoride, 35 parts; potassium sulphate, 7 parts; zinc chloride, 15 parts; hydrochloric acid, 65 parts; distilled water, 1,000 parts. Dissolve the sodium fluoride and the potassium sulphate in half the water; dissolve the zinc chloride in the remaining water and add the hydrochloric acid. Preserve these two solutions separately. For use, mix a little of each solution and write on the glass with a pen or brush.


Ink for Writing on Glass.


Shellac                             20 parts

Alcohol                             150 parts

Borax                               35 parts

Water                               250 parts

Water-soluble dye                   sufficient to color.


Dissolve the shellac in the alcohol, the borax in the water, and pour the shellac






solution slowly into that of the borax.   Then add the coloring matter previously dissolved in a little water.



See Adhesives and Amalgams.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Plating.



See Etching.



See Adhesives under Sign-Letter Cements.



See Adhesives.



See Lettering.



See Lubricants.



See Light.



See Polishes.



See Mirrors.



See Solders.



See Adhesives.



See Adhesives, under Water-Glass Cements.



See Silver.



(See also Ceramics, Enamels, Paints, and Varnishes.)


Glazes for Cooking Vessels. Melt a frit of red lead, 22.9 parts (by weight); crystallized boracic acid, 31 parts; enamel soda, 42.4 parts; cooking salt, 10 parts; gravel, 12 parts; feldspar, 8 parts. According to the character of the clay, this frit is mixed with varying quantities of sand, feldspar and kaolin, in the following manner:








Red lead















Kaolin, burnt






Glazes which are produced without addition of red lead to the frit, are prepared as follows. Melt a frit of the following composition: Red lead, 22.9 parts (by weight); boracic acid in crystals, 24.8 parts; enamel soda, 37.1 parts; calcined potash, 6.9 parts; cooking salt, 10 parts; chalk, 10 parts; gravel, 12 parts; feldspar, 8 parts.


From the frit the following glazes are prepared:


















Kaolin, burnt







Glazing on Size Colors. The essential condition for this work is a well-sized foundation. For the glazing paint, size is likewise used as a binder, but a little dissolved soap is added, of about the strength employed for coating ceilings. Good veining can be done with this, and a better effect can be produced in executing pieces which are to appear in relief, such as car-touches, masks, knobs, etc., than with the ordinary means. A skillful grainer may, also impart to the work the pleasant luster of natural wood. The same glazing method is applicable to colored paintings. If the glazing colors are prepared with wax, dissolved in French turpentine, one may likewise glaze with them on a size-paint ground. Glazing tube-oil colors thinned with turpentine and siccative, are also useful for this purpose. For the shadows, asphalt and Van Dyke brown are recommended, while the contour may be painted with size-paint.


Coating Metallic Surfaces with Glass. Metallic surfaces may be coated with glass by melting together 125 parts (by weight) of flint-glass fragments, 20 parts of sodium carbonate, and 12 parts of boracic acid. The molten mass is next poured on a hard and cold surface, stone or metal. After it has cooled, it is powdered. Make a mixture of 50º Bé. of this powder and sodium silicate (water glass). The metal to be glazed is coated with this and heated in a muffle or any other oven until the mixture melts and can be evenly distributed. This glass coating adheres firmly to iron and steel.


Glaze for Bricks. A glazing color for bricks patented in Germany is a compo-






sition of 12 parts (by weight) lead; 4 parts litharge; 3 parts quartzose sand; 4 parts white argillaceous earth; 2 parts kitchen salt; 2 parts finely crushed glass, and 1 part saltpeter. These ingredients are all reduced to a powder and then mixed with a suitable quantity of water. The color prepared in this manner is said to possess great durability, and to impart a fine luster to the bricks.



See Laundry Preparations.



See Glass-Coloring.



See Light.



See Mirrors.



See Paper.



See Cleaning Compounds.



See Antiseptics.



See Rubber.



See Foods.



(Formulas for Glues and methods of manufacturing

Glue will be found under Adhesives.)


Rendering Glue Insoluble in Water. Stuebling finds that the usual mixture of bichromate and glue when used in the ordinary way does not possess the waterproof properties with which it is generally credited. If mixed in the daylight, it sets hard before it can be applied to the surfaces to be glued, and if mixed and applied in the dark room it remains just as soluble as ordinary glue, the light being unable to penetrate the interior of the joints. Neither is a mixture of linseed oil and glue of any use for this purpose. Happening to upset a strong solution of alum prepared for wood staining into an adjacent glue pot, he stirred up the two together out of curiosity and left them. Wishing to use the glue a few days later, he tried to thin it down with water, but unsuccessfully, the glue having set to a waterproof mass. Fresh glue was then mixed with alum solution and used to join two pieces of wood, these resisting the action of the water completely.


To Bleach Glue. Dissolve the glue in water, by heat, and while hot, add a mixture in equal parts of oxalic acid and zinc oxide, to an amount equal to about 1 per cent of the glue. After the color has been removed, strain through muslin.


Method of Purifying Glue. The glue is soaked in cold water and dissolved in a hot 25 per cent solution of magnesium sulphate. The hot solution is filtered, and to the filtrate is added a 25 per cent, solution of magnesium sulphate containing 0.5 per cent of hydrochloric acid (or, if necessary, sulphuric acid). A white flocculent precipitate is obtained which is difficult to filter. The remainder of the glue in the saline solution is extracted by treatment with magnesium sulphate.


The viscous matter is washed, then dissolved in hot water, and allowed to cool, a quantity of weak alcohol acidulated by 1 per cent of hydrochloric acid being added just before the mass solidifies. From 2 to 3 parts, by volume, of strong alcohol (methyl or ethyl) are then added and the solution filtered, charcoal being used if necessary. The glue is finally precipitated from this solution by neutralizing with ammonia and washing with alcohol or water.


To Distinguish Glue and Other Adhesive Agents. The product to be examined is heated with hydrofluoric acid (50 per cent). If bone glue is present in any reasonable quantity, an intense odor of butyric acid arises at once, similar to that of Limburger cheese. But if dextrin or gum arabic is present, only an odor of dextrine or fluorhydric acid will be perceptible. Conduct the reaction with small quantities; otherwise the smell will be so strong that it is hard to remove from the room.



See Gelatin.




Recovering Glycerine from Soap Boiler's Lye.


I.    Glycerine is obtained as a by-product in making soap. For many years the lyes were thrown away as waste, but now considerable quantities of glycerine are recovered, which are much used in making explosive compounds.


When a metallic salt or one of the alkalies, as caustic soda, is added to tallow, a stearite of the metal (common soap is stearite of sodium) is formed, whereby the glycerine is eliminated.






This valuable by-product is contained in the waste lye, and has formed the subject of several patents.


Draw the lye off from the soap-pans; this contains a large quantity of water, some salt and soap and a small quantity of glycerine, and the great trouble is to concentrate the lye so that the large quantity of water is eliminated, sometimes 10 to 12 days being occupied in doing this. The soap and salt are easily removed.


To remove the soap, run the lye into a series of tanks alternating in size steplike, so that as the first, which should be the largest, becomes full, the liquor will flow into the second, from that into the third, and so on; by this arrangement the rosinous and albuminous matters will settle, and the soap still contained in the lyes will float on the surface, from which it is removed by skimming.


After thus freeing the lye of the solid impurities, convey the purified lye to the glycerine recovering department (wooden troughs or pipes may be used to do this), and after concentrating by heating it in a steam-jacketed boiler, and allowing it to cool somewhat, ladle out the solid salt that separates, and afterwards concentrate the lye by allowing it to flow into a tank, but before doing so let the fluid come in contact with a hot blast of air or superheated steam, whereby the crude discolored glycerine is obtained. This is further purified by heating with animal charcoal to decolorize it, then distilling several times in copper stills with superheated steam. The chief points to attend to are: (1) The neutralizing and concentrating the lye as much as possible and then separating the salts and solid matters; (2) concentrating the purified lye, and mixing this fluid with oleic acid, oil, tallow, or lard, and heating the mixture to 338º F., in a still, by steam, and gradually raise the heat to 372º F.; (3) stirring the liquor while being heated, and allowing the aqueous vapor to escape, and when thus concentrated, saponifying the liquid with lime to eliminate the glycerine; water is at the same time expelled, but this is removed from the glycerine by evaporating the mixture.


II.   In W. E. Garrigues's patent for the recovering of glycerine from spent soap lyes, the liquid is neutralized with a mineral acid, and after separation of the insoluble fatty acids it is concentrated and then freed from mineral salts and volatile fatty acids, and the concentrated glycerine solution treated with an alkaline substance and distilled. Thus the soap lye may be neutralized with sulphuric acid, and aluminum sulphate added to precipitate the insoluble fatty acids. The filtrate from these is concentrated and the separated mineral salts removed, after which barium chloride is added and then sufficient sulphuric acid to liberate the volatile fatty acids combined with the alkalI. These acids are partially enveloped in the barium sulphate, with which they can be separated from the liquid by filtration, while the remaining portion can be expelled by evaporating the liquid in a vacuum evaporator. Finally, the solution is treated with sodium carbonate, and the glycerine distilled.


Glycerine Lotion.


Glycerine                           4 ounces

Essence bouquet                     1/4 ounce

Water                               4 ounces

Cochineal coloring,                 a sufficient quantity.


(See also Cosmetics for Glycerine Lotions.)



See Cosmetics.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Photography.



See Soap.



See Photography.



(See also Jewelers' Formulas.)


Gold Printing on Oilcloth and Imitation Leather. Oilcloth can very easily be gilt if the right degree of heat is observed. After the engraving has been put in the press, the latter is heated slightly, so that it is still possible to lay the palm of the hand on the heated plate without any unpleasant sensation. Go over the oilcloth with a rag in which a drop of olive oil has been rubbed up, which gives a greasy film. No priming with white of egg or any other priming agent should be done, since the gold leaf would stick. Avoid sprinkling on gilding powder. The gold leaf is applied directly on the oilcloth; then place in the lukewarm press, squeezing it down with






a quick jerky motion and opening it at once. If the warm plate remains too long on the oilcloth, the gold leaf will stick. When the impression is done, the gold leaf is not swept off at once, but the oilcloth is first allowed to cool completely for several minutes, since there is a possibility that it has become slightly softened under the influence of the heat, especially at the borders of the pressed figures, and the gold would stick there if swept off immediately. The printing should be sharp and neat and the gold glossy. For bronze printing on oilcloth,

a preliminary treatment of printing with varnish ground should be given. The bronze is dusted on this varnish.


Imitation leather is generally treated in the same manner. The tough paper substance is made to imitate leather perfectly as regards color and pressing, especially the various sorts of calf, but the treatment in press gilding differs entirely from that of genuine leather.

The stuff does not possess the porous, spongy nature of leather, but on the contrary is very hard, and in the course of manufacture in stained paper factories is given an almost waterproof coating of color and varnish. Hence the applied ground of white of egg penetrates but slightly into this substance, and a thin layer of white of egg remains on the surface. The consequence is that in gilding the gold leaf is prone to become attached, the ground of albumen being quickly dissolved under the action of the heat and put in a soft sticky state even in places where there is no engraving. In order to avoid this the ground is either printed only lukewarm, or this imitation leather is not primed at all, but the gold is applied immediately upon going over the surface with the oily rag. Print with a rather hot press, with about the same amount of heat as is employed for printing shagreen and title paper. A quick jerky printing, avoiding a long pressure of the plate, is necessary.


Liquid Gold. Take an evaporating dish, put into it 880 parts, by weight, of pure gold; then 4,400 parts, by weight, of muriatic acid, and 3,520 parts, by weight, nitric acid; place over a gas flame until the gold is dissolved, and then add to it 22 parts, by weight, of pure tin; when the tin is dissolved add 42 parts, by weight, of butter of antimony. Let ail remain over the gas until the mixture begins to thicken. Now put into a glass and test with the hydrometer, which should give about 1,800 specific gravity. Pour into a large glass and fill up with water until the hydrometer shows 1090; pour all the solution into a chemical pot and add to it 1,760 parts, by weight, balsam of sulphur, stirring well all the while, and put it over the gas again; in an hour it should give, on testing, 125º F.; gradually increase the heat up to 185º F., when it should be well stirred and then left to cool about 12 hours. Pour the watery fluid into a large vessel and wash the dark-looking mass 5 or 6 times with hot water; save each lot of water as it contains some portion of gold. Remove all moisture from the dark mass by rolling on a slab and warming before the fire occasionally so as to keep it soft. When quite dry add 2 1/4 times its weight of turpentine and put it over a small flame for about 2 hours; then slightly increase the heat for another hour and a half. Allow this to stand about 24 hours, and then take a glazed bowl and spread over the bottom of it 1,760 parts, by weight, of finely powdered bismuth; pour the prepared gold over it in several places. Now take a vessel containing water and place inside the other vessel containing the gold, and heat it so as to cause the water to boil for 3 hours; allow it to remain until settled and pour off the gold from the settlings of the bismuth, and try it; if not quite right continue the last process with bismuth until good;, the bismuth causes the gold to adhere.


Preparation of Balsam of Sulphur. Take 16 parts oil of turpentine; 2 1/2 parts spirits of turpentine; 8 parts flour of sulphur.


Place all in a chemical pot and heat until it boils; continue the boiling until no sulphur can be seen in it; now remove from the heat and thin it with turpentine until about the thickness of treacle, then warm it again, stirring well; allow it to cool until it reaches 45º F., then test it with the hydrometer, and if specific gravity is not 995 continue the addition of turpentine and warming until correct, let it thoroughly cool, then bottle, keeping it air-tight.


To Purify Bismuth. Take 6 parts bismuth metal, 3/4 part saltpeter. Melt together in a biscuit cup, pour out on to a slab, and take away all dirt, then grind into a fine powder.


To Recover the Gold from the Remains of the Foregoing Process. Put all the "watery" solutions into a large vessel and mix with a filtered saturated solution of copperas; this will






a precipitate of pure metallic gold to gradually subside; wash it with cold water and dry in an evaporating dish.


All rags and settlings that are thick should be burnt in a crucible until a yellow mass is seen; then take this and dissolve it in 2 parts muriatic acid and 1 part nitric acid. Let it remain in a porcelain dish until it begins to thicken, and crystals form on the sides. Add a little nitric acid, and heat until crystals again form. Now take this and mix with cold water, add a solution of copperas to it and allow it to settle; pour off the water, and with fresh water wash till quite free from acid. The gold may then be used again, and if great care is exercised almost one-half the original quantity may be recovered.


The quantities given in the recipe should produce about 13 to 15 parts of the liquid gold. It does not in use require any burnishing, and should be fired at rose color heat. If desired it can be fluxed with Venice turpentine, oil of lavender, or almonds.


Treatment of Brittle Gold.


I.    Add to every 100 parts, by weight, 5 to 8 parts, by weight, of cupric chloride and melt until the oily layer which forms has disappeared. Then pour out, and in most cases a perfectly pliable gold will have been obtained. If this should not be the case after the first fusion, repeat the operation with the same quantity of cupric chloride. The cupric chloride must be kept in a well-closed bottle, made tight with paraffine, and in a dry place.


II.   Pass chlorine gas through the molten gold, by which treatment most of the gold which has otherwise been set aside as unfit for certain kinds of work may be redeemed.


Assaying of Gold. To determine the presence of gold in ores, etc., mix a small quantity of the finely powdered ore in a flask with an equal volume of tincture of iodine, shake repeatedly and well, and leave in contact about 1 hour, with repeated shaking. Next allow the mixture to deposit and dip a narrow strip of filtering paper into the solution.

Allow the paper to absorb, next to dry; then dip it again into the solution, repeating this 5 to 6 times, so that the filtering paper is well saturated and impregnated. The strip is now calcined, as it were, and the ashes, if gold is present, show a purple color. The coloring disappears immediately if the ashes are moistened with bromine water.

The same test may also be modified as follows: Cover the finely pulverized ore with bromine water, shake well and repeatedly during about 1 hour of the contact, and filter. Now add to the solution stannic protochloride in solution, whereby, in case gold is present, a purple color (gold purple of Cassius) will at once appear. In case the ore to be assayed contains sulphides, it is well to roast the ore previously, and should it contain lime carbonate, it is advisable to

calcine the ore before in the presence of ammonium carbonate.


Gold Welding. Gold may be welded together with any metal, if the right methods are employed, but best with copper. Some recipes for welding agents are here given.


I.    Two parts by weight (16 ounces equal 1 pound) of green vitriol; 1 part by weight (16 ounces equal 1 pound) of saltpeter; 6 parts by weight (16 ounces equal 1 pound) of common salt; 1 part by weight (16 ounces equal 1 pound) of black manganic oxide or pulverized, and mixed with 48 parts by weight (16 ounces equal 1 pound) of good welding sand.


II.   Filings of the metal to be used in welding are mixed with melted borax in the usual proportion. To be applied in the thickness desired.


III.  A mixture of 338 parts of sodium phosphate and 124 parts of

boracic acid is used when the metal is at dark-red heat. The metal is then to be brought to a bright-red heat, and hammered at the same time. The metal easily softens at a high temperature, and a wooden mallet is best. All substances containing carbon should be removed from the surface, as success depends upon the formation of a fusible copper phosphate, which dissolves a thin layer of oxide on the surface, and keeps the latter in good condition for welding.


To Recover Gold-Leaf Waste. To recover the gold from color waste, gold brushes, rags, etc., they are burned up to ashes. The ashes are leached with boiling water containing hydrochloric acid. The auriferous residuum is then boiled with aqua regia (1 part nitric acid and 3 parts hydrochloric acid), whereby the gold is dissolved and gold chloride results. After filtration and evaporation to dryness the product is dissolved in water and precipitated with sulphate of protoxide of iron. The precipitated gold powder is purified with hydrochloric acid.


Gold from Acid Coloring Baths.


I.    Different lots are to be poured together






and the gold in them recovered. The following method is recommended:

Dissolve a handful of phosphate of iron in boiling water, to which liquor add the coloring baths, whereby small particles of gold are precipitated. Then draw off the water, being careful not to dissolve the auriferous sediment at the bottom. Free this from all traces of acid by washing with plenty of boiling water; it will require 3 or 4 separate washings, with sufficient time between each to allow the water. to cool and the sediment to settle before pouring off the water.

Then dry in an iron vessel by the fire and fuse in a covered skittlepot with a fluX.     


II.   The collected old coloring baths are poured into a sufficiently large pot, an optional quantity of nitro-muriatic acid is added, and the pot is placed over the fire, during which time the fluid is stirred with a wooden stick. It is taken from the fire after a while, diluted largely with rain water and filtered through coarse paper. The gold is recovered from the filtered solution with a solution of green vitriol which is stored in airtight bottles, then freshened with hot water, and finally smelted with borax and a little saltpeter.


Parting with Concentrated Sulphuric Acid. It is not necessary scrupulously to observe the exact proportion of the gold to the silver. After haying prepared the auriferous silver, place it in a quantity of concentrated sulphuric acid contained in a porcelain vessel, and let it come to a violent boil. When the acid has either become saturated and will dissolve no more, or when solution is complete, remove the dissolving vessel from the fire, let it cool, and, for the purpose of clarifying, pour dilute sulphuric acid into the solution. The dissolved silver is next carefully decanted from the gold sediment upon the bottom, another portion of concentrated acid is poured in, and the gold is well boiled again, as it will still contain traces of silver; this operation may be repeated as often as is deemed necessary. The solution, poured into the glass jars, is well diluted with water, and the silver is then precipitated by placing a sheet of copper in the solution. The precipitate is then freshened with hot water, which may also be done by washing upon the filter; the granulated silver (sulphate of silver) is pressed out in linen, dried and smelted. The freshened gold, after drying, is first smelted with bisulphate of soda, in order to convert the last traces of silver into sulphate, and then smelted with borax and a little saltpeter.




To Remove Gold from Silver.


I.    Gold is taken from the surface of silver by spreading over it a paste, made of powdered sal ammoniac with aqua fortis and heating it till the matter smokes and is nearly dry, when the gold may be separated by rubbing it with the scratch brush.


II.   The alloy is to be melted and poured from a height into a vessel of cold water, to which a rotary motion is imparted, or else it is to be poured through a broom. By this means the metal is reduced to a fine granular condition. The metallic substance is then treated with nitric acid, and gently heated. Nitrate of silver is produced, which can be reduced by any of the ordinary methods; while metallic gold remains as a black sediment, which must be washed and melted.


Simple Specific Gravity Test. A certain quantity of the metal is taken and drawn out into a wire, which is to be exactly of the same length as one from fine silver; of course, both must have been drawn through the same hole, silver being nearly A lighter than gold, it is natural that the one of fine silver must be lighter, and the increased weight of the wire under test corresponds to the percentage of gold contained in it.


To Make Fat Oil Gold Size. First thin up the fat oil with turpentine to workable condition; then mix a little very finely ground pigment with the gold size, about as much as in a thin priming coat. Make the size as nearly gold color as is convenient; chrome yellow tinted with vermilion is as good as anything for this purpose. Then thin ready for the brush with turpentine, and it will next be in order to run the size through a very fine strainer. Add japan, as experience or experiment may teach, to make it dry tacky about the time the leaf is to be laid. Dry slowly, because the slower the size dries, the longer it will hold its proper tackiness when it is once in that condition.


To Dissolve Copper from Gold Articles. Take 2 ounces of proto-sulphate of iron and dissolve it in a pint of water, then add to it in powder 2 ounces of nitrate of potash; boil the mixture for some time, and afterwards pour it into a shallow vessel to cool and crystallize; then to every part of the crystallized salt add 8 ounces of muriatic acid, and preserve in a bottle for use. Equal parts of the above preparation and of boiling water is a good proportion to use in dissolving copper, or 1 part by weight






of nitric acid may be used to 4 parts by weight of boiling water as a substitute.




I.    The solution of stannous chloride necessary for the preparation of gold purple is produced by dissolving pure tin in pure hydrochloric acid (free from iron), in such a manner that some of the tin remains undissolved, and evaporating the solution, into which a piece of tin is laid, to crystallization.


II.   Recipe for Pale Purple. Dissolve 2 parts by weight of tin in boiling aqua regia, evaporate the solution at a moderate heat until it becomes solid, dissolve in distilled water and add 2 parts by weight of a solution of stannous chloride (specific gravity 1.7) dilute with

9,856 parts by weight of water, stir into the liquid a solution of gold chloride prepared from 0.5 parts by weight of gold and containing no excess of acid (the latter being brought about by evaporating the solution of gold chloride to dryness and heating for some time to about 320º F.). This liquid is dimmed by the admixture of 50 parts by weight of liquid ammonia which eliminates the purple. The latter is quickly filtered off, washed out and while still moist rubbed up with the glass paste. This consists of enamel of lead 20 parts by weight; quartzose sand, 1 part by weight; red lead, 2 parts by weight; and calcined borax, 1 part by weight, with silver carbonate, 3 parts by weight.


III.  Recipe for Dark Gold Purple. Gold solution of 0.5 parts by weight of gold, solution of stannous chloride (specific gravity 1.7) 7.5 parts by weight; thin with 9,856 parts by weight of water, separate the purple by a few drops of sulphuric acid, wash out the purple and mix same with enamel of lead 10 parts by weight and silver carbonate, 0.5 parts by weight.


IV.   Recipe for Pink Purple. Gold solution of 1 part by weight of gold; solution of 50 parts by weight of alum in 19,712 parts by weight of water; add 1.5 parts by weight of stannous chloride solution (specific gravity 1.7) and enough ammonia until no more precipitate is formed; mix the washed out precipitate, while still moist, with 70 parts by weight of enamel of lead and 2.5 parts by weight of silver carbonate. According to the composition of the purple various reds are obtained in fusing it on; the latter may still be brightened up by a suitable increase of the fluX.     


To Render Pale Gold Darker. Take verdigris, 50 parts by weight and very strong vinegar, 100 parts by weight. Dissolve the verdigris in the vinegar, rub the pieces with it well, heat them and dip them in liquid ammonia diluted with water. Repeat the operation if the desired shade does not appear the first time. Rinse with clean water and dry.


To Color Gold. Gilt objects are improved by boiling in the following solution: Saltpeter, 2 parts by weight; cooking salt, 1 part by weight; alum, 1 part by weight; water, 24 parts by weight; hydrochloric acid, 1 part by weight (1.12 specific gravity). In order to impart a rich appearance to gilt articles, the following paste is applied: Alum, 3 parts by weight; saltpeter, 2 parts by weight; zinc vitriol, 1 part by weight; cooking salt, 1 part by weight; made into a paste with water. Next, heat until black, on a hot iron plate, wash with water, scratch with vinegar and dry after washing.


Gold-Leaf Striping. To secure a good job of gilding depends largely for its beauty upon the sizing. Take tube chrome yellow ground in oil, thin with wearing body varnish, and temper it ready for use with turpentine. Apply in the evening with an ox-tail striper, and let it stand until the next morning, when, under ordinary circumstances, it will be ready for the gold leaf, etc. After the gilding is done, let the job stand 24 hours before varnishing.


Composition of Aqua Fortis for the Touch-Stone. Following are the three compositions mostly in use:


I.    Nitric acid, 30 parts; hydrochloric acid, 3 parts; distilled water, 20 parts.


II.   Nitric acid, 980 parts by weight; hydrochloric acid, 20 parts by weight.


III.  Nitric acid, 123 parts by weight; hydrochloric acid, 2 parts by weight.


To Remove Soft Solder from Gold. Place the work in spirits of salts (hydrochloric acid) or remove as much as possible with the scraper, using a gentle heat to remove the solder more easily.


Tipping Gold Pens. Gold pens are usually tipped with iridium. This is done by soldering very small pieces to the points and filing to the proper shape.


To Recognize Whether an Article is Gilt. Simply touch the object with a glass rod previously dipped into a solution of bichloride of copper. If the article has been gilt the spot touched should remain intact, while it presents a






brown stain if no gold has been deposited on its surface.


To Burnish Gilt Work. Ale has proved a very good substitute for soap and water in burnishing gilt as it increases the ease and smoothness with which it is accomplished. Vinegar is a somewhat poorer substitute for ale.


White-Gold Plates Without Solder. The gold serving as a background for

white-gold is rolled in the desired dimensions and then made perfectly even under a powerful press. It is then carefully treated with a file until a perfectly smooth surface is obtained. After a white-gold plate of the required thickness has been produced in the same manner, the surfaces of the two plates to be united are coated with borax and then pressed together by machine, which causes the harder metal to be squeezed slightly into the surface of the other, furnishing a more solid and compact mass. The metals, now partially united, are firmly fastened together by means of strong iron wire and a little more borax solution is put on the edges. Then heat to the temperature necessary for a complete adhesion, but the heat must not be so great as to cause an alloyage by fusing. The whole is finally rolled out into the required thickness.


To Fuse Gold Dust. Use such a crucible as is generally used for melting brass; heat very hot; then add the gold dust mixed with powdered borax; after some time a scum or slag will be on top, which may be thickened by the addition of a little lime or bone ash. If the dust contains any of the more oxidizable metals, add a little niter, and skim off the slag or scum very carefully; when melted, grasp the crucible with strong iron tongs, and pour off immediately into molds, slightly greased. The slag and crucibles may be afterwards pulverized, and the auriferous matter recovered from the mass through cupellation by means of lead.



See Alloys.



See Amalgams.



See Adhesives, under Sign-Letter Cements.



See Photography.



See Metal Foil.



See Alloys.



See Paints.



See Plating.



See Jewelers' Formulas.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Platinum.



See Solders.



See Jewelers' Formulas.



See Varnishes.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Alloys.




Formalin Treatment of Seed Grain for Smut. Smut is a parasitic fungus,

and springs from a spore (which corresponds to a seed in higher plants). This germinates when the grain is seeded and, penetrating the little grain plant when but a few days old, grows up within the grain stem. After entering the stem there is no evidence of its presence until the grain begins to head. At this time the smut plant robs the developing kernels of their nourishment and ripens a mass of smut spores.


These spores usually ripen before the grain, and are blown about the field, many spores becoming lodged on the ripening grain kernels. The wholesale agent of infection is the threshing machine. For this reason the safest plan is to treat all seed wheat and oats each year.


Secure a 40 per cent solution of formalin (the commercial name for formaldehyde gas held in a water solution). About 1 ounce is required for every 5 bushels of grain to be treated.






Clean off a space on the barn floor or sweep a clean space on the hard level ground and lay a good-sized canvas down, on which to spread out the wheat. See that the place where the grain is to be treated is swept clean and thoroughly sprinkled with the formalin solution before placing the seed grain there.


Prepare the formalin solution immediately before use, as it is volatile, and if kept may disappear by evaporation.


Use 4 ounces of formalin for 10 gallons of water. This is sufficient for 600 pounds of grain. Put the solution in a barrel or tub, thoroughly mixing.


The solution can be applied with the garden sprinkler. Care must be taken to moisten the grain thoroughly. Sprinkle, stir the grain up thoroughly and sprinkle again, until every kernel is wet.


After sprinkling, place the grain in a conical pile and cover with horse blankets, gunny sacks, etc. The smut that does the damage lies just under the glume of the oats or on the basal hairs of the wheat. Covering the treated grain holds the gas from the formalin within the pile, where it comes in contact with the kernels, killing such smut spores as may have survived the previous treatment. After the grain has remained in a covered pile 2 to 4 hours, spread it out again where the wind can blow over it, to air and dry.


As soon as the grain can be taken in the hand without the kernels sticking together, it can be sown in the field. The grain may be treated in the forenoon and seeded in the afternoon.


Since this treatment swells the kernels it hastens germination and should be done in the spring just before seeding time.


While the copper sulphate or bluestone treatment is valuable in killing smut, the formalin treatment can be given in less time, is applied so easily and is so effectual that it is recommended as a sure and ready means of killing smut in wheat and oats.



See Crayons.



See Pigments.



See Paint.



See Palisander.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Lubricants.




For cleaning gravel walks any of the following may be used:


I.    Gas-tar liquor.


II.   Rock salt (cattle salt).


III.  Hydrochloric acid.


IV.   Sulphuric acid.


V.    Fresh limewater. The gas-tar liquor must be poured out a few times in succession, and must not touch the tree roots and borders of the paths. This medium is cheap. Cattle salt must likewise be thrown out repeatedly. The use of hydrochloric and sulphuric acids is somewhat expensive. Mix 60 parts of water with 10 parts of unslaked lime and

1 part of sulphuric acid in a kettle, and sprinkle the hot or cold mixture on the walks by means of a watering pot. If limewater is used alone it must be fresh 1 part of unslaked lime in 10 parts of water.




To Prepare Gravers for Bright-Cutting. Set the gravers after the sharpening on the oilstone on high-grade emery (tripoli) paper. Next, hone them further on the rouge leather, out without tearing threads from it. In this manner the silver and aluminum engravers grind their gravers. A subsequent whetting of the graver on the touchstone is not advisable, since it is too easily injured thereby. A graver prepared as described gives excellent bright engraving and never fails.


In all bright-cutting the graver must be highly polished; but when bright-cutting aluminum a lubricant like coal oil or vaseline is generally employed with the polished tool; a mixture of vaseline and benzine is also used for this purpose. Another formula which may be recommended for bright-cutting aluminum is composed of the following ingredients: Mix 4 parts of oil of turpentine and 1 part of rum with 1 ounce of stearine. Immerse the grayer in any of the mixtures before making the bright-cut.



See Lubricants.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.







See Cosmetics.



See Blue.



See Plating.



See Fire Extinguishers.



See Tool Setting.



See Adhesives.




To Mend Grindstones. The mending of defective places in grindstones is best done with a mass consisting of earth-wax (so-called stone-pitch), 5 parts, by weight; tar, 1 part; and powdered sandstone or cement, 3 parts, which is heated to the boiling point and well stirred together. Before pouring in the mass the places to be mended must be heated by laying red-hot pieces of iron on them. The substance is, in a tough state, poured into the hollows of the stone, and the pouring must be continued, when it commences to solidify, until even with the surface.


Treatment of the Grindstone. The stone should not be left with the lower part in the water. This will render it brittle at this spot, causing it to wear off more quickly and thus lose its circularity. It is best to moisten the stone only when in use, drop by drop from a vessel fixed above it and to keep it quite dry otherwise. If the stone is no longer round, it should be made so again by turning by means of a piece of gas pipe or careful trimming, otherwise it will commence to jump, thus becoming useless. It is important to clean all tools and articles before grinding, carefully removing all grease, fat, etc., as the pores of the stone become clogged with these impurities, which destroy its grain and diminish its strength. Should one side of the grindstone be lighter, this irregularity can be equalized by affixing pieces of lead, so as to obtain a uniform motion of the stone. It is essential that the stone should be firm on the axis and not move to and fro in the bearings.


Grindstone Oil. Complaints are often heard that grindstones are occasionally harder on one side than the other, the softer parts wearing away in hollows, which render grinding difficult, and soon make the stone useless. This defect can be remedied completely by means of boiled linseed oil. When the stone is thoroughly dry, the soft side is turned uppermost, and brushed over with boiled oil, which sinks into the stone, until the latter is saturated. The operation takes about 3 to 4 hours in summer. As soon as the oil has dried, the stone may be damped, and used without any further delay. Unlike other similar remedies, this one does not prevent the stone from biting properly in the oiled parts, and the life of the stone is considerably lengthened, since it does not have to be dressed so often.



See Pigments.



(See also Adhesives, under Mucilages.)


Gums, their Solubility in Alcohol. The following table shows the great range of solubility of the various gums, and of various specimens of the same gum, in 60 per cent alcohol:


Acajon                  6.94 to 42.92

Aden                    0.60 to 26.90

Egyptian                46.34

Yellow Amrad            26.90 to 32.16

White Amrad             0.54 to 1.50

Kordofan                1.40 to 6.06

Australian              10.67 to 20.85

Bombay                  22.06 to 46.14

Cape                    1.67 to 1.88

Embavi                  25.92

Gedda                   1.24 to 1.30

Ghatti                  31.60 to 70.32

Gheziereh               1.50 to 12.16

Halebi                  3.70 to 22.60

La Plata                9.65

Mogadore                27.66

East Indian             3.24 to 74.84

Persian                 1.74 to 17.34

Senegal                 0.56 to 14.30


Substitute for Gum Arabic. Dissolve 250 parts of glue in 1,000 parts of boiling water and heat this gjue solution on the water bath with a mixture of about 10 parts of barium peroxide of 75 per cent BaO2 and 5 parts of sulphuric acid (66º) mixed with 115 parts of water, for about 24 hours. After the time has elapsed, pour off from the barium sulphate, whereby a little sulphurous acid results owing to reduction of the sulphuric acid, which has a bleaching action and makes the glue somewhat paler. If this solution is mixed, with stirring, and dried upon glass plates in the drying room, a product which can hardly be






distinguished from gum arabic is obtained. An envelope sealed with this

mucilage cannot be opened by moistening the envelope. The traces of free acid which it contains prevent the invasion of bacteria, hence all putrefaction. The adhesive power of the artificial gum is so enormous that the use of cork stoppers is quite excluded, since they crumble off every time the bottle is opened, so that finally a perfect wreath around the inner neck of the bottle is formed. Only metallic or porcelain stoppers should be used.



See Adhesives, under Mucilages.



See Photography.



See Confectionery.



See Oil.



See Varnishes.



See Steel.



See Alloys, under Phosphor Bronze.



See Explosives.



See Lubricants.



See Explosives.




A stain produced by the embedding of grains of gunpowder in the skin is practically the same thing as a tattoo mark. The charcoal of the gunpowder remains unaffected by the fluids of the tissues, and no way is known of bringing it into solution there. The only method of obliterating such marks is to take away with them the skin in which they are embedded. This has been accomplished by the application of an electric current, and by the use of caustics. When the destruction of the true skin has been accomplished, it becomes a foreign body, and if the destruction has extended to a sufficient depth, the other foreign body, the coloring matter which has been tattooed in, may be expected to be cast off with it.


Recently pepsin and papain have been proposed as applications to remove the cuticle. A glycerole of either is tattooed into the skin over the disfigured part; and it is said that the operation has proved successful.


It is scarcely necessary to say that suppuration is likely to follow such treatment, and that there is risk of scarring. In view of this it becomes apparent that any such operation should be undertaken only by a surgeon skilled in dermatological practice. An amateur might not only cause the patient suffering without success in removal, but add another disfigurement to the tattooing.


Carbolic acid has been applied to small portions of the affected area at a time, with the result that the powder and skin were removed simultaneously and, according to the physician reporting the case, with little discomfort to the patient.


Rubbing the affected part with moistened ammonium chloride once or twice a day has been reported as a slow but sure cure.




Gutta-Percha Substitute.


I.    A decoction of birch bark is first prepared, the external bark by preference, being evaporated. The thick, black residue hardens on exposure to the air, and is said to possess the properties of gutta-

percha without developing any cracks. It can be mixed with 50 per cent of India rubber or gutta-percha. The compound is said to be cheap, and a good non-conductor of electricity. Whether it possesses all the good qualities of gutta-percha is not known.


II.   A new method of making gutta-percha consists of caoutchouc and a rosin soap, the latter compounded of 100 parts of rosin, 100 parts of Carnauba wax, and 40 parts of gas-tar, melted together and passed through a sieve. They are heated to about 355º to 340º F., and slowly saponified by stirring with 75 parts of lime water of specific gravity 1.06. The product is next put into a kneading machine along with an equal quantity of caoutchouc cuttings, and worked in this machine at a temperature of 195º F. or over. When sufficiently kneaded, the mass can be rolled to render it more uniform.



See Cement and Putty.



See also Plaster.


Method of Hardening Gypsum and Rendering it Weather-Proof. Gypsum possesses only a moderate degree of strength even after complete hardening,






and pieces are very liable to be broken off. Various methods have been tried, with a view to removing this defect and increasing the hardness of gypsum. Of these methods, that of Wachsmuth, for hardening articles made of gypsum and rendering them weather-proof, deserves special notice. All methods of hardening articles made of gypsum have this in common: the gypsum is first deprived of its moisture, and then immersed in a solution of certain salts, such as alum, green vitriol, etc. Articles treated by the methods hitherto in vogue certainly acquire considerable hardness, but are no more capable of resistance to the effects of water than crude gypsum. The object of Wachsmuth's process is not merely to harden the gypsum, but to transform it on the surface into insoluble combinations. The process is as follows: The article is first put into the required shape by mechanical means, and then deprived of its moisture by heating to 212º to 302º F. It is then plunged into a heated solution of barium hydrate, in which it is allowed to remain for a longer or shorter time, according to its strength. When this part of the process is complete, the article is smoothed by grinding, etc., and then placed in a solution of about 10 per cent of oxalic acid in water. In a few hours it is taken out, dried, and polished. It then possesses a hardness surpassing that of marble, and is impervious to the action of water. Nor does the polish sustain any injury from contact with water, whereas gypsum articles hardened by the usual methods lose their polish after a few minutes' immersion in water. Articles treated by the method described have the natural color of gypsum, but it is possible to add a color to the gypsum during the hardening process. This is done by plunging the gypsum, after it has been deprived of its moisture, and before the treatment with the barium solution, into a solution of a colored metallic sulphate, such as iron, copper, or chrome sulphate, or into a solution of some coloring matter. Pigments soluble in the barium or oxalic-acid solutions may also be added to the latter.


Gypsum may be hardened and rendered insoluble by ammonium borate as follows: Dissolve boric acid in hot water and add sufficient ammonia water to the solution that the borate at first separated is redissolved. The gypsum to be cast is stirred in with this liquid, and the mass treated in the ordinary way. Articles already cast are simply washed with the liquid, which is quickly absorbed. The articles withstand the weather as well as though they were of stone.



See Flowers.



See Paint.




The microscopist or amateur, who shaves himself, need never resort to the trouble of embedding and cutting hairs in the microtome in order to secure very thin sections of the hair of the face. If he will first shave himself closely "with the hair," as the barbers say (i.e., in the direction of the natural growth of the hair), and afterwards lightly "against the hair" (in the opposite direction to above), he will find in the "scrapings" a multitude of exceedingly thin sections. The technique is very simple. The lather and "scrapings" are put into a saucer or large watch-glass and carefully washed with clean water. This breaks down and dissolves the lather, leaving the hair sections lying on the bottom of the glass. The after-treatment is that usually employed in mounting similar objects.


Hair Preparations




The treatment of that condition of the scalp which is productive of dandruff properly falls to the physician, but unfortunately the subject has not been much studied. One cure is said to be a sulphur lotion made by placing a little sublimed sulphur in water, shaking well, then allowing to settle, and washing the head every morning with the clear liquid.


Sulphur is said to be insoluble in water; yet a sulphur water made as above indicated has long been in use as a hair wash. A little glycerine improves the preparation, preventing the hair from becoming harsh by repeated washings.


The exfoliated particles of skin or "scales" should be removed only when entirely detached from the cuticle. They result from an irritation which is increased by forcible removal, and hence endeavors to clean the hair from them by combing or brushing it in such a way as to scrape the scalp are liable to be worse than useless. It follows that gentle handling of the hair is important when dandruff is present.







Chloral hydrate                     2 ounces

Resorcin                            1 ounce

Tannin                              1 ounce

Alcohol                             8 ounces

Glycerine                           4 ounces

Rose water                          to make 4 pints



White wax                           3 1/2 drachms

Liquid petrolatum                   2 1/2 ounces

Rose water                          1 ounce

Borax                               15 grains

Precipitated sulphur                3 1/2 drachms


Pine-Tar Dandruff Shampoo


Pine tar                            4 parts

Linseed oil                         40 parts


Heat these to 140º F.; make solution of potassa, U.S.P., 10 parts, and water, 45 parts; add alcohol, 5 parts, and gradually add to the heated oils, stirring constantly. Continue the heat until saponified thoroughly; and make up with water to 128 parts. When almost cool, add ol. lavender, ol. orange, and ol. bergamot, of each 2 parts.




It is impossible to render straight hair curly without the aid of the iron or paper and other curlers. But it is possible, on the other hand, to make artificial curls more durable and proof against outside influences, such as especially dampness of the air. Below are trustworthy recipes:


I           II

Water                               70          80

Spirit of wine                      30          20

Borax                               2           -

Tincture of benzoin                 -           3

Perfume                             ad. lib.    ad. lib.




Dressings for the Hair.



Oil of wintergreen                  20 drops

Oil of almond, essential            35 drops

Oil of rose, ethereal               1 drop

Oil of violets                      30 drops

Tincture of cantharides             50 drops

Almond oil                          2,000 drops




Hair Embrocation.



Almond oil, sweet                   280 parts

Spirit of sal ammoniac              280 parts

Spirit of rosemary                  840 parts

Honey water                         840 parts


Mix.  Rub the scalp with it every morning by means of a sponge.


Hair Restorer.



Tincture of cantharides             7 parts

Gall tincture                       7 parts

Musk essence                        1 part

Carmine                             0.5 part

Rectified spirit of wine            28 parts

Rose water                          140 parts


To be used at night.


Rosemary Water.



Rosemary oil                        1 1/2 parts

Rectified spirit of wine            7 parts

Magnesia                            7 parts

Distilled water                     1,000 parts


Mix the oil with the spirit of wine and rub up with the magnesia in a mortar; gradually add the water and finally filter.


Foamy Scalp Wash. Mix 2 parts of soap spirit, 1 part of borax-glycerine

(1+2), 6 parts of barium, and 7 parts of orange-flower water.


Lanolin Hair Wash. Extract 4 parts quillaia bark with 36 parts water for several days, mix the percolate with 4 parts alcohol, and filter after having settled. Agitate 40 parts of the filtrate at a temperature at which wool grease becomes liquid, with 12 parts anhydrous lanolin, and fill up with water to which 15 per cent spirit of wine has been added, to 300 parts. Admixture, such as cinchona extract, Peru balsam, quinine, tincture of cantharides, bay-oil, ammonium carbonate, menthol, etc., may be made. The result is a yellowish-white, milky liquid, with a cream-like fat layer floating on the top, which is finely distributed by agitating.


Birch Water. Birch water, which has many cosmetic applications, especially as a hair wash or an ingredient in hair washes, may be prepared as follows:


Alcohol, 96 per cent                3,500 parts

Water                               700 parts

Potash soap                         200 parts

Glycerine                           150 parts


Oil of birch buds 50 parts Essence of spring flowers 100 parts Chlorophyll, q.s. to color.


Mix the water with 700 parts of the alcohol, and in the mixture dissolve the soap. Add the essence of spring flowers and birch oil to the remainder of the alcohol, mix well, and to the mixture add, little by little, and with constant agitation, the soap mixture. Finally






add the glycerine, mix thoroughly, and set aside for 8 days, filter and color the filtrate with chlorophyll, to which add a little tincture of 'saffron. To use, add an equal volume of water to produce a lather.


Petroleum Hair Washes.


I.    Deodorized pale petroleum, 10 parts; citronella oil, 10 parts; castor oil, 5 parts; spirit of wine, 90 per cent, 50 parts; water, 75 parts.


II.   Quinine sulphate, 10 parts; acetic acid, 4 parts; tincture of cantharides, 30 parts; tincture of quinine, 3 parts; spirit of rosemary, 60 parts; balm water, 90 parts; barium, 120 parts; spirit of wine, 150 parts; water, 1,000 parts.


III.  Very pure petroleum, 1 part; almond oil, 2 parts.




I.    Olive oil, 4 parts: glycerine, 3 parts; alcohol, 3 parts; scent

as desired. Shake before use.


II.   Castor oil, 1 part; alcohol, 2 parts; saffron to dye yellow. Scent as desired.


III.  Lard, 7 parts; spermaceti, 7 parts; almond oil, 7 parts; white wax, 1 part.


A Cheap Hair Oil.


I.    Sesame oil or sunflower oil, 1,000 parts; lavender oil, 15 parts; bergamot oil, 10 parts; and geranium oil, 5 parts.


II.   Sesame oil or sunflower oil, 1,000 parts; lavender oil, 12 parts; lemon oil, 20 parts; rosemary oil, 5 parts; and geranium oil, 2 parts.




There is no hair dye which produces a durable coloration; the color becomes gradually weaker in the course of time. Here are some typical formulas in which a mordant is employed:



Nitrate of silver                   1/2 ounce

Distilled water                     3 ounces




Sulphuret of potassium              1/2 ounce

Distilled water                     3 ounces





Nitrate of silver (crystal)         1 1/2 ounces

Distilled water                     12 ounces

Ammonia water                       sufficient to make a clear solution.


Dissolve the nitrate of silver in the water and add the ammonia water until the precipitate is redissolved.



Pyrogallic acid                     2 drachms

Gallic acid                         2 drachms

Cologne water                       2 ounces

Distilled water                     4 ounces



Nitrate of silver                   20 grains

Sulphate of copper                  2 grains

Ammonia,                            quantity sufficient.


Dissolve the salts in 1/2 ounce of water and add ammonia until the precipitate which is formed is redissolved. Then make up to 1 ounce with water. Apply to the hair with a brush. This solution slowly gives a brown shade. For darker shades, apply a second solution, composed of:



Yellow sulphide ammonium            2 drachms

Solution of ammonia                 1 drachm

Distilled water                     1 ounce


Black Hair Dye without Silver.



Pyrogallic acid                     3.5 parts

Citric acid                         0.3 parts

Boro-glycerine                      11 parts

Water                               100 parts


If the dye does not impart the desired intensity of color, the amount of pyrogallic acid may be increased. The wash is applied evenings, followed in the morning by a weak ammoniacal wash.


One Bottle Preparation.



Nitrate of copper                   360 grains

Nitrate of silver                   7 ounces

Distilled water                     60 ounces

Water of ammonia,                   a sufficiency.


Dissolve the salts in the water and add the water of ammonia carefully until the precipitate is all redissolved. This solution, properly applied, is said to produce a very black color; a lighter shade is secured by diluting the solution. Copper sulphate may be used instead of the nitrate.


Brown Hair Dyes. A large excess of ammonia tends to produce a brownish dye. Various shades of brown may be produced by increasing the amount of water in the silver solution. It should be remembered that the hair must, previously to treatment, be washed with warm water containing sodium carbonate, well rinsed with clear water, and dried.



Silver nitrate                      480 grains

Copper nitrate                      90 grains

Distilled water                     8 fluidounces

Ammonia water,                      sufficient.


Dissolve the two salts in the distilled water and add the ammonia water until the liquid becomes a clear fluid.


In using apply to the hair carefully






with a tooth-brush, after thoroughly cleansing the hair, and expose the latter to the rays of the sun.



Silver nitrate                      30 parts

Copper sulphate, crystals           20 parts

Citric acid                         20 parts

Distilled water                     950 parts


Ammonia water, quantity sufficient to dissolve the precipitate first formed. Various shades of brown may be produced by properly diluting the solution before it be applied.


Bismuth subnitrate                  200 grains

Water                               2 fluidounces

Nitric acid,                        sufficient to dissolve, or about 420 grains


Use heat to effect solution. Also:


Tartaric acid                       150 grains

Sodium bicarbonate                  168 grains

Water                               32 fluidounces


When effervescence of the latter has ceased, mix the cold liquids by pouring the latter into the former with constant stirring. Allow the precipitate to subside; transfer it to a filter or strainer, and wash with water until free from the sodium nitrate formed.


Chestnut Hair Dye.


Bismuth nitrate                     230 grains

Tartaric acid                       75 grains

Water                               100 minims


Dissolve the acid in the water, and to the solution add the bismuth nitrate and stir until dissolved. Pour the resulting solution into 1 pint of water and collect the magma on a filter. Remove all traces of acid from the magma by repeated washings with water; then dissolve it in:


Ammonia water                       2 fluidrachms


And add:


Glycerine                           20 minims

Sodium hyposulphite                 75 grains

Water,                              enough to make 4 fluidounces.




Falling of the Hair. After the scalp has been thoroughly cleansed by the shampoo, the following formula is to be used:


Salicylic acid                      1 part

Precipitate of sulphur              2 1/2 parts

Rose water                          25 parts


The patient is directed to part the hair, and then to rub in a small portion of the ointment along the part, working it well into the scalp. Then another part is made parallel to the first, and more ointment rubbed in. Thus a series of first, longitudinal, and then transverse parts are made, until the whole scalp has been well anointed. Done in this way, it is not necessary to smear up the whole shaft of the hair, but only to reach the hair roots and the sebaceous glands, where the trouble is located. This process is thoroughly performed for six successive nights, and the seventh night another shampoo is taken. The eighth night the inunctions are commenced again, and this is continued for six weeks. In almost every case the production of dandruff is checked completely after six weeks' treatment, and the hair, which may have been falling out rapidly before, begins to take firmer root. To be sure, many hairs which are on the point of falling when treatment is begun will fall anyway, and it may even seem for a time as if the treatment were increasing the hair-fall, on account of the mechanical dislodgment of such hairs, but this need never alarm one.


After six weeks of such treatment the shampoo may be taken less frequently.


Next to dandruff, perhaps, the most common cause of early loss of hair is heredity. In some families all of the male members, or all who resemble one particular ancestor, lose their hair early. Dark-haired families and races, as a rule, become bald earlier than those with light hair. At first thought it would seem as though nothing could be done to prevent premature baldness when heredity is the cause, but this is a mistake. Careful hygiene of the scalp will often counterbalance hereditary predisposition for a number of years, and even after the hair has actually begun to fall proper stimulation will, to a certain extent, and for a limited time, often restore to the hair its pristine thickness and strength. Any of the rubefacients may be prescribed for this purpose for daily use, such as croton oil, 1 1/2 per cent; tincture of cantharides, 15 per cent; oil of cinnamon, 40 per cent; tincture of capsicum, 15 per cent; oil of mustard, 1 per cent; or any one of a dozen others. Tincture of capsicum is one of the best, and for a routine prescription the following has served well:


Resorcin                            5 parts

Tincture capsicum                   15 parts

Castor oil                          10 parts

Alcohol                             100 parts

Oil of roses,                       sufficient.






It is to be recommended that the stimulant be changed from time to time, so as not to rely on any one to the exclusion of others. Jaborandi, oxygen gas, quinine, and other agents have enjoyed a great reputation as hair-producers for a time, and have then taken their proper position as aids, but not specifics, in restoring the hair.


It is well known that after many fevers, especially those accompanied by great depression, such as pneumonia, typhoid, puerperal, or scarlet fever, the hair is liable to fall out. This is brought about in a variety of ways: In scarlatina, the hair papilla shares in the general desquamation; in typhoid and the other fevers the baldness may be the result either of the excessive seborrhea, which often accompanies these diseases, or may be caused by the general lowering of nutrition of the body. Unless the hair fall be accompanied by considerable dandruff (in which case the above-mentioned treatment should be vigorously employed), the ordinary hygiene of the scalp will result in a restoration of the hair in most cases, but the employment of moderate local stimulation, with the use of good general tonics, will hasten this end. It seems unwise to cut the hair of women short in these cases, because the baldness is practically never complete, and a certain proportion of the hairs will retain firm root. These may be augmented by a switch made of the hair which has fallen out, until the new hair shall have grown long enough to do up well. In this way all of that oftentimes most annoying short-hair period is avoided.


For Falling Hair.



Hydrochloric acid                   75 parts

Alcohol                             2,250 parts


The lotion is to be applied to the scalp every evening at bedtime.



Tincture of cinchona                1 part

Tincture of rosemary                1 part

Tincture of jaborandi               1 part

Castor oil                          2 parts

Rum                                 10 parts




Jaborandi Scalp Waters for Increasing the Growth of Hair. First prepare a Jaborandi tincture from Jaborandi leaves, 200 parts; spirit, 95 per cent, 700 parts; and water, 300 parts. After digesting for a week, squeeze out the leaves and filter the liquid. The hair wash is now prepared as follows:


I.    Jaborandi tincture, 1,000 parts; spirit, 95 per cent, 700 parts; water, 300 parts; glycerine, 150 parts; scent essence, 100 parts; color with sugar color.


II.   Jaborandi tincture, 1,000 parts; spirit, 95 per cent, 1,500 parts; quinine tannate, 4 parts; Peru balsam, 20 parts; essence heliotrope, 50 parts. Dissolve the quinine and the Peru balsam in the spirit and then add the Jaborandi tincture and the heliotrope essence. Filter after a week. Rub into the scalp twice a week before retiring.




I.    Cinchona Pomade.


Ox marrow                           100 drachms

Lard                                70 drachms

Sweet almond oil                    17 drachms

Peru balsam                         1 drachm

Quinine sulphate                    1 drachm

Clover oil                          2 drachms

Rose essence                        25 drops


II.   Cantharides Pomade.


Ox marrow 300 drachms

White wax 30 drachms

Mace oil 1 drachm

Clove oil 1 drachms

Rose essence or geranium oil 25 drops

Tincture of cantharides 8 drachms


Pinaud Eau de Quinine. The composition of this nostrum is not known.

Dr. Tsheppe failed to find in it any constituent of cinchona bark. The absence of quinine from the mixture probably would not hurt it, as the "tonic" effect of quinine on the hair is generally regarded as a myth.


On the other hand, it has been stated that this preparation contains:


Quinine sulphate                    2 parts

Tincture of krameria                4 parts

Tincture of cantharides             2 parts

Spirit of lavender                  10 parts

Glycerine                           15 parts

Alcohol                             100 parts




A Hair Shampoo is usually a tincture of odorless soft soap. It is mostly perfumed with lavender and colored with green aniline. Prepared the same as tr. sapon. virid. (U. S. P.), using an inexpensive soft soap, that is a good foam producer. Directions: Wet the hair well in warm water and rub in a few teaspoonfuls of the following formulas. No. I is considered the best:






I           II          III         IV

Parts used

Cottonseed oil          -           24          26          14

Linseed oil             20          -           -           -

Malaga olive oil        20          -           -           -

Caustic potash          9 1/2       8           6           3

Alcohol                 5           4 1/2       5           2

Water                   30          26          34          16 1/2


Warm the mixed oils on a large water bath, then the potash and water in another vessel, heating both to 158º F., and adding the latter hot solution to the hot oil while stirring briskly. Now add and thoroughly mix the alcohol. Stop stirring, keeping the heat at 158º F., until the mass becomes clear and a small quantity dissolves in boiling water without globules of oil separating. If stirred after the alcohol has been mixed the soap will be opaque. Set aside for a few days in a warm place before using to make liquid shampoo.


Liquid Shampoos.



Fluid extract of soap-bark          10 parts

Glycerine                           5 parts

Cologne water                       10 parts

Alcohol                             20 parts

Rose water                          30 parts



Soft soap                           24 parts

Potassium carbonate                 5 parts

Alcohol                             48 parts

Water enough to make                400 parts


Shampoo Pastes.



White castile soap, in shavings     2 ounces

Ammonia water                       2 fluidounces

Bay rum, or cologne water           1 fluidounce

Glycerine                           1 fluidounce

Water                               12 fluidounces


Dissolve the soap in the water by means of heat; when nearly cold stir in the other ingredients.



Castile soap, white                 4 ounces

Potassium carbonate                 1 ounce

Water                               6 fluidounces

Glycerine                           2 fluidounces

Oil of lavender flowers             5 drops

Oil of bergamot                     10 drops


To the water add the soap, in shavings, and the potassium carbonate, and heat on a water bath until thoroughly softened; add the glycerine and oils. If necessary to reduce to proper consistency, more water may be added.


Egg Shampoo.


Whites                              of 2 eggs

Water                               5 fluidounces

Water of ammonia                    3 fluidounces

Cologne water                       1/3 fluidounce

Alcohol                             4 fluidounces


Beat the egg whites to a froth, and add the other ingredients in the order in which they are named, with a thorough mixing after each addition.


Imitation Egg Shampoos. Many of the egg shampoos are so called from their appearance. They usually contain no egg and are merely preparations of perfumed soft soap. Here are some formulas:



White castile soap                  4 ounces

Powdered curd soap                  2 ounces

Potassium carbonate                 1 ounce

Honey                               1 ounce


Make a homogeneous paste by heating with water.


II.   Melt 3 1/2 pounds of lard over a salt-water bath and run into it a lye formed by dissolving 8 ounces of caustic potassa in 1 1/2 pints of water. Stir well until saponification is effected and perfume as desired.



See Depilatories.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Steel.



See Cosmetics.



See Cleaning Preparations.



See Antiseptics.



See Leather Dressings.



See Waxes.



See Cleaning Compounds.



See Waterproofing.








Dyeing Straw Hats. The plan generally followed is that of coating the hats with a solution of varnish in which a suitable aniline dye has dissolved. The following preparations are in use:


I.    For dark varnishes prepare a basis consisting of orange shellac, 900

parts; sandarac, 225 parts; Manila copal, 225 parts; castor oil, 55 parts; and wood spirit, 9,000 parts. To color, add to the foregoing amount alcohol-soluble, coal tar dyes as follows: Black, 55 parts of soluble ivory-black (modified by blue or green). Olive-brown, 15 parts of brilliant-green, 55 parts of Bismarck brown R, 8 parts of spirit blue. Olive-green, 28 parts of brilliant-green, 28 parts of Bismarck-brown R. Walnut, 55 parts of Bismarck-brown R, 15 parts of nigrosin.

Mahogany, 28 parts of Bismarck-brown R, which may be deepened by a little nigrosin.


II.   For light colors prepare a varnish as follows: Sandarac, 1,350 parts; elemi, 450 parts; rosin, 450 parts; castor oil, 110 parts; wood-spirit, 9,000 parts. For this amount use dyes as follows: Gold, 55 parts of chrysoidin, 55 parts of aniline-yellow. Light green, 55 parts of brilliant-green, 7 parts of aniline-yellow. Blue, 55 parts of spirit blue. Deep blue, 55 parts of spirit blue, 55 parts of indulin. Violet, 28 parts of methyl-violet, 3 B. Crimson, 55 parts of safranin. Chestnut, 55 parts of safranin, 15 parts of indulin.



Shellac                             4 ounces

Sandarac                            1 ounce

Gum thus                            1 ounce

Methyl spirit                       1 pint


In this dissolve aniline dyes of the requisite color, and apply. For white straw, white shellac must be used.


To Extract Shellac from Fur Hats. Use the common solvents, as carbon

bisulphide, benzine, wood alcohol, turpentine, and so forth, reclaiming the spirit and shellac by a suitable still.



See also Pain Killers.


Headache Cologne. As a mitigant of headache, cologne water of the farina type is refreshing.


Oil of neroli                       6 drachms

Oil of rosemary                     3 drachms

Oil of bergamot                     3 drachms

Oil of cedrat                       7 drachms

Oil of orange peel                  7 drachms

Deodorized alcohol                  1 gallon


To secure a satisfactory product from the foregoing formula it is necessary to look carefully to the quality of the oils. Oil of cedrat is prone to change, and oil of orange peel, if exposed to the atmosphere for a short time, becomes worthless, and will spoil the other materials.


A delightful combination of the acetic odor with that of cologne water may be had by adding to a pint of the foregoing, 2 drachms of glacial acetic acid. The odor so produced may be more grateful to some invalids than the neroli and lemon bouquet.


Still another striking variation of the cologne odor, suitable for the use indicated, may be made by adding to a pint of cologne water an ounce of ammoniated alcohol.


Liquid Headache Remedies.


Acetanilid                          60 grains

Alcohol                             4 fluidrachms

Ammonium carbonate                  30 grains

Water                               2 fluidrachms

Simple elixir                       to make 2 fluidounces


Dissolve the acetanilid in the alcohol, the ammonium carbonate in the water, mix each solution with a portion of the simple elixir, and mix the whole together.



See Paint.



See Insulation.



See Household Formulas.



See Lacquers.



See Veterinary Formulas.




Hedge mustard (erysimum) was at one time a popular remedy in France for hoarseness, and is still used in country districts, but is not often prescribed.


Liquid ammonia                      10 drops

Syrup of erysimum                   1 1/2 ounces

Infusion of lime flowers            3 ounces


To be taken at one dose.




A matter of first importance, after drying the herbarium specimens, is to poison them, to prevent the attacks of insects. This is done by brushing them over on both sides, using a camel's-hair pencil, with a solution of 2 grains of






corrosive sublimate to an ounce of methylated spirit. In tropical climates the solution is generally used of twice this strength. There are several methods of mounting them. Leaves with a waxy surface and coriaceous texture are best stitched through the middle after they have been fastened on with an adhesive mixture. Twigs of leguminous trees will often throw off their leaflets in drying. This may, in some measure, be prevented by dipping them in boiling water before drying, or if the leaves are not very rigid, by using strong pressure at first, without the use of hot water. If the specimens have to be frequently handled, the most satisfactory preparation is Lepage's fish glue, but a mixture of glue and paste, with carbolic acid added, is used in some large herbaria. The disadvantage of using glue, gum, or paste is that it is necessary to have some of the leaves turned over so as to show the under surface of the leaf, and some of the flowers and seeds placed loose in envelopes on the same sheet for purposes of comparison or microscopic examination. Another plan is to use narrow slips of gummed stiff but thin paper, such as very thin parchment paper. These strips are either gummed over the stems, etc., and pinched in round the stem with forceps, or passed through slits made in the sheet and fastened at the back. If the specimens are mounted on cards and protected in glass frames, stitching in the principal parts with gray thread produces a very satisfactory appearance.


Hectograph Pads and Inks


The hectograph is a gelatin pad used for duplicating letters, etc., by transfer. The pad should have a tough elastic consistency, similar to that of a printer's roller. The letter or sketch to be duplicated is written or traced on a sheet of heavy paper with an aniline ink (which has great tinctorial qualities). When dry this is laid, inked side down, on the pad and subjected to moderate and uniform pressure for a few minutes. It may then be removed, when a copy of the original will be found on the pad which has absorbed a large quantity of the ink. The blank sheets are laid one by one on the pad, subjected to moderate pressure over the whole surface with a wooden or rubber roller, or with the hand, and lifted off by taking hold of the corners and stripping them gently with an even movement. If this is done too quickly the composition may be torn. Each succeeding copy thus made will be a little fainter than its predecessor. From 40 to 60 legible copies may be made. When the operation is finished the surface of the pad should be gone over gently with a wet sponge and the remaining ink soaked out. The superfluous moisture is then carefully wiped off, when the pad will be ready for another operation.


The pad or hectograph is essentially a mixture of glue (gelatin) and glycerine. This mixture has the property of remaining soft yet firm for a long time and of absorbing and holding certain coloring matters in such a way as to give them up slowly or in layers, so to speak, on pressure.


Such a pad may be made by melting together 1 part of glue, 2 parts of water and 4 parts of glycerine (all by weight, of course), evaporating some of the water and tempering the mixture with more glue or glycerine if the season or climate require. The mass when of proper consistency, which can be ascertained by cooling a small portion, is poured into a shallow pan and allowed to set. Clean glue must be used or the mixture strained; and air bubbles should be removed by skimming the surface with a piece of card-board or similar appliance.


Variations of this formula have been proposed, some of which are appended:



Glycerine                           12 ounces

Gelatin                             2 ounces

Water                               7 1/2 ounces

Sugar                               2 ounces



Water                               10 ounces

Dextrin                             1 1/2 ounces

Sugar                               2 ounces

Gelatin                             15 ounces

Glycerine                           15 ounces

Zinc oxide                          1 1/2 ounces



Gelatin                             10 ounces

Water                               40 ounces

Glycerine                           120 ounces

Barium sulphate                     8 ounces


The Tokacs patent composition, besides the usual ingredients, such as gelatin, glycerine, sugar, and gum, contains soap, and can therefore be washed off much easier for new use. The smoothness of the surface is also increased, without showing more sticking capacity with the first impressions.


Hectograph Inks (see also Inks). The writing to be copied by means of the hectograph is done on good paper with an aniline ink. Formulas for suitable ones are appended. It is said that more copies can be obtained from writing with the purple ink than with other kinds:









Methyl violet                 2 parts

Alcohol                       2 parts

Sugar                         1 part

Glycerine                     4 parts

Water                         24 parts


Dissolve the violet in the alcohol mixed with the glycerine; dissolve the sugar in the water; mix both solutions.


II.   A good purple hectograph ink is made as follows: Dissolve 1 part methyl violet in 8 parts of water and add 1 part of glycerine. Gently warm the solution for an hour, and add, when cool, 1/4 part alcohol. Or take methyl violet, 1 part; water, 7 parts; and glycerine, 2 parts.




Methyl violet                 10 parts

Nigrosin                      20 parts

Glycerine                     30 parts

Gum arabic                    5 parts

Alcohol                       60 parts




Resorcin blue M               10 parts

Dilute acetic acid            1 part

Water                         85 parts

Glycerine                     4 parts

Alcohol                       10 parts


Dissolve by heat.




Fuchsin                       10 parts

Alcohol                       10 parts

Glycerine                     10 parts

Water                         50 parts




Aniline green, water soluble 15 parts

Glycerine                     10 parts

Water                         50 parts

Alcohol                       10 parts


Repairing Hectographs. Instead of remelting the hectograph composition, which is not always successful, it is recommended to pour alcohol over the surface of the cleaned mass and to light it. After solidifying, the surface will be again ready for use.



See Piles.



See Vinegar.



See Leather.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Confectionery.



See Confectionery.



See Cough and Cold Mixtures and Turpentine.




Honey Clarifier. For 3,000 parts of fresh honey, take 875 parts of water, 150 parts of washed, dried, and pulverized charcoal, 70 parts of powdered chalk, and the whites of 3 eggs beaten in 90 parts of water. Put the honey and the chalk in a vessel capable of containing 1/3 more than the mixture and boil for 3 minutes; then introduce the charcoal and stir up the whole. Add the whites of the eggs while continuing to stir, and boil again for 3 minutes. Take from the fire, and after allowing the liquid to cool for a quarter of an hour, filter, and to secure a perfectly clear liquid refilter on flannel.


Detecting Dyed Honey. For the detection of artificial yellow dyestuff in honey, treat the aqueous yellow solution with hydrochloric acid, as well as with ammonia; also extract the dyestuff from the acid or ammoniacal solution by solvents, such as alcohol or ether, or conduct the Arata wool test in the following manner: Dissolve 10 parts of honey in 50 parts of water, mix with 10 parts of a 10 per cent potassium-bisulphate solution and boil the woolen thread in this liquid for 10 minutes.



See Mead.



See Whetstones.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Beverages.



See Essences and Extracts.




Artificial Horn. To prepare artificial horn from compounds of nitrocellulose and casein, by hardening them and removing their odor of camphor, the compounds are steeped in formaldehyde from several hours to as many days,






according to the thickness of the object treated. When the formaldehyde has penetrated through the mass and dissolved the camphor, the object is taken out of the liquid and dried. Both the camphor extracted and the formaldehyde used can be recovered by distillation, and used over again, thus cheapening the operation.


Dehorners or Horn Destroyers. The following are recommended by the Board of Agriculture of Great Britain:


Clip the hair from the top of the horn when the calf is from 2 to 5 days old. Slightly moisten the end of a stick of caustic potash with water or saliva (or moisten the top of the horn bud) and rub the tip of each horn firmly with the potash for about a quarter of a minute, or until a slight impression has been made on the center of the horn. The horns should be treated in this way from 2 to 4 times at intervals of 5 minutes. If, during the interval of 5 minutes after one or more applications, a little blood appears in the center of the horn, it will then only be necessary to give another very slight rubbing with the potash.


The following directions should be carefully observed: The operation is best performed when the calf is under 5 days old, and should not be attempted after the ninth day. When not in use the caustic potash should be kept in a stoppered glass bottle in a dry place, as it rapidly deteriorates when exposed to the air. One man should hold the calf while an assistant uses the caustic. Roll a piece of tin foil or brown paper round the end of the stick of caustic potash, which is held by the fingers, so as not to injure the hand of the operator. Do not moisten the stick too much, or the caustic may spread to the skin around the horn and destroy the flesh. For the same reason keep the calf from getting wet for some days after the operation. Be careful to rub on the center of the horn and not around the side of it.


Staining Horns. A brown stain is given to horns by covering them first with an aqueous solution of potassium ferrocyanide, drying them, and then treating with a hot dilute solution of copper sulphate. A black stain can be produced in the following manner:


After having finely sandpapered the horns, dissolve 50 to 60 grains of nitrate of silver in 1 ounce of distilled water. It will be colorless. Dip a small brush in, and paint the horns where they are to be black. When dry, put them where the sun can shine on them, and you will find that they will turn jet black, and may then be polished.


To Soften Horn. Lay the horn for 10 days in a solution of water, 1 part; nitric acid, 3 parts; wood vinegar, 2 parts; tannin, 5 parts; tartar, 2 parts; and zinc vitriol, 2.5 parts.



See Bone and Ivory.



See Adhesives.



See Veterinary Formulas.


Household Formulas


How to Lay Galvanized Iron Roofing. The use of galvanized iron for general roofing work has increased greatly during the past few years. It has many features which commend it as a roofing material, but difficulties have been experienced by beginners as to the proper method of applying it to the roof. The weight of material used is rather heavy to permit of double seaming, but a method has been evolved that is satisfactory. Galvanized iron roofing can be put on at low cost, so as to be water-tight and free from buckling at the joints. The method does away with double seaming, and is considered more suitable than the latter for roofing purposes wherever it can be laid on a roof steeper than 1 to 12.


Galvanized iron of No. 28 and heavier gauges is used, the sheets being lapseamed and soldered together in strips in the shop the proper length to apply to the roof. After the sheets are fastened together a 1 1/4 inch edge is turned up the entire length of one side of the sheet, as indicated in Fig. 1. This operation is



done with tongs having gauge pins set at the proper point. The second oper-






ation consists in turning a strip 1/4 inch wide toward the sheet, as shown in Fig. 2. This sheet is then laid on the roof, and a cleat about 8 inches long and 1 inch wide, made of galvanized iron, is nailed to the roof close to the sheet and bent over it, as shown in Fig. 3.


A second sheet having 1 1/2 inches turned up is now brought against the first sheet and bent over both sheet and cleat, as shown in Fig. 4. The cleat is then bent backward over the second sheet and cut off close to the roof, as in Fig. 5, after which the seams are drawn together by double seaming tools, as the occasion demands, and slightly hammered with a wooden mallet. The finished seam is shown in Fig. 6. It will be seen that the second sheet of galvanized iron, cut 1/4 inch longer than the first, laps over the former, making a sort of bead which prevents water from driving in. Cleats hold both sheets firmly to the roof and are nailed about 12 inches apart. Roofs of this character, when laid with No. 28 gauge iron, cost very little more than the cheaper grades of tin, and do not have to be painted.


Applications for Prickly Heat. Many applications for this extremely annoying form of urticaria have been suggested and their efficacy strongly urged by the various correspondents of the medical press who propose them, but none of them seem to be generally efficacious.

Thus, sodium bicarbonate in strong, aqueous solution, has long been a domestic remedy in general use, but it fails probably as often as it succeeds. A weak solution of copper sulphate has also been highly extolled, only to disappoint a very large proportion of those who resort to it. And so we might go on citing remedies which may sometimes give relief, but fail in the large proportion of cases. In this trouble, as in almost every other, the idiosyncrasies of the patient play a great part in the effects produced by any remedy. It is caused, primarily by congestion of the capillary vessels of the skin, and anything that tends to relieve this congestion will give relief, at least temporarily. Among the newer suggestions are the following:


Alcohol                             333 parts

Ether                               333 parts

Chloroform                          333 parts

Menthol                             1 part


Mix.  Directions: Apply occasionally with a sponge.


Among those things which at least assist one in bearing the affliction is frequent change of underwear. The undergarments worn during the day should never be worn at night. Scratching or rubbing should be avoided where possible. Avoid stimulating food and drinks, especially alcohol, and by all means keep the bowels in a soluble condition.


Cleaning and Polishing Linoleum. Wash the linoleum with a mixture of equal parts of milk and water, wipe dry, and rub in the following mixture by means of a cloth rag: Yellow wax, 5 parts; turpentine oil, 11 parts; varnish, 5 parts. As a glazing agent, a solution of a little yellow wax in turpentine oil is also recommended. Other polishing agents are:


I.    Palm oil, 1 part; paraffine, 18; kerosene, 4.


II.   Yellow wax, 1 part; carnauba wax, 2; turpentine oil, 10; benzine, 5.


Lavatory Deodorant.


Sodium bicarbonate                  5 ounces

Alum                                5 1/2 ounces

Potassium bromide                   4 ounces

Hydrochloric acid                   enough.

Water                               enough to make 4 pints.


To 3 parts of boiling water add the alum and then the bicarbonate. Introduce enough hydrochloric acid to dissolve the precipitate of aluminum hydrate which forms and then add the potassium bromide. Add enough water to bring the measure of the finished product up to 4 pints.


Removal of Odors from Wooden Boxes, Chests, Drawers, etc. This is done by varnishing them with a solution of shellac, after the following manner: Make a solution of shellac, 1,000 parts; alcohol, 90 per cent to 95 per cent, 1,000 parts; boric acid, 50 parts; castor oil, 50 parts. The shellac is first dissolved in the alcohol and the acid and oil added afterwards. For the first coating use 1 part of the solution cut with from 1 to 2 parts of alcohol, according to the porosity of the wood the more porous the less necessity for cutting. When the first coat is absorbed and dried in, repeat the application, if the wood is very porous, with the diluted shellac, but if of hard, dense wood, the final coating may be now put on, using the solution without addition of alcohol. If desired, the solution may be colored with any of the alcohol soluble aniline colors. The shellac solution, by the way, may be applied to the outside of chests, etc., and finished off after the fashion of "French polish."






When used this way, a prior application of 2 coats of linseed oil is advisable.


Stencil Marking Ink that will Wash Out. Triturate together 1 part of fine soot and 2 parts of Prussian blue, with a little glycerine; then add 3 parts of gum arabic and enough glycerine to form a thin paste.


Washing Fluid. Take 1 pound sal soda, 1/2 pound good stone lime, and 5 quarts of water; boil a short time, let it settle, and pour off the clear fluid into a stone jug, and cork for use; soak the white clothes overnight in simple water, wring out and soap wristbands, collars, and dirty or stained places. Have the boiler half filled with water just beginning to boil, then put in 1 common teacupful of fluid, stir and put in your clothes, and boil for half an hour, then rub lightly through one suds only, and all is complete.


Starch Luster. A portion of stearine, the size of an old-fashioned cent, added to starch, 1/2 pound, and boiled with it for 2 or 3 minutes, will add greatly to the beauty of linen, to which it may be applied.


To Make Loose Nails in Walls Rigid. As soon as a nail driven in the wall becomes loose and the plastering begins to break, it can be made solid and firm by the following process: Saturate a bit of wadding with thick dextrin or glue; wrap as much of it around the nail as possible and reinsert the latter in the hole, pressing it home as strongly as possible. Remove the excess of glue or dextrin, wiping it cleanly off with a rag dipped in clean water; then let dry. The nail will then be firmly fastened in place. If the loose plastering be touched with the glue and replaced, it will adhere and remain firm.


How to Keep Lamp Burners in Order. In the combustion of coal oil a carbonaceous residue is left, which attaches itself very firmly to the metal along the edge of the burner next the flame. This is especially true of round burners, where the heat of the flame is more intense than in flat ones, and the deposit of carbon, where not frequently removed, soon gets sufficiently heavy to interfere seriously with the movement of the wick up or down. The deposit may be scraped off with a knife blade, but a much more satisfactory process of getting rid of it is as follows: Dissolve sodium carbonate, 1 part, in 5 or 6 parts of water, and in this boil the burner for 5 minutes or so. When taken out the burner will look like a new one, and acts like one, provided that the apparatus for raising and lowering the wick has not previously been bent and twisted by attempting to force the wick past rough



To Remove the Odor from Pasteboard. Draw the pasteboard through a 3 per cent solution of viscose in water. The pasteboard must be calendered after drying.


To Remove Woody Odor. To get rid cf that frequently disagreeable smell in old chests, drawers, etc., paint the surface over with the following mixture:


Acetic ether                        100 parts

Formaldehyde                        6 parts

Acid, carbolic                      4 parts

Tincture of eucalyptus leaves       60 parts


Mix.  After applying the mixture expose the article to the open air in the sunlight.


To Keep Flies Out of a House. Never allow a speck of food to remain uncovered in dining room or pantry any length of time after meals. Never leave remnants of food exposed that you intend for cat or hens. Feed at once or cover their food up a distance from the house. Let nothing decay near the house. Keep your dining room and pantry windows open a few inches most of the time. Darken your room and pantry when not in use. If there should be any flies they will go to the window when the room is darkened, where they are easily caught, killed, or brushed out.


An Easy Way to Wash a Heavy Comfortable. Examine the comfortable, and if you find soiled spots soap them and scrub with a small brush. Hang the comfortable on a strong line and turn the hose on. When one side is washed turn and wash the other. The water forces its way through cotton and covering, making the comfortable as light and fluffy as when new. Squeeze the corners and ends as dry as possible.


Preservation of Carpets. Lay sheets of brown paper under the carpet. This gives a soft feeling to the foot, and by diminishing the wear adds longer life to the carpet; at the same time it tends to keep away the air and renders the apartments warm.


To Do Away with Wiping Dishes. Make a rack by putting a shelf over the kitchen sink, slanting it so that the water






will drain off into the sink. Put a lattice railing about 6 inches high at the front and ends of the shelf so that dishes can be set against it on their edges without falling out. Have 2 pans of hot water. Wash the dishes in one and rinse them in the other. Set them on edge in the rack and leave until dry.


A Convenient Table.


Ten common-sized eggs weigh 1 pound.


Soft butter, the size of an egg, weighs 1 ounce.


One pint of coffee and of sugar weighs 12 ounces.


One quart of sifted flour (well heaped) weighs 1 pound.


One pint of best brown sugar weighs 12 ounces.


How to Make a Cellar Waterproof. The old wall surface should be roughened and perfectly cleaned before plastering is commenced. It may be advisable to put the first coat on not thicker than 1/4 inch, and after this has set it may be cut and roughened by a pointing trowel. Then apply a second 1/4 inch coat and finish this to an even and smooth surface. Proportion of plaster: One-half part slaked lime, 1 part Portland cement, part fine, sharp sand, to be mixed well and applied instantly.


Removing Old Wall Paper. Some paper hangers remove old paper from walls by first dampening it with water in which a little baking soda has been dissolved, the surface being then gone over with a "scraper" or other tool. However, the principle object of any method is to soften the old paste. This may be readily accomplished by first wetting a section of the old paper with cold or tepid water, using a brush, repeating the wetting until the paper and paste are soaked through, when the paper may easily be pulled off, or, if too tender, may be scraped with any instrument of a chisel form shoved between the paper and the wall. The wall should then be washed with clean water, this operation being materially assisted by wetting the wall ahead of the washing.


Stained Ceilings. Take unslaked white lime, dilute with alcohol, and paint the spots with it. When the spots are dry which will be soon, as the alcohol evaporates and the lime forms a sort of insulating layer one can proceed painting with size color, and the spots will not show through again.


To Overcome Odors in Freshly Papered Rooms. After the windows and doors of such rooms have been closed, bring in red-hot coal and strew on this several handfuls of juniper berries. About 12 hours later open all windows and doors, so as to admit fresh air, and it will be found that the bad smell has entirely disappeared.


Treatment of Damp Walls.


I.    A good and simple remedy to obviate this evil is caoutchouc glue, which is prepared from rubber hose. The walls to be laid dry are first to be thoroughly cleaned by brushing and rubbing off; then the caoutchouc size, which has been previously made liquid by heating, is applied with a broad brush in a uniform layer about 8 to 12 inches higher than the wall appears damp and finally paper is pasted over the glue when the latter is still sticky. The paper will at once adhere very firmly. Or else, apply the liquefied glue in a uniform layer upon paper (wall paper, caoutchouc paper, etc.). Upon this, size paint may be applied, or it may be covered with wall paper or plaster.


If the caoutchouc size is put on with the necessary care i.e., if all damp spots are covered with it the wall is laid dry for the future, and no peeling off of the paint or the wall paper needs to be apprehended. In cellars, protection from dampness can be had in a like manner, as the caoutchouc glue adheres equally well to all surfaces, whether stone, glass, metal, or wood.


II.   The walls must be well cleaned before painting. If the plaster should be worn and permeated with saltpeter in places it should be renewed and smoothed. These clean surfaces are coated twice with a water-glass solution, 1.1, using a brush and allowed to dry well. Then they are painted 3 times with the following mixture: Dissolve 100 parts, by weight, of mastic in 10 parts of absolute alcohol; pour 1,000 parts of water over 200 parts of isinglass; allow to soak for 6 hours; heat to solution and add 100 parts of alcohol (50 per cent). Into this mixture pour a hot solution of 50 parts of ammonia in 250 parts of alcohol (50 per cent), stir well, and subsequently add the mastic solution and stand aside warm, stirring diligently. After 5 minutes take away from the fire and painting may be commenced. Before a fresh application, however, the solution should be removed.


When this coating has dried completely it is covered with oil or varnish paint, preferably the latter. In the same manner the exudation of so-called saltpeter


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