The Science Notebook
Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

Home  Terms of Use  Safety  Contact Us  Experiment Pages  Downloads  Supplies  Useful Links!

Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 401-425

 

[401]

 

HOUSEHOLD FORMULAS - HYDROMETER

 

in fresh masonry or on the exterior of facades, etc., may be prevented, size paint or lime paint being employed instead of the oil-varnish paint. New walls which are to be painted will give off no more saltpeter after 2 or 3 applications of the isinglass solution, so that the colors of the wall paper will not be injured either. Stains caused by smoke, soot, etc., on ceilings of rooms, kitchens, or corridors which are difficult to cover up with size paint, may also be completely isolated by applying the warm isinglass solution 2 or 3 times. The size paint is, of course, put on only after complete drying of the ceilings.

 

To Protect Papered Walls from Vermin. It is not infrequent that when the wall paper becomes defective or loose in papered rooms, vermin, bed bugs, ants, etc., will breed behind it. In order to prevent this evil a little colocynth powder should be added to the paste used for hanging the paper, in the proportion of 50 or 60 parts for 3,000 parts.

 

Care of Refrigerators. See that the sides or walls of all refrigerators are occasionally scoured with soap, or soap and slaked lime.

 

Dust Preventers. Against the beneficial effects to be observed in the use of most preparations we must place the following bad effects: The great smoothness and slipperiness of the boards during the first few days after every application of the dressing, which forbids the use of the latter on steps, floors of gymnasia, dancing floors, etc. The fact that the oil or grease penetrates the soles of the boots or shoes, the hems of ladies' dresses, and things accidentally falling to the floor are soiled and spotted. Besides these there is, especially during the first few days after application, the dirty dark coloration which the boards take on after protracted use of the oils. Finally, there is the considerable cost of any process, especially for smaller rooms and apartments. In schoolrooms and railroad waiting rooms and other places much frequented by children and others wearing shoes set with iron, the boards soon become smooth from wear, and for such places the process is not suited.

 

According to other sources of information, these evil tendencies of the application vanish altogether, or are reduced to a minimum, if (1) entirely fresh, or at least, not rancid oils be used; (2) if, after each oiling, a few days be allowed to elapse before using the chamber or hall, and finally (3), if resort is not had to costly foreign special preparations, but German goods, procurable at wholesale in any quantity, and at very low figures.

 

The last advice (to use low-priced preparations) seems sensible since according to recent experiments, none of the oils experimented upon possess any especial advantages over the others.

 

An overwhelming majority of the laboratories for examination have given a verdict in favor of oil as a dust-suppressing application for floors, and have expressed a desire to see it in universal use. The following is a suggestion put forth for the use of various preparations:

 

This dust-absorbing agent has for its object to take up the dust in sweeping floors, etc., and to prevent its development. The production is as follows: Mix in an intimate manner 12 parts, by weight, of mineral sperm oil with 88 parts, by weight, of Roman or Portland cement, adding a few drops of mirbane oil. Upon stirring a uniform paste forms at first, which then passes into a greasy, sandy mass. This mass is sprinkled upon the surface to be swept and cleaned of dust, next going over it with a broom or similar object in the customary manner, at which operation the dust will mix with the mass. The preparation can be used repeatedly.

 

HUNYADI WATER:

See Water.

 

HYDROCHINON DEVELOPER:

See Photography.

 

HYDROGEN, AMALGAMS AS A SOURCE OF NASCENT:

See Amalgams.

 

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE AS A PRESERVATIVE:

See Preserving.

 

HYDROMETER AND ITS USE.

 

Fill the tall cylinder or test glass with the spirit to be tested and see that it is of the proper temperature (60º F.). Should the thermometer indicate a higher temperature wrap the cylinder in cloths which have been dipped in cold water until the temperature falls to the required degree. If too low a temperature is indicated, reverse the process, using warm instead of cold applications. When 60º is reached note the specific gravity on the floating hydrometer, have the cylinder filled to the top and look across the top of the liquid at the mark on the hydrometer. This is to preclude an

 


[402]

 

HYGROMETERS - ICE

 

incorrect reading by possible refraction in the glass cylinder.

 

HYGROMETERS AND HYGROSCOPES:

 

Paper Hygrometers. Paper hygrometers are made by saturating white blotting paper with the following liquid and then hanging up to dry:

 

Cobalt chloride                     1 ounce

Sodium chloride                     1/2 ounce

Calcium chloride                    75 grains

Acacia                              1/4 ounce

Water                               3 ounces

 

The amount of moisture in the atmosphere is roughly indicated by the changing color of the papers, as follows:

 

Rose red                            rain

Pale red                            very moist

Bluish red                          moist

Lavender blue                       nearly dry

Blue                                very dry

 

Colored Hygroscopes. These instruments are often composed of a flower or a figure, of light muslin or paper, immersed in one of the following solutions:

 

I.   

Cobalt chloride                     1 part

Gelatin                             10 parts

Water                               100 parts

 

The normal coloring is pink; this color changes into violet in medium humid weather and into blue in very dry weather.

 

II.  

Cupric chloride                     1 part

Gelatin                             10 parts

Water                               100 parts

 

The color is yellow in dry weather.

 

III. 

Cobalt chloride                     1 part

Gelatin                             20 parts

Nickel oxide                        75 parts

Cupric chloride                     25 parts

Water                               200 parts

 

The color is green in dry weather.

 

HYOSCYAMUS, ANTIDOTE TO:

See Atropine.

 

ICE:

See also Refrigeration.

 

Measuring the Weight of Ice. A close estimate of the weight of ice can be reached by multiplying together the length, breadth, and thickness of the block in inches, and dividing the product by 30. This will be very closely the weight in pounds. Thus, if a block is 10x10x9, the product is 900, and this divided by 30 gives 30 pounds as correct weight. A block 10x10x6 weighs 20 pounds. This simple method can be easily applied, and it may serve to remove unjust suspicions, or to detect short weight.

 

To Keep Ice in Small Quantities. To keep ice from melting, attention is called to an old preserving method. The ice is cracked with a hammer between 2 layers of a strong cloth. Tie over a common unglazed flowerpot, holding about 2 to 4 quarts and placed upon a porcelain dish, a piece of white flannel in such a manner that it is turned down funnel-like into the interior of the pot without touching the bottom. Placed in this flannel funnel the cracked ice keeps for days.

 

ICE FLOWERS.

 

Make a 2 per cent solution of the best clear gelatin in distilled water, filter, and flood the filtrate over any surface which it is desired to ornament. Drain off slightly, and if the weather is sufficiently cold, put the plate, as nearly level as possible, out into the cold air to freeze. In freezing, water is abstracted from the colloidal portion, which latter then assumes an efflorescent form, little flowers, with exuberant, graceful curves of crystals, showing up as foliage, from all over the surface. To preserve in permanent form all that is necessary is to flood them with absolute alcohol. This treatment removes the ice, thus leaving a lasting framework of gelatin which may be preserved indefinitely. In order to do this, as soon as the gelatin has become quite dry it should be either varnished, flowed with an alcoholic solution of clear shellac, or the gelatin may be rendered insoluble by contact, for a few moments, with a solution of potassium bichromate, and subsequent exposure to sunlight.

 

IMOGEN DEVELOPER:

See Photography.

 

INCENSE:

See Fumigants.

 

INCRUSTATION, PREVENTION OF;

See Boiler Compounds.

 

INDIGO:

See Dyes.

 

INFANT FOODS:

See Foods.

 

INFLUENZA IN CATTLE:

See Veterinary Formulas

 


[403]

 

IGNITING COMPOSITION - INKS

 

INK ERADICATORS:

See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

 

IGNITING COMPOSITION.

 

Eight parts of powdered manganese, 10 parts of amorphous phosphorus, and 5 parts of glue. The glue is soaked in water, dissolved in the heat, and the manganese and the phosphorus stirred in, so that a thinly liquid paste results, which is applied by means of a brush. Allow to dry well. This, being free from sulphur, can be applied on match-boxes.

 

Inks

 

BLUEPRINT INKS.

 

I.    For red-writing fluids for blueprints, take a piece of common washing soda the size of an ordinary bean, and dissolve it in 4 tablespoonfuls of ordinary red-writing ink, to make a red fluid.

To keep it from spreading too much, use a fine pen to apply it with, and write fast so as not to allow too much of the fluid to get on the paper, for it will continue eating until it is dry.

 

II.   For red and white solutions for writing on blueprints, dissolve a crystal of oxalate of potash about the size of a pea in an ink-bottle full of water. This will give white lines on blueprints; other potash solutions are yellowish. If this shows a tendency to run, owing to too great strength, add more water and thicken slightly with mucilage. Mix this with red or any other colored ink about half and half, and writing may be done on the blueprints in colors corresponding to the inks used.

 

III.  Add to a small bottle of water enough washing soda to make a clear white line, then add enough gum arabic to it to prevent spreading and making ragged lines. To make red lines dip the pen in red ink and then add a little of the solution by means of the quill.

 

IV.   For white ink, grind zinc oxide fine on marble and incorporate with it a mucilage made with gum tragacanth. Thin a little for use. Add a little oil of cloves to prevent mold, and shake from time to time.

 

V.    A fluid which is as good as any for writing white on blueprints is made of equal parts of sal soda and water.

 

VI.   Mix equal parts of borax and water.

 

Both these fluids, V and VI, must be used with a fine-pointed pen; a pen with a, blunt point will not work well.

 

DRAWING INKS:

 

Blue Ruling Ink. Good vitriol, 4 ounces; indigo, 1 ounce. Pulverize the indigo, add it to the vitriol, and let it stand exposed to the air for 6 days, or until dissolved; then fill the pots with chalk, add fresh gall, 1/2 gill, boiling it before use.

 

Black Ruling Ink. Take good black ink, and add gall as for blue. Do not

cork it, as this prevents it from turning black.

 

Carbon Ink. Dissolve real India ink in common black ink, or add a small quantity of lampblack previously heated to redness, and ground perfectly smooth, with a small portion of the ink.

 

Carmine. The ordinary solution of carmine in ammonia water, after a short time in contact with steel, becomes blackish red, but an ink may be made that will retain its brilliant carmine color to the last by the following process, given by Dingier: Triturate 1 part of pure carmine with 15 parts of acetate of ammonia solution, with an equal quantity of distilled water in a porcelain mortar, and allow the whole to stand for some time. In this way, a portion of the alumina, which is combined with the carmine dye, is taken up by the acetic acid of the ammonia salt, and separates as a precipitate, while the pure pigment of the cochineal remains dissolved in the half saturated ammonia. It is now filtered and a few drops of pure white sugar syrup added to thicken it. A solution of gum arabic cannot be used to thicken it, since the ink still contains some acetic acid, which would coagulate the bassorine, one of the constituents of the gum.

 

Liquid Indelible Drawing Ink. Dissolve, by boiling, 2 parts of blond (golden yellow) shellac in 1.6 parts, by weight, of sal ammoniac, 16º, with 10 parts, by weight, of distilled water, and filter the solution through a woolen cloth. Now dissolve or grind 0.5 parts, by weight, of shellac solution with 0.01 part, by weight, of carbon black. Also dissolve .03 parts of nigrosin in 0.4 parts of distilled water and pour both solutions together. The mixture is allowed to settle for 2 days and the ready ink is drawn off from the sediment.

 

GLASS, CELLULOID, AND METAL INKS:

See also Etching.

 

Most inks for glass will also write on celluloid and the metals. The following

 


[404]

 

INKS

 

I and II are the most widely known recipes:

 

I.    In 500 parts of water dissolve 36 parts of sodium fluoride and 7 parts of sodium sulphate. In another vessel dissolve in the same amount of water 14 parts of zinc chloride and to the solution add 56 parts of concentrated hydrochloric acid. To use, mix equal volumes of the two solutions and add a little India ink; or, in the absence of this, rub up a little lampblack with it. It is scarcely necessary to say that the mixture should not be put in glass containers, unless they are well coated internally with paraffine, wax, gutta-percha, or some similar material. To avoid the inconvenience of keeping the solutions in separate bottles, mix them and preserve in a rubber bottle. A quill pen is best to use in writing with this preparation, but metallic pens may be used, if quite clean and new.

 

II.   In 150 parts of alcohol dissolve 20 parts of rosin, and add to this, drop by drop, stirring continuously, a solution of 35 parts of borax in 250 parts of water. This being accomplished, dissolve in the solution sufficient methylene blue to give it the desired tint.

 

Ink for Writing on Glazed Cardboard. The following are especially recommended for use on celluloid:

 

I.    Dissolve 4 drachms of brown shellac in 4 ounces of alcohol. Dissolve

7 drachms of borax in 6 ounces of distilled water. Pour the first solution slowly into the second and carefully mix them, after which add 12 grains of aniline dye of the desired color. Violet, blue, green, red, yellow, orange, or black aniline dyes can be used.

 

Such inks may be used for writing on bottles, and the glass may be cleaned with water without the inscription being impaired.

 

II.  

Ferric chloride                     10 parts

Tannin                              15 parts

Acetone                             100 parts

 

Dissolve the ferric chloride in a portion of the acetone and the tannin in the residue, and mix the solutions.

 

III.  Dissolve a tar dyestuff of the desired color in anhydrous acetic acid.

 

Indelible Inks for Glass or Metal. Schobel recommends the following inks for marking articles of glass, glass slips for microscopy, reagent flasks, etc., in black:

 

I.   

Sodium silicate                     1 to 2 parts

Liquid India ink                    1 part

 

For white:

 

II.  

Sodium water glass                  3 to 4 parts

Chinese white                       1 part

 

Instead of Chinese white, a sufficient amount of the so-called permanent white (barium sulphate) may be used. The containers for these inks should be kept air-tight. The writing in either case is not attacked by any reagent used in microscopical technique but may be readily scraped away with a knife. The slips or other articles should be as near chemically clean as possible, before attempting to write on them.

 

According to Schuh, a mixture of a shellac solution and whiting or precipitated chalk answers very well for marking glass. Any color may be mixed with the chalk. If the glass is thoroughly cleaned with alcohol or ether, either a quill pen or a camel's-hair pencil (or a fresh, clean steel pen) may be used.

 

Ink on Marble. Ink marks on marble may be removed with a paste made by dissolving an ounce of oxalic acid and half an ounce of butter of antimony in a pint of rain water, and adding sufficient flour to form a thin paste. Apply this to the stains with a brush; allow it to remain on 3 or 4 days and then wash it off. Make a second application, if necessary.

 

Perpetual Ink.

 

I.    Pitch, 3 pounds; melt over the fire, and add of lampblack, 3/4 pound; mix well.

 

II.   Trinidad asphaltum and oil of turpentine, equal parts. Used in a

melted state to fill in the letters on tombstones, marbles, etc. Without actual violence, it will endure as long as the stone itself.

 

Ink for Steel Tools. Have a rubber stamp made with white letters on a black ground. Make up an ink to use with this stamp, as follows:

 

Ordinary rosin, 1/2 pound; lard oil, 1 tablespoonful; lampblack, 2 tablespoonfuls; turpentine, 2 tablespoonfuls. Melt the rosin, and stir in the other ingredients in the order given. When the ink is cold it should look like ordinary printers' ink. Spread a little of this ink over the pad and ink the rubber stamp as usual, and press it on the clean steel saw blade, for instance. Have a rope of soft putty, and make a border of putty around the stamped design as close up to the lettering as possible, so that no portion of the steel inside the ring of putty is exposed but the lettering. Then pour into the putty ring the etching mixture, composed of 1 ounce of nitric acid, 1 ounce of muri-

 


[405]

 

INKS

 

atic acid, and 12 ounces of water. Allow it to rest for only a minute, draw off the acid with a glass or rubber syringe, and soak up the last trace of acid with a moist sponge. Take off the putty, and wipe off the design with potash solution first, and then with turpentine, and the job is done.

 

Writing on Ivory, Glass, etc. Nitrate of silver, 3 parts; gum arabic, 20 parts; distilled water, 30 parts. Dissolve the gum arabic in two-thirds of the water, and the nitrate of silver in the other third. Mix and add the desired color.

 

Writing on Zinc (see also Horticultural Inks). Take 1 part sulphate of copper (copper vitriol), 1 part chloride of potassium, both dissolved in 35 parts water. With this blue liquid, writing or drawing may be done with a common steel pen upon zinc which has been polished bright with emery paper. After the writing is done the plates are put in water and left in it for some time, then taken out and dried. The writing will remain intact as long as the zinc. If the writing or drawing should be brown, 1 part sulphate of iron (green vitriol) is added to the above solution. The chemicals are dissolved in warm water and the latter must be cold before it can be used.

 

GOLD INK.

 

I.    The best gold ink is made by rubbing up gold leaf as thoroughly as possible with a little honey. The honey is then washed away with water, and the finely powdered gold leaf left is mixed to the consistency of a writing ink with weak gum water. Everything depends upon the fineness of the gold powder, i.e, upon the diligence with which it has been worked with the honey. Precipitated gold is finer than can be got by any rubing, but its color is wrong, being dark, brown. The above gold ink should be used with a quill pen.

 

II.   An imitation gold or bronze ink is composed by grinding 1,000 parts of powdered bronze of handsome color with a varnish prepared by boiling together 500 parts of nut oil, 200 parts of garlic, 500 parts of cocoanut oil, 100 parts of Naples yellow, and as much of sienna.

 

HORTICULTURAL INK.

 

I.    Chlorate of platinum, 1/4 ounce; soft water, 1 pint. Dissolve and preserve it in glass. Used with a clean quill to write on zinc labels. It almost immediately turns black, and cannot be removed by washing. The addition of gum and lampblack, as recommended in certain books, is unnecessary, and even prejudicial to the quality of the ink.

 

II.   Verdigris and sal ammoniac, of each 1/2 ounce; levigated lampblack, 1/2 ounce; common vinegar, 1/4 pint; mix thoroughly. Used as the last, for either zinc, iron, or steel.

 

III.  Blue vitriol, 1 ounce; sal ammoniac, 1/2 ounce (both in powder); vinegar, 1/4 pint; dissolve. A little lampblack or vermilion may be added, but it is not necessary. Use No. I, for iron, tin, or steel plate.

 

INDELIBLE INKS.

 

These are also frequently called waterproof, incorrodible, or indestructible inks. They are employed for writing labels on bottles containing strong acids and alkaline solutions. They may be employed with stamps, types or stencil plates, by which greater neatness will be secured than can be obtained with either a brush or pen.

 

The following is a superior preparation for laundry use:

 

Aniline oil                         85 parts

Potassium chlorate                  5 parts

Distilled water                     44 parts

Hydrochloric acid, pure

(specific gravity, 1.124)           68 parts

Copper chloride, pure               6 parts

 

Mix the aniline oil, potassium chlorate, and 26 parts of the water and heat in a capacious vessel, on the water bath, at a temperature of from 175º to 195º F., until the chlorate is entirely dissolved, then add one-half of the hydrochloric and continue the heat until the mixture begins to take on a darker color. Dissolve the copper chloride in the residue of the water, add the remaining hydrochloric acid to the solution, and add the whole to the liquid on the water bath, and heat the mixture until it acquires a fine red-violet color. Pour into a flask with a well-fitting ground-glass stopper, close tightly and set aside for several days, or until it ceases to throw down a precipitate. When this is the case, pour off the clear liquid into smaller (one drachm or a drachm and a half) containers.

 

This ink must be used with a quill pen, and is especially good for linen or cotton fabrics, but does not answer so well for silk or woolen goods. When first used, it appears as a pale red, but on washing with soap or alkalies, or on exposure to

 


[406]

 

INKS

 

the air, becomes a deep, dead black. The following is a modification of the foregoing:

 

Blue Indelible Ink. This ink has the reputation of resisting not only water and oil, but alcohol, oxalic acid, alkalies, the chlorides, etc. It is prepared as follows: Dissolve 4 parts of gum lac in 36 parts of boiling water carrying 2 parts of borax.      Filter and set aside. Now dissolve 2 parts of gum arabic in 4 parts of water and add the solution to the filtrate. Finally, after the solution is quite cold, add 2 parts of powdered indigo and dissolve by agitation. Let stand for several hours, then decant, and put in small bottles.

 

Red Indelible Inks. By proceeding according to the following formula, an intense purple-red color may be produced on fabrics, which is indelible in the customary sense of the word:

 

1.

Sodium carbonate                    3 drachms

Gum arabic                          3 drachms

Water                               12 drachms

 

2.

Platinic chloride                   1 drachm

Distilled water                     2 ounces

 

3.

Stannous chloride                   1 drachm

Distilled water                     4 drachms

 

Moisten the place to be written upon with No. 1 and rub a warm iron over it until dry; then write with No. 2, and, when dry, moisten with No. 3. An intense and beautiful purple-red color is produced in this way. A very rich purple color the purple of Cassius may be produced by substituting a solution of gold chloride for the platinic chloride in the above formula.

 

Crimson Indelible Ink.

 

The following formula makes an indelible crimson ink:

 

Silver nitrate                      50 parts

Sodium carbonate, crystal           75 parts

Tartaric acid                       16 parts

Carmine                             1 part

Ammonia water, strongest            288 parts

Sugar, white, crystallized          36 parts

Gum arabic, powdered                60 parts

Distilled water,                    quantity sufficient to make 400 parts

 

Dissolve the silver nitrate and the sodium carbonate separately, each in a portion of the distilled water, mix the solutions, collect the precipitate on a filter, wash, and put the washed precipitate, still moist, into a mortar. To this add the tartaric acid, and rub together until effervescence ceases. Now, dissolve the carmine in the ammonia water (which latter should be of specific gravity .882, or contain 34 per cent of ammonia), filter, and add the filtrate to the silver tartrate magma in the mortar. Add the sugar and gum arabic, rub up together, and add gradually, with constant agitation, sufficient distilled water to make 400 parts.

 

Gold Indelible Ink. Make two solutions as follows:

 

1.

Chloride of gold and sodium         1 part

Water                               10 parts

Gum                                 2 parts

 

2.

Oxalic acid                         1 part

Water                               5 parts

Gum                                 2 parts

 

The cloth or stuff to be written on should be moistened with liquid No. 2. Let dry, and then write upon the prepared place with liquid No. 1, using preferably a quill pen. Pass a hot iron over the mark, pressing heavily.

 

INDIA, CHINA, OR JAPAN INK.

 

Ink by these names is based on lampblack, and prepared in various ways.

Many makes flow less easily from the pen than other inks, and are less durable than ink that writes paler and afterwards turns black. The ink is usually unfitted for steel pens, but applies well with a brush.

 

I.    Lampblack (finest) is ground to a paste with very weak liquor of

potassa, and this paste is then diffused through water slightly alkalized with potassa, after which it is collected, washed with clean water, and dried; the dry powder is next levigated to a smooth, stiff paste, with a strong filtered decoction of carrageen or Irish moss, or of quince seed, a few drops of essence of musk, and about half as much essence of ambergris being added, by way of perfume, toward the end of the process; the mass is, lastly, molded into cakes, which are ornamented with Chinese characters and devices, as soon as they are dry and hard.

 

II.   A weak solution of fine gelatin is boiled at a high temperature in a digester for 2 hours, and then in an open vessel for 1 hour more. The liquid is next filtered and evaporated to a proper consistency, either in a steam- or salt-

 


[407]

 

INKS

 

water bath. It is, lastly, made into a paste, as before, with lampblack which has been previously heated to dull redness in a well-closed crucible. Neither of the above gelatinizes in cold weather, like the ordinary imitations.

 

To Keep India Ink Liquid. If one has to work with the ink for some time, a small piece should be dissolved in warm water and the tenth part of glycerine added, which mixes intimately with the ink after shaking for a short time. India ink thus prepared will keep very well in a corked bottle, and if a black jelly should form in the cold, it is quickly dissolved by heating. The ink flows well from the pen and does not wipe.

 

INK POWDERS AND LOZENGES.

 

Any of these powders may, by the addition of mucilage of gum arabic, be made into lozenges or buttons the "ink buttons" or "ink stones" in use abroad and much affected by travelers.

 

The following makes a good serviceable black ink, on macerating the powder in 100 times its weight of rain or distilled water for a few days:

 

I.   

Powdered gallnuts                   16 parts

Gum arabic                          8 parts

Cloves                              1 part

Iron sulphate                       10 parts

 

Put into an earthenware or glass vessel, cover with 100 parts of rain or distilled water, and set aside for 10 days or 2 weeks, giving an occasional shake the first 3 or 4 days. Decant and bottle for use.

 

The following is ready for use instantly on being dissolved in water:

 

II.  

Aleppo gallnuts                     84 parts

Dutch Madder                        6 parts

 

Powder, mix, moisten, and pack into the percolator. Extract with hot water, filter, and press out. To the filtrate add 4 parts of iron acetate (or pyroacetate) and 2 1/2 parts of tincture of indigo. Put into the water bath and evaporate to dryness and powder the dry residue.

 

LITHOGRAPHIC INKS.

 

These are for writing on lithographic stones or plates:

 

I.    Mastic (in tears), 8 ounces; shellac, 12 ounces; Venice turpentine, 1 ounce. Melt together, add wax, 1 pound; tallow, 6 ounces. When dissolved, add hard tallow soap (in shavings), 6 ounces; and when the whole is perfectly combined, add lampblack, 4 ounces. Mix well, cool a little, and then pour it into molds, or upon a slab, and when cold cut it into square pieces.

 

II.   (Lasteyrie). Dry tallow soap, mastic (in tears), and common soda (in fine powder), of each, 30 parts; shellac, 150 parts; lampblack, 12 parts. Mix as indicated in Formula I.  

 

MARKING OR LABELING INKS:

 

Black Marking Inks.

 

I.   

Borax                               60 parts

Shellac                             180 parts

Boiling water                       1,000 parts

Lampblack,                          a sufficient quantity.

 

Dissolve the borax in the water, add the shellac to the solution and stir until dissolved. Rub up a little lampblack with sufficient of the liquid to form a paste, and add the rest of the solution a little at a time and with constant rubbing. Test, and if not black enough, repeat the operation. To get the best effect a pure jet-black the lampblack should be purified and freed from the calcium phosphate always present in the commercial article to the extent, frequently, of 85 to 87 per cent, by treating with hydrochloric acid and washing with water.

 

II.   An ink that nothing will bleach is made by mixing pyrogallic acid and sulphate of iron in equal parts. Particularly useful for marking labels on bottles containing acids. Varnish the label after the ink is dry so that moisture will not affect it.

 

COLORED MARKING INKS:

 

Eosine Red.

 

Eosine B                            1 drachm

Solution of mercuric chloride       2 drachms

Mucilage of acacia                  2 drachms

Rectified spirit                    4 ounces

Oil of lavender                     1 drop

Distilled water                     8 ounces

 

Dissolve the eosine in the solution and 2 ounces of water, add the mucilage, and mix, then the oil dissolved in the spirit, and finally make up.

 

Orange.

 

Aniline orange                      1 drachm

Sugar                               2 drachms

Distilled water to                  4 ounces

 

Blue.

 

I.   

Resorcin blue                       1 drachm

Distilled water                     6 drachms

 

Mix and agitate occasionally for 2 hours, then add:

 


[408]

 

INKS

 

Hot distilled water                 24 ounces

Oxalic acid                         10 grains

Sugar                               1/2 ounce

 

Shake well. This and other aniline inks can be perfumed by rubbing up a drop of attar of rose with the sugar before dissolving it in the hot water.

 

II.   A solid blue ink, or marking paste, to be used with a brush for stenciling, is made as follows: Shellac, 2 ounces; borax, 2 ounces; water, 25 ounces; gum arabic, 2 ounces; and ultramarine, sufficient. Boil the borax and shellac in some of the water till they are dissolved, and withdraw from the fire. When the solution has become

cold, add the rest of the 25 ounces of water, and the ultramarine. When it is to be used with the stencil, it must be made thicker than when it is to be applied with a marking brush.

 

III.  In a suitable kettle mix well, stirring constantly, 50 parts of liquid logwood extract (80 per cent) with 3 parts of spirit previously mingled with 1 part of hydrochloric acid, maintaining a temperature of 68º F. Dissolve 5 parts of potassium chromate in 15 parts of boiling water; to this add 10 parts of hydrochloric acid, and pour this mixture, after raising the temperature to about 86º F., very slowly and with constant stirring into the kettle. Then heat the whole to 185º F. This mass, which has now assumed the nature of an extract, is stirred, a little longer, and next 15 parts of dextrin mixed with 10 parts of fine white earth (white bole) are added. The whole is well stirred throughout. Transfer the mass from the kettle into a crusher, where it is thoroughly worked through.

 

PRINTING INKS.

 

Black printing inks owe their color to finely divided carbon made from lampblack, pine-wood, rosin oil, etc., according to the quality of the ink desired. The finest inks are made from flame-lampblack. There are, however, certain requirements made of all printing inks alike, and these are as follows: The ink must be a thick and homogeneous liquid, it must contain no solid matter but finely divided carbon, and every drop when examined microscopically must appear as a clear liquid containing black grains uniformly distributed.

 

The consistency of a printing ink must be such that it passes on to the printing rollers at the proper rate. It will be obvious that various consistencies are demanded according to the nature of the machine used by the printer. For a rotary machine which prints many thousands of copies an hour a much thinner ink will be necessary than that required for art printing or for slow presses. As regards color, ordinary printing ink should be a pure black. For economy's sake, however, newspaper printers often use an ink so diluted that it does not look deep black, but a grayish black, especially in large type.

 

The question of the time that the ink takes to dry on the paper is a very important one, especially with ink used for printing newspapers which are folded and piled at one operation. If then the ink does not dry very quickly, the whole impression smudges and "sets off" so much that it becomes illegible in places. Although it is essential to have a quick drying ink for this purpose, it is dangerous to go too far, for a too quickly drying ink would make the paper stick to the forms and tear it. A last condition which must be fulfilled by a good printing ink is that it must be easy of removal from the type, which has to be used again.

 

No one composition will answer every purpose and a number of different inks are required. Makers of printing inks are obliged, therefore, to work from definite recipes so as to be able to turn out exactly the same ink again and again. They make newspaper ink for rotary presses, book-printing inks, half-tone inks, art inks, etc. As the recipes have been attained only by long, laborious, and costly experiments, it is obvious that the makers are not disposed to communicate them, and the recipes that are offered and published must be looked upon with caution, as many of them are of little or no value. In the recipes given below for printing inks, the only intention is to give hints of the general composition, and the practical man will easily discover what, if any, alterations have to be made in the recipe for his special purpose.

 

Many different materials for this manufacture are given in recipes, so many, in fact, that it is impossible to discover what use they are in the ink. The following is a list of the articles commonly in use for the manufacture of printing ink:

 

Boiled linseed oil, boiled without driers.

 

Rosin oil from the dry distillation of rosin.

 

Rosin itself, especially American pine

 


[409]

 

INKS

 

Soap, usually rosin-soap, but occasionally ordinary soap.

 

Lampblack and various other pigments.

 

By the most time-honored method, linseed oil was very slowly heated over an open fire until it ignited. It was allowed to burn for a time and then extinguished by putting a lid on the pot. In this way a liquid was obtained of a dark brown or black color with particles of carbon, and with a consistency varying with the period of heating, being thicker, the longer the heating was continued. If necessary, the liquid was then thinned with unboiled, or only very slightly boiled, linseed oil. Lampblack in the proper quantity was added and the mixture was finally rubbed up on a stone in small quantities at a time to make it uniform.

 

Boiling the Linseed Oil. This process, although it goes by the name of boiling, is not so in the proper sense of the word, but a heating having for its object an initial oxidation of the oil, so that it will dry better. Linseed oil is a type of the drying oils, those which when exposed in thin coats to the air absorb large quantities of oxygen and are thereby converted into tough, solid sheets having properties very similar to those of soft India rubber. The process goes on much faster with the aid of heat than at the ordinary temperature, and the rate at which the boiled oil will dry in the ink can be exactly regulated by heating it for a longer or shorter time. Prolonged heating gives an oil which will dry very quickly on exposure in thin coats to the air, the shorter the heating the more slowly will the ink afterwards made with the oil dry.

 

Linseed oil must always be boiled in vessels where it has plenty of room, as the oil soon swells up and it begins to decompose so energetically at a particular temperature that there is considerable risk of its boiling over and catching fire. Various contrivances have been thought out for boiling large quantities of the oil with safety, such as pans with an outlet pipe in the side, through which the oil escapes when it rises too high instead of over the edge of the pan, and fires built on a trolley running on rails, so that they can at once be moved from under the pan if there is any probability of the fatter boiling over. The best apparatus for preparing thickened linseed oil is undoubtedly one in which the oil offers a very large surface to the air, and on that account requires to be moderately heated only. The oil soon becomes very thick under these conditions and if necessary can be diluted to any required consistency with unboiled oil.

 

In boiling linseed oil down to the proper thickness by the old method there are two points demanding special attention. One is the liability of the oil to boil over, and the other consists in the development of large quantities of vapor, mostly of acroleine, which have a most powerful and disagreeable smell, and an intense action upon the eyes. The attendant must be protected from these fumes, and the boiling must therefore be done where there is a strong draught to take the fumes as fast as they are produced. There are various contrivances to cope with boiling over.

 

Savage's Printing Ink. Pure balsam of copaiba, 9 ounces; lampblack, 3 ounces; indigo and Prussian blue, each 5 drachms; drachms; Indian red, 3/4 ounce; yellow soap, 3 ounces. Mix, and grind to the utmost smoothness.

 

Toning Black Inks. Printers' inks consisting solely of purified lampblack and vehicle give, of course, impressions which are pure black. It is, however, well known that a black which has to a practiced eye a tinge of blue in it looks much better than a pure black. To make such an ink many makers mix the lampblack with a blue pigment, which is added in very fine powder before the first grinding. Prussian blue is the pigment usually chosen and gives very attractive results. Prussian blue is, however, not a remarkable stable substance, and is very apt to turn brown from the formation of ferric oxide. Hence an ink made with Prussian blue, although it may look very fine at first, often assumes a dull brown hue in the course of time. Excellent substitutes for Prussian blue are to be found in the Induline blues. These are very fast dyes, and inks tinted with them do not change color. As pure indigo is now made artificially and sold at a reasonable price, this extremely fast dye can also be used for tinting inks made with purified lampblack.

 

To Give Dark Inks a Bronze or Changeable Hue. Dissolve 1 1/2 pounds

gum shellac in 1 gallon 65 per cent alcohol or cologne spirits for 24 hours. Then add 14 ounces aniline red. Let it stand a few hours longer, when it will be ready for use. Add this to good blue, black, or other dark ink, as needed in quantities to suit, when if carefully done

 


[410]

 

INKS

 

they will be found to have a rich bronze or changeable hue.

 

Quick Dryer for Inks Used on Bookbinders' Cases. Beeswax, 1 ounce; gum arabic (dissolved in sufficient acetic acid to make a thin mucilage), 1/4 ounce; brown japan, 1/4 ounce. Incorporate with 1 pound of good cut ink.

 

INKS FOR STAMP PADS.

 

The ink used on vulcanized rubber stamps should be such that when applied to a suitable pad it remains sufficiently fluid to adhere to the stamp. At the same time the fluidity should cease by the time the stamp is pressed upon an absorbing surface such as paper. Formerly these inks were made by rubbing up pigments in fat to a paste. Such inks can hardly be prevented, however, from making impressions surrounded by a greasy mark caused by the fat spreading in the pores of the paper. Now, most stamping inks are made without grease and a properly prepared stamping ink contains nothing but glycerine and coal-tar dye. As nearly all these dyes dissolve in hot glycerine the process of manufacture is simple enough. The dye, fuchsine, methyl violet, water blue, emerald green, etc., is put into a thin porcelain dish over which concentrated glycerine is poured, and the whole is heated to nearly 212º F. with constant stirring. It is important to use no more glycerine than is necessary to keep the dye dissolved when the ink is cold. If the mass turns gritty on cooling it must be heated up with more glycerine till solution is perfect.

 

In dealing with coal-tar dyes insoluble in glycerine, or nearly so, dissolve them first in the least possible quantity of strong, hot alcohol. Then add the glycerine and heat till the spirit is evaporated.

 

To see whether the ink is properly made spread some of it on a strip of cloth and try it with a rubber stamp. On paper, the separate letters must be quite sharp and distinct. If they run at the edges there is too much glycerine in the ink and more dye must be added to it. If, on the contrary, the impression is indistinct and weak, the ink is too thick and must be diluted by carefully adding glycerine.

 

Aniline colors are usually employed as the tinting agents. The following is a typical formula, the product being a black ink:

 

I.   

Nigrosin                            3 parts

Water                               15 parts

Alcohol                             15 parts

Glycerine                           70 parts

 

Dissolve the nigrosin in the alcohol, add the glycerine previously mixed with the water, and rub well together.

 

Nigrosin is a term applied to several compounds of the same series which differ in solubility. In the place of these compounds it is probable that a mixture would answer to produce black as suggested by Hans Wilder for making writing ink. His formula for the mixture is:

 

II.  

Methyl violet                       3 parts

Bengal green                        5 parts

Bismarck green                      4 parts

 

A quantity of this mixture should be taken equivalent to the amount of nigrosin directed. These colors are freely soluble in water, arid yield a deep greenish-black solution.

 

The aniline compound known as brilliant green answers in place of Bengal green. As to the permanency of color of this or any aniline ink, no guarantee is offered. There are comparatively few coloring substances that can be considered permanent even in a qualified sense. Among these, charcoal takes a foremost place. Lampblack remains indefinitely unaltered. This, ground very finely with glycerine, would yield an ink which would perhaps prove serviceable in stamping; but it would be liable to rub off to a greater extent than soluble colors which penetrate the paper more or less. Perhaps castor oil would prove a better vehicle for insoluble coloring matters. Almost any aniline color may be substituted for nigrosin in the foregoing formula, and blue, green, red, purple, and other inks obtained. Insoluble pigments might also be made to answer as suggested for lampblack.

 

The following is said to be a cushion that will give color permanently. It consists of a box filled with an elastic composition, saturated with a suitable color. The cushion fulfils its purpose for years without being renewed, always contains sufficient moisture, which is drawn from the atmosphere, and continues to act as a color stamp cushion so long as a remnant of the mass or composition remains in the box or receptacle. This cushion or pad is too soft to be self-supporting, but should be held in a low, flat pan, and have a permanent cloth cover.

 

III.  The composition consists preferably of 1 part gelatin, 1 part water, 6 parts glycerine, and 6 parts coloring matter. A suitable black color can be

 


[411]

 

INKS

                      

made from the following materials: One part gelatin glue, 3 parts lampblack, aniline black, or a suitable quantity of logwood extract, 10 parts of glycerine, 1 part absolute alcohol, 2 parts water, 1 part Venetian soap, part salicylic acid. For red, blue, or violet: One part gelatin glue, 2 parts aniline of desired color, 1 part absolute alcohol, 10 parts glycerine, 1 part Venetian soap, and 1/5 part salicylic acid.

 

The following are additional recipes used for this purpose:

 

IV.   Mix and dissolve 2 to 4 drachms aniline violet, 15 ounces alcohol, 15 ounces glycerine. The solution is poured on the cushion and rubbed in with a brush. The general method of preparing the pad is to swell the gelatin with cold water, then boil and add the glycerine, etc.

 

V.    Mix well 16 pounds of hot linseed oil, 3 ounces of powdered indigo, or a like quantity of Berlin blue, and 8 pounds of lampblack. For ordinary sign-stamping an ink without the indigo might be used. By substituting ultramarine or Prussian blue for the lampblack, a blue "ink" or paint would result.

 

Inks for Hand Stamps. As an excipient for oily inks, a mixture of castor oil and crude oleic acid, in parts varying according to the coloring material used, is admirable. The following are examples:

 

Black. Oil soluble nigrosin and crude oleic acid in equal parts. Add 7 to 8 parts of castor oil.

 

Red. Oil soluble aniline red, 2 parts; crude oleic acid, 3 parts; castor oil, from 30 to 60 parts, according to the intensity of color desired.

 

Red. Dissolve 1/4 ounce of carmine in 2 ounces strong water of ammonia, and add 1 drachm of glycerine and 3/4 ounce dextrin.

 

Blue. Rub 1 ounce Prussian blue with enough water to make a perfectly smooth paste; then add 1 ounce dextrin, incorporate it well, and finally add sufficient water to bring it to the proper consistency.

 

Blue. Oil soluble aniline blue, 1 part; crude oleic acid, 2 parts; castor oil, 30 to 32 parts.

 

Violet. Alcohol, 15 ounces; glycerine, 15 ounces; aniline violet, 2 to 4 drachms. Mix, dissolve, pour the solution on the cushion, and dab on with a brush,

 

Color Stamps for Rough Paper. It has hitherto been impossible to get a satisfactory application for printing with rubber stamps on rough paper. Fatty vehicles are necessary for such paper, and they injure the India rubber. It is said, however, that if the rubber is first soaked in a solution of glue, and then in one of tannin, or bichromate of potash, it becomes impervious to the oils or fats. Gum arabic can be substituted for the glue.

 

Indelible Hand-Stamp Ink.

 

I.   

Copper sulphate                     20 parts

Aniline chlorate                    20 parts

 

Rub up separately to a fine powder, then carefully mix, and add 10 parts of dextrin and incorporate. Add 5 parts of glycerine and rub up, adding water, a little at a time, until a homogeneous viscid mass is obtained. An aniline color is produced in the material, which boiling does not destroy.

 

II.  

Sodium carbonate                    22 parts

Glycerine                           85 parts

Gum arabic, in powder               20 parts

Silver nitrate                      11 parts

Ammonia water                       20 parts

Venetian turpentine                 10 parts

 

Triturate the carbonate of sodium, gum arabic, and glycerine together. In a separate flask dissolve the silver nitrate in the ammonia water, mix the solution with the triturate, and heat to boiling, when the turpentine is to be added, with constant stirring. After stamping, expose to the sunlight or use a hot iron. The quantity of glycerine may be varied to suit circumstances.

 

White Stamping Ink for Embroidery.

 

Zinc white                          2 drachms

Mucilage                            1 drachm

Water                               6 drachms

 

Triturate the zinc white with a small quantity of water till quite smooth, then add the mucilage and the remainder of the water.

 

STENCIL INKS.

 

I.    Dissolve 1 ounce of gum arabic in 6 ounces water, and strain. This is the mucilage. For Black Color use drop black, powdered, and ground with the mucilage to extreme fineness; for Blue, ultramarine is used in the same manner; for Green, emerald green; for White, flake white; for Red, vermilion, lake, or carmine; for Yellow, chrome yellow. When ground too thick they are thinned

 


[412]

 

INKS

 

with a little water. Apply with a small brush.

 

II.   Triturate together 1 pint pine soot and 2 pints Prussian blue with a little glycerine, then add 3 pints gum arabic and sufficient glycerine to form a thin paste.

 

Blue Stencil Inks. The basis of the stencil inks commonly used varies to some extent, some preferring a mixture of pigments with oils, and others a watery shellac basis. The basis:

 

I.   

Shellac                             2 ounces

Borax                               1 1/2 ounces

Water                               10 ounces

 

Boil together until 10 ounces of solution is obtained. The coloring:

 

Prussian blue                       1 ounce

China clay                          1/2 ounce

Powdered acacia                     1/2 ounce

 

Mix thoroughly and gradually incorporate the shellac solution.

 

II.  

Prussian blue                       2 ounces

Lampblack                           1 ounce

Gum arabic                          3 ounces

Glycerine,                          sufficient.

 

Triturate together the dry powders and then make into a suitable paste with glycerine.

 

Indelible Stencil Inks.

 

I.    Varnish such as is used for ordinary printing ink, 1 pound; black sulphuret of mercury, 1 pound; nitrate of silver, 1 ounce; sulphate of iron, 1 ounce; lampblack, 2 tablespoonfuls. Grind all well together; thin with spirits turpentine as desired.

 

II.   Sulphate of manganese, 2 parts; lampblack, 1 part; sugar, 4 parts; all in fine powder and triturated to a paste in a little water.

 

III.  Nitrate of silver, 1/4 ounce; water, 3/4 ounce. Dissolve, add as much of the strongest liquor of ammonia as will dissolve the precipitate formed on its first addition. Then add of mucilage, 1/2 drachms, and a little sap green, syrup of buckthorn, or finely powdered indigo, to color. This turns black on being held near the fire, or touched with a hot iron.

 

SYMPATHETIC INKS:

 

Table of Substances Used in making Sympathetic Inks.

 

For writing and for bringing out the writing:

 

Cobalt chloride, heat.

 

Cobalt acetate and a little saltpeter, heat.

 

Cobalt chloride and nickel chloride mixed, heat.

 

Nitric acid, heat.

 

Sulphuric acid, heat.

 

Sodium chloride, heat.

 

Saltpeter, heat.

 

Copper sulphate and ammonium chloride, heat.

 

Silver nitrate, sunlight.

 

Gold trichloride, sunlight.

 

Ferric sulphate, infusion of gallnuts or ferrocyanide of potassium.

 

Copper sulphate, ferrocyanide of potassium.

 

Lead vinegar, hydrogen sulphide.

 

Mercuric nitrate, hydrogen sulphide.

 

Starch water, tincture of iodine or iodine vapors.

 

Cobalt nitrate, oxalic acid.

 

Fowler's solution, copper nitrate.

 

Soda lye or sodium carbonate, phenolphthaleine.

 

A sympathetic ink is one that is invisible when written, but which can be made visible by some treatment. Common milk can be used for writing, and exposure to strong heat will scorch and render the dried milk characters visible.

 

The following inks are developed by exposure to the action of reagents:

 

I.    Upon writing with a very clear solution of starch on paper that contains but little sizing, and submitting the dry characters to the vapor of iodine (or passing over them a weak solution of potassium iodide), the writing becomes blue, and disappears under the action

of a solution of hyposulphite of soda (1 in 1,000).

 

II.   Characters written with a weak solution of the soluble chloride of platinum or iridium become black when the paper is submitted to mercurial vapor. This ink may be used for marking linen, as it is indelible.

 

III.  Sulphate of copper in very dilute solution will produce an invisible writing, which may be turned light blue by vapors of ammonia.

 

IV.   Soluble compounds of antimony will become red by hydrogen sulphide vapor.

 

V.    Soluble compounds of arsenic and of peroxide of tin will become yellow by the same vapor.

 

VI.   An acid solution of iron chloride is diluted until the writing is invisible when dry. This writing has the property of becoming red by sulphocyanide vapors (arising from the action of sulphuric acid on potassium sulphocyanide in a long-necked flask), and it disappears

 


[413]

 

INKS

 

by ammonia, and may alternately be made to appear and disappear by these two vapors.

 

VII.  Write with a solution of paraffine in benzol. When the solvent has evaporated, the paraffine is invisible, but becomes visible on being dusted with lampblack or powdered graphite or smoking over a candle flame.

 

VIII. Dissolve 1 part of a lead salt, 0.1 part of uranium acetate, and the same quantity of bismuth citrate in 100 parts of water. Then add, drop by drop, a solution of sal ammoniac until the whole becomes transparent. Afterwards, mix with a few drops of gum arabic. To reveal the characters traced with this ink, expose them to the fumes of sulphuric acid, which turns them immediately to a dark brown. The characters fade away in a few minutes, but can be renewed by a slight washing with very dilute nitric acid.

 

TYPEWRITER RIBBON INKS.

 

I.    Take vaseline (petrolatum) of high boiling point, melt it on a water bath or slow fire, and incorporate by constant stirring as much lamp or powdered drop black as it will take up without becoming granular. If the vaseline remains in excess, the print is liable to have a greasy outline; if the color is in excess, the print will not be clear. Remove the mixture from the fire, and while it is cooling mix equal parts of petroleum, benzine, and rectified oil of turpentine, in which dissolve the fatty ink, introduced in small portions, by constant agitation.

The volatile solvents should be in such quantity that the fluid ink is of the consistence of fresh oil paint. One secret of success lies in the proper application of the ink to the ribbon. Wind the ribbon on a piece of cardboard, spread on a table several layers of newspaper, then unwind the ribbon in such lengths as may be most convenient, and lay it flat on the paper. Apply the ink, after agitation, by means of a soft brush, and rub it well into the interstices of the ribbon with a toothbrush. Hardly any ink should remain visible on the surface. For colored inks use Prussian blue, red lead, etc., and especially the aniline colors.

 

II.  

Aniline black                       1/2 ounce

Pure alcohol                        15 ounces

Concentrated glycerine              15 ounces

 

Dissolve the aniline black in the alcohol, and add the glycerine. Ink as before. The aniline inks containing glycerine are copying inks.

 

III. 

Alcohol                             2 ounces

Aniline color                       1/4 ounce

Water                               2 ounces

Glycerine                           4 ounces

 

Dissolve the aniline in the alcohol and add the water and glycerine.

 

IV.  

Castor oil                          2 ounces

Cassia oil                          1/2 ounce

Carbolic acid                       1/2 ounce

 

Warm them together and add 1 ounce of aniline color. Indelible typewriter inks may be made by using lampblack in place of the aniline, mixing it with soft petrolatum and dissolving the cooled mass in a mixture of equal parts of benzine and turpentine.

 

COLORING AGENTS:

 

Red.

 

I.   

Bordeaux red, O.S.                  15 parts

Aniline red, O.S.                   15 parts

Crude oleic acid.                   45 parts

Castor oil                          enough to make 1,000 parts

 

Rub the colors up with the oleic acid, add the oil, warming the whole to 100 to 110º F. (not higher), under constant stirring. If the color is not sufficiently intense for your purposes, rub up a trifle more of it with oleic acid, and add it to the ink. By a little experimentation you can get an ink exactly to your desire in the matter.

 

Blue-Black.

 

II.  

Aniline black, O.S.                 5 parts

Oleic acid, crude                   5 parts

Castor oil,                         quantity sufficient to 100 parts.

 

Violet.

 

III. 

Aniline violet, O.S.                3 parts

Crude oleic acid.                   5 parts

Castor oil,                         quantity sufficient to 100 parts.

 

The penetration of the ink may be increased ad libitum by the addition of a few drops of absolute alcohol, or, better, of benzol.

 

Reinking. For reinking ribbons use the following recipe for black: One ounce aniline black; 15 ounces pure grain alcohol; 15 ounces concentrated glycerine. Dissolve the aniline black in the alcohol and then add the glycerine. For blue use Prussian blue, and for red use red lead instead of the aniline black. This ink is also good for rubber stamp pads.

 


[414]

 

INKS

 

WRITING INKS.

 

The common writing fluids depend mostly upon galls, logwood, or aniline for coloring. There are literally thousands of formulas. A few of the most reliable have been gathered together here:

 

I.    Aleppo galls (well bruised), 4 ounces; clean soft water, 1 quart; macerate in a clean corked bottle for 10 days or a fortnight or longer, with frequent agitation; then add of gum arabic (dissolved in a wineglassful of water), 1 1/2 ounces; lump sugar, 1/2 ounce. Mix we11, and afterwards further add of sulphate of iron (green copperas crushed small), 1 1/2 ounces. Agitate occasionally 2 or 3 days, when the ink may be decanted for use, but is better if the whole is left to digest together for 2 or 3 weeks. When time is an object, the whole of the ingredients may at once be put into a bottle, and the latter agitated daily until the ink is made; and boiling water instead of cold water may be employed. Product, 1 quart of excellent ink, writing pale at first, but soon turning intensely black.

 

II.   Aleppo galls (bruised), 12 pounds; soft water, 6 gallons. Boil in a copper vessel for 1 hour, adding more water to make up for the portion lost by evaporation; strain, and again boil the galls with water, 4 gallons, for 1/2 hour; strain off the liquor, and boil a third time with water, 2 1/2 gallons, and strain. Mix the several liquors, and while still hot add of green copperas (coarsely powdered), 4 1/2 pounds; gum arabic (bruised small), 4 pounds. Agitate until dissolved, and after defecation strain through a hair sieve, and keep in a bunged cask for use. Product, 12 gallons.

 

III.  Aleppo galls (bruised), 14 pounds; gum, 5 pounds. Put them in a small cask, and add boiling soft water, 15 gallons. Allow the whole to macerate, with frequent agitation, for a fortnight, then further add of green copperas, 5 pounds, dissolved in water, 7 pints. Again mix well, and agitate the whole once daily for 2 or 3 weeks. Product, 15 gallons.

 

Brown Ink.

 

I.    To make brown ink, use for coloring a strong decoction of catechu; the shade may be varied by the cautious addition of a little weak solution of bichromate of potash.

 

II.   A strong decoction of logwood, with a very little bichromate of potash.

 

Blue Ink. To make blue ink, substitute for the black coloring sulphate of indigo and dilute it with Water till it produces the required color.

 

Anticorrosive or Asiatic Ink.

 

I.   

Galls, 4 pounds; logwood, 2 pounds; pomegranate peel, 2 pounds; soft water, 5 gallons. Boil as usual; then add to the strained, decanted cold liquor, 1 pound of gum arabic, lump sugar or sugar candy, 1/4 pound; dissolved in water, 3 pints. Product, 4 1/2 gallons. Writes pale, but flows well from the pen, and soon darkens.

 

II.   Bruised galls, 14 pounds; gum, 5 pounds. Put them in a small cask, and add of boiling water, 15 gallons, Allow the whole to macerate, with frequent agitation, for 2 weeks, then further add green copperas, 5 pounds, dissolved in 7 pints water. Again mix well, and agitate the whole daily for 2 or 3 weeks.

 

Blue Black Ink. Blue Aleppo galls (free from insect perforations), 4 1/2 ounces; bruised cloves, 1 drachm; cold water, 40 ounces; purified sulphate of iron, 1 1/2 ounces  pure sulphuric acid (by measure), 35 minims; sulphate of indigo (in the form of a paste), which should be neutral, or nearly so, 1 ounce. The weights used are avoirdupois, and the measures apothecaries'. Place the galls, then bruised with the cloves, in a 50-ounce bottle, pour upon them the water, and digest, often daily shaking for a fortnight. Then filter through paper in another 50-ounce bottle. Get out also the refuse galls, and wring out of it the remaining liquid through a strong, clean linen or cotton cloth, into the filter, in order that as little as possible may be lost. Next put in the iron, dissolve completely, and filter through paper. Then the acid, and agitate briskly. Lastly, the indigo, and thoroughly mix by shaking. Pass the whole through paper; just filter out of one bottle into another until the operation is finished.

 

NOTE. No gum or sugar is proper and on no account must the acid be omitted. When intended for copying, 5 1/2 ounces of galls is the quantity. On the large scale this fine ink is made by percolation.

 

Colored Inks. Inks of various colors may be made from a strong decoction of the ingredients used in dyeing, mixed with a little alum or other substance used as a mordant, and gum arabic. Any of the ordinary water-color cakes employed in drawing diffused through water may also be used for colored ink.

 


[415]

 

INKS

 

COPYING INK.

 

This is usually prepared by adding a little sugar to ordinary black ink. which for this purpose should be very rich in color, and preferably made galls prepared by heat. Writing executed with this ink may be copied within the space of 5 or 6 hours, by passing it through a copying press in contact with thin, unsized paper, slightly damped, enclosed between 2 sheets of thick oiled or waxed paper, when a reversed transcript will be obtained, which will read in proper order when the back of the copy is turned upwards. In the absence of a press a copy may be taken, when the ink is good and the writing very recent, by rolling the sheets, duly arranged on a ruler, over the surface of a flat, smooth table, employing as much force as possible, and avoiding any slipping or crumbling of the paper. Another method is to pass a warm flatiron over the paper laid upon the writing. The following proportions are employed:

 

I.    Sugar candy or lump sugar, 1 ounce; or molasses or moist sugar, 1 1/4 ounces; rich black ink, 1 1/2 pints; dissolve.

 

II.   Malt wort, 1 pint; evaporate it to the consistence of a syrup, and then dissolve it in good black ink, 1 1/4 pints.

 

III.  Solazza juice, 2 ounces; mild ale, 1/2 pint; dissolve, strain, and triturate with lampblack (previously heated to dull redness in a covered vessel), 1/4 ounce; when the mixture is complete, add of strong black, l 1/2 pints; mix well, and in 2 or 3 hours decant the clear.

 

After making the above mixtures, they must be tried with a common steel pen, and if they do not flow freely, some more unprepared ink should be added until they are found to do so.

 

Alizarine Blue. In 20 parts of fuming sulphuric acid dissolve 5 parts of indigo, and to the solution add 100 parts of extract of aqueous myrobalpus and 10.5 parts iron filings or turning shavings. Finally add:

 

Gum arabic                          1.5 parts

Sugar                               7.5 parts

Sulphuric acid,                     66 B 10.5 parts

Aniline blue                        1.5 parts

Carbolic acid                       0.5 parts

Mirobalan extract                   to make 1,000 parts.

 

This ink when first used has a bluish tint, afterwards becoming black.

 

Alizarine Green. In 100 parts of aqueous extract of gall apples dissolve:

 

Iron sulphate                       30 parts

Copper sulphate                     0.5 parts

Sulphuric acid                      2 parts

Sugar                               8 parts

Wood vinegar, rectified             50 parts

Indigo carmine                      30 parts

 

Copying Ink for Copying Without a Press. An ordinary thin-paper copying book may be used, and the copying done by transferrence. It is only necessary to place the page of writing in the letter book, just as one would use a leaf of blotting paper. The superfluous ink that would go into the blotting paper goes on to the leaf of the letter book, and showing through the thin paper gives on the other side of the leaf a perfect transcript of the letter. Any excess of ink on the page, either of the letter or of the copying paper, is removed by placing a sheet of blotting paper between them, and running one's hand firmly over the whole in the ordinary manner. This ready transcription is accomplished by using ink which dries slowly. Obviously the ink must dry sufficiently slowly for the characters at the top of a page of writing to remain wet when the last line is being written, while it must dry sufficiently to preclude any chance of the copied page being smeared while subsequent pages are being covered. The drying must also be sufficiently rapid to prevent the characters "setting off," as printers term it, from one page on to another after folding. The formula for the requisite ink is very simple:

 

Reduce by evaporation 10 volumes of any good ink to 6, then add 4 volumes of glycerine. Or manufacture some ink of nearly double strength, and add to any quantity of it nearly an equal volume of

glycerine.

 

Gold Ink. Mosaic gold, 2 parts; gum arabic, 1 part; rubbed up to a proper condition.

 

Green Ink. A good, bright green, aniline ink may be made as follows:

 

Aniline green (soluble)             2 parts

Glycerine                           16 parts

Alcohol                             112 parts

Mucilage of gum arabic              4 parts

 

Dissolve the aniline in the alcohol, and add the other ingredients. Most of the gum arabic precipitates, but according to the author of the formula (Nelson) it has the effect of rendering the ink slow flowing enough to write with. Filter.

 


[416]

 

INKS

 

Hectograph Inks (see also Hectograph).

 

I.    Black. Methyl violet, 10 parts; nigrosin, 20 parts; glycerine, 30 parts; gum arabic, 5 parts; alcohol, 60 parts.

 

II.   Blue. Resorein blue M, 10 parts. Dissolve by means of heat in a mixture of:

 

Dilute acetic acid                  1 part

Distilled water                     85 parts

Glycerine                           4 parts

Alcohol, 90 per cent                10 parts

 

III.  Green. Aniline green, water solution, 15 parts; glycerine, 10 parts; Water, 50 parts; alcohol, 10 parts.

 

Paste Ink to Write with Water.

 

I.    Black. Take 4 parts of bichromate of potash, pulverized, and mixed with 25 parts of acetio acid; 50 parts of liquid extract of logwood; 1/4 part of picric acid; 10 parts of pulverized sal sorrel; 10 parts of mucilage; and 1/4 part of citrate of iron, and mix well. The liquid extract of logwood is prepared by mixing 3 parts of an extract of common commercial quality with 2 parts of water.

 

II.   Red. Take 1 part of red aniline mixed with 10 parts of acetic acid; 5 parts of citric acid, and 25 parts of mucilage, all well mixed. For use, mix 1 part of the paste with 16 parts of water.

 

III.  Blue. Take 2 parts of aniline blue mixed with 10 parts of acetic acid; 5 parts of citric acid, and 40 parts of mucilage, all well mixed. For use, mix 1 part of the paste with 8 parts of water.

 

IV.   Violet. Use the same ingredients in the same proportions as blue, with the difference that violet aniline is used instead of blue aniline.

 

V.    Green. Take 1 part of aniline blue; 3 parts of picric acid, mixed with 10 parts of acetic acid; 3 parts of citric acid, and 80 parts of mucilage. For use, 1 part of this paste is mixed with 8 parts of water.

 

VI.   Copying. Take 6 parts of pulverized bichromate of potash, mixed with 10 parts of acetic acid and 240 parts of liquid extract of ogwood, and add a pulverized mixture of 35 parts of alum, 20 parts of sal sorrel, and 20 parts mucilage. Mix well. For use, 1 part of this paste is mixed with 4 parts of hot water.

 

Purple Ink.

 

I.    A strong decoction of logwood, to which a little alum or chloride of tin has been added.

 

II.   (Normandy). To 12 pounds of Campeachy wood add as many gallons of boiling water. Pour the solution through a funnel with a strainer made of coarse flannel, or 1 pound of hydrate, or acetate of deutoxide of copper finely powdered (having at the bottom of the funnel a piece of sponge); then add immediately 14 pounds of alum, and for every 340 gallons of liquid add 80 pounds of gum arabic or gum Senegal. Let these remain for 3 or 4 days, and a beautiful purple color will be produced.

 

Red Ink. Brazil wood, ground, 4 ounces; white wine vinegar, hot, 1 1/4 pints. Digest in a glass or a well-tinned copper or enamel saucepan, until the next day; then gently simmer for half an hour, adding toward the end gum arabic and alum, of each, 1/2 ounce.

 

Inks for Shading Pen. The essential feature in the ink for use with a shading pen is simply the addition of a sufficient quantity of acacia or other mucilaginous substance to impart a proper degree of consistency to the ink. A mixture of 2 parts of mucilage of acacia with 8 of ink gives about the required consistency. The following formulas will probably be found useful:

 

I.   

Water-soluble nigrosin              1 part

Water                               9 parts

Mucilage acacia                     1 part

 

II.  

Paris violet                        2 parts

Water                               6 parts

Mucilage acacia                     2 parts

 

III. 

Methyl violet                       1 part

Distilled water                     7 parts

Mucilage acacia                     2 parts

 

IV.  

Bordeaux red                        3 parts

Alcohol                             2 parts

Water                               20 parts

Mucilage acacia                     2 parts

 

V.   

Rosaniline acetate                  2 parts

Alcohol                             1 part

Water                               10 parts

Mucilage acacia                     2 parts

 

Silver Ink.

 

I.    Triturate in a mortar equal parts of silver foil and sulphate of potassa, until reduced to a fine powder; then wash the salt out, and mix the residue with a mucilage of equal parts of gum arabic water.

 

II.   Make as gold ink, but use silver leaf or silver bronze powder.

 

III. 

Oxide of zinc                       30 grains

Mucilage                            1 ounce

Spirit of wine                      40 drops

Silver bronze                       3 drachms

 

Rub together, until perfectly smooth,

 


[417]

 

INKS - INSECT BITES

 

the zinc and mucilage, then add the spirit of wine and silver bronze and make up the quantity to 2 ounces with water.

 

Violet Ink.

 

I.    For 2 gallons, heat 2 gills of alcohol on a water bath. Add to the alcohol 2 ounces of violet aniline, and stir till dissolved; then add the mixture to 2 gallons of boiling water; mix well, and it is ready for use. Smaller quantities in proportion.

 

II.   Another good violet ink is made by dissolving some violet aniline in water to which some alcohol has been added. It takes very little aniline to make a large quantity of the ink.

 

White Ink (for other White Inks see Blueprint Inks). So-called white inks are, properly speaking, white paints, as a white solution cannot be made. A paint suitable for use as an "ink" may be made by grinding zinc oxide very fine on a slab with a little tragacanth mucilage, and then thinning to the required consistency to flow from the pen. The mixture requires shaking or stirring from time to time to keep the pigment from separating. The "ink" may be preserved by adding a little oil of cloves or other antiseptic to prevent decomposition of the mucilage.

 

White marks may sometimes be made on colored papers by the application of acids or alkalies. The result, of course, depends on the nature of the coloring matter in each instance, and any "ink" of this kind would be efficacious or otherwise, according to the coloring present in the paper.

 

Yellow Ink.

 

I.    Gamboge (in coarse powder), 1 ounce; hot water, 5 ounces. Dissolve, and when cold, add of spirit, 3/4 ounce.

 

II.   Boil French berries, pound, and alum, 1 ounce, in rain water, 1 quart, for 1/2 an hour, or longer, then strain and dissolve in the hot liquor gum arabic, 1 ounce.

 

Waterproof Ink (see also Indelible Inks). Any ordinary ink may be made waterproof by mixing with it a little ordinary glue. After waterproofing ink in this way it is possible to wash drawings with soap and water, if necessary, without the ink running at all.

 

White Stamping Ink.

 

Zinc white                          2 drachms

White precipitate                   5 grains

Mucilage                            1 drachm

Water                               6 drachms

 

Triturate the zinc white with a small quantity of water till quite smooth, then add the mucilage and the remainder of the water.

 

INK FOR THE LAUNDRY:

See Laundry Preparations.

 

INK FOR LEATHER FINISHERS:

See Leather.

 

INKS FOR TYPEWRITERS:

See Typewriter Ribbons.

 

INK FOR WRITING ON GLASS:

See Etching and Glass.

 

INLAYING BY ELECTROLYSIS.

See also Electro-etching, under Etching.

 

The process consists in engraving the design by means of the sand-blast and stencils on the surface of the article. The design or pattern is rendered conductive and upon this conductive surface a precipitate of gold, silver, platinum, etc., is applied, and fills up the hollows.

Subsequently the surface is ground smooth.

 

Insect Bites

 

REMEDIES FOR INSECT BITES.

 

I.   

Carbolic acid                       15 grains

Glycerine                           2 drachms

Rose water                          4 ounces

 

II.  

Salicylic acid                      15 grains

Collodion                           2 1/2 drachms

Spirit of ammonia                   5 1/2 drachms

 

III. 

luid extract rhus toxicodendron     1 drachm

Water                               8 ounces

 

IV.  

Ipecac, in powder                   1 drachm

Alcohol                             1 ounce

Ether                               1 ounce

 

V.   

Betanaphthol                        30 grains

Camphor                             30 grains

Lanolin cold cream                  1 ounce

 

VI.   Spirit of sal ammoniac, whose favorable action upon fresh insect bites is universally known, is often unavailable. A simple means to alleviate the pain and swelling due to such bites, when still fresh, is cigar ashes. Place a little ashes upon the part stung, add a drop of water in case of need beer, wine, or coffee may be used instead and rub the resulting paste thoroughly into the skin. It is preferable to use fresh ashes of tobacco, because the recent heat offers sufficient guarantee for absolute freedom from impurities. The action of the tobacco ashes is due to the presence of

 


[418]

 

INSECTICIDES

 

potassium carbonate, which, like spirit of sal ammoniac, deadens the effect of the small quantities of acid (formic acid, etc.) which have been introduced into the small wound by the biting insect.

 

Insecticides

(See also Petroleum.)

 

The Use of Hydrocyanic Acid Gas for Exterminating Household Insects. Recent successful applications of hydrocyanic acid gas for the extermination of insects infecting greenhouse plants have suggested the use of the same remedy for household pests. It is now an established fact that 1 1/2 grains of 98 per cent pure cyanide of potassium volatilized in a cubic foot of space, will, if allowed to remain for a period of not less than 3 hours, kill all roaches and similar insects.

 

It may be stated that a dwelling, office, warehouse, or any building may be economically cleared of all pests, provided that the local conditions will permit the use of this gas. It probably would be dangerous to fumigate a building where groceries, dried fruits, meats, or prepared food materials of any kind are stored. Air containing more than 25 per cent of the gas is inflammable; therefore it would be well to put out all fire in an inclosure before fumigating. Hydrocyanic acid, in all its forms, is one of the most violent poisons known, and no neglect should attend its use. There is probably no sure remedy for its effects after it has once entered the blood of any of the higher animals. When cyanide of potassium is being used it should never be allowed to come in contact with the skin, and even a slight odor of the gas should be avoided. Should the operator have any cut or break in the skin of the hands or face it should be carefully covered with court plaster to prevent the gas coming in contact with the flesh, or a small particle of the solid compound getting into the cut might cause death by poisoning in a few minutes' time.

 

Hydrocyanic acid gas should not be used in closely built apartments with single walls between, as more or less of the gas will penetrate a brick wall. An inexperienced person should never use cyanide of potassium for any purpose, and if it be found practicable to treat buildings in general for the extermination of insects, the work should be done only under the direction of competent officials. Experiments have shown that a smaller dose and a shorter period of exposure are required to kill mice than for roaches and household insects generally, and it readily follows that the larger animals and human beings would be more quickly overcome than mice, since a smaller supply of pure air would be required to sustain life in mice, and small openings are more numerous than large ones.

 

The materials employed and the method of procedure are as follows: After ascertaining the cubic content of the inclosure, provide a glass or stoneware (not metal) vessel of 2 to 4 gallons capacity for each 5,000 cubic feet of space to be fumigated. Distribute the jars according to the space, and run a smooth cord from each jar to a common point near an outside door where they may all be fastened; support the cord above the jar by means of the back of a chair or other convenient object in such a position that when the load of cyanide of potassium is attached it will hang directly over the center of the jar. Next weigh out upon a piece of soft paper about 17 ounces of 98 per cent pure cyanide of potassium, using a large pair of forceps for handling the lumps; wrap up and place in a paper bag and tie to the end of the cord over the jar. After the load for each jar has been similarly provided, it is well to test the working of the cords to see that they do not catch or bind. Then remove the jar a short distance from under the load of cyanide and place in it a little more than a quart of water, to which slowly add 1 1/2 pints of commercial sulphuric acid, stirring freely. The action of the acid will bring the temperature of the combination almost to the boiling point. Replace the jars beneath the bags of cyanide, spreading a large sheet of heavy paper on the floor to catch any acid that may possibly fly over the edge of the jar when the cyanide is dropped, or as a result of the violent chemical action which follows. Close all outside openings and open up the interior of the apartment as much as possible, in order that the full strength of the gas may reach the hiding places of the insects. See that all entrances are locked or guarded on the outside to prevent persons entering; then leave the building, releasing the cords as you go. The gas will all be given off in a few minutes, and should remain in the building at least 3 hours.

 

When the sulphuric acid comes in contact with the cyanide of potassium the result is the formation of sulphate of potash, which remains in the jar, and the hydrocyanic acid is liberated and es-

 


[419]

 

INSECTICIDES

 

capes into the air. The chemical action is so violent as to cause a sputtering, and frequently particles of the acid are thrown over the sides of the jar; this may be prevented by supporting a sheet of stiff paper over the jar by means of a hole in the center, through which the cord supporting the cyanide of potassium is passed, so that when the cord is released the paper will descend with the cyanide and remain at rest on the top of the jar, but will not prevent the easy descent of the cyanide into the acid. The weight of this paper will in no way interfere with the escape of the gas.

 

At the end of the time required for fumigation, the windows and doors should be opened from the outside and the gas allowed to escape before anyone enters the building. A general cleaning should follow, as the insects leave their hiding places and, dying on the floors, are easily swept up and burned. The sulphate of potash remaining in the jars is poisonous and should be immediately buried and the jars themselves filled with earth or ashes. No food that has remained during fumigation should be used, and thorough ventilation should be maintained for several hours. After one of these experiments it was noted that ice water which had remained in a closed cooler had taken up the gas, and had both the odor and taste of cyanide.

 

For dwellings one fumigation each year would be sufficient, but for storage houses it may be necessary to make an application every 3 or 4 months to keep them entirely free from insect pests. The cost of materials for one application is about 50 cents for each 5,000 cubic feet of space to be treated. The cyanide of potassium can be purchased at about 35 cents per pound, and the commercial sulphuric acid at about 4 cents per pound. The strength of the dose may be increased and the time of exposure somewhat shortened, but this increases the cost and does not do the work so thoroughly. In no case, however, should the dose remain less than 1 hour.

 

The application of this method of controlling household insects and pests generally is to be found in checking the advance of great numbers of some particular insect, or in eradicating them where they have become thoroughly established. This method will be found very advantageous in clearing old buildings and ships of cockroaches.

 

APPLICATIONS FOR CATTLE, POULTRY, ETC.:

See also Veterinary Formulas.

 

Fly Protectives for Animals.

 

I.   

Oil of cloves                       3 parts

Bay oil                             5 parts

Eucalyptus tincture                 5 parts

Alcohol                             150 parts

Water                               200 parts

 

II.   Tar well diluted with grease of any kind is as effective an agent as any for keeping flies from cattle. The mixture indicated has the advantage of being cheap. Applying to the legs, neck, and ears will usually be sufficient.

 

Cattle Dip for Ticks. Dr. Noorgard of the Bureau of Animal Industry finds the following dip useful, immersion lasting one minute:

 

Sulphur                             86 pounds

Extra dynamo oil                    1,000 gallons

 

Insecticides for Animals.

 

I.   

                                    Parts by weight

Bay oil                             500 

Naphthalene                         100

Camphor                             60 Parts

Animal oil                         25

 

II.  

Bay oil, pressed                    400

Naphthalene                         100

Crude carbolic acid                 10

 

For Dogs, Cats, etc. The following is an excellent powder for the removal of fleas from cats or dogs:

 

Naphthalene                         4 av. ounces

Starch                              12 av. ounces

 

Reduce to fine powder. A few grains of lampblack added will impart a light gray color, and if desirable a few drops of oil of pennyroyal or eucalyptus will disguise the naphthalene odor.

 

Rub into the skin of the animal and let the powder remain for a day or two, when the same can be removed by combing or giving a bath, to which some infusion of quassia or quassia chips has been added. This treatment is equally efficient for lice and ticks.

 

Poultry Lice Destroyer.

 

I.    Twenty pounds sublimed sulphur; 8 pounds fuller's earth; 2 pounds powdered naphthalene; 1/2 ounce liquid carbolic acid. Mix thoroughly and put up in half pound tins or boxes. Sprinkle about the nest for use.

 

II.   Oil of eucalyptus smeared about the coop will cause the parasites to leave. To drive them out of the nests of sitting hens, place in the nest an egg that has been emptied, and into which has been inserted a bit of sponge imbibed in essence of eucalyptus. There may be used also a concentrated solution of extract of tobacco, to which phenol has been added.

 


[420]

 

INSECTICIDES

 

III.  Cover the floor or soil of the house with ground or powdered plaster, taken from old walls, etc.

 

ANT DESTROYERS:

 

A most efficacious means of getting rid of ants is spraying their resorts with petroleum. The common oil is worth more for this purpose than the refined. Two thorough sprayings usually suffice.

 

In armoires, dressing cases, etc., oil of turpentine should be employed. Pour it in a large plate, and let it evaporate freely. Tobacco juice is another effective agent, but both substances have the

drawback of a very penetrating and disagreeable odor.

 

Boiling water is deadly to ants wherever it can be used (as in the garden, or yard around the house). So is carbon disulphide injected into the nests by aid of a good, big syringe. An emulsion of petroleum and water (oil, 1 part; water, 3 parts) poured on the earth has proven very efficacious, when plentifully used (say from 1 ounce to 3 ounces to the square yard). A similar mixture of calcium sulphide and water (calcium sulphide, 100 parts; water, 1,000 parts; and the white of 1 egg to every quart of water) poured into their holes is also effective.

 

A weak solution of corrosive sublimate is very deadly to ants. Not only does it kill them eventually, but it seems to craze them before death, so that ants of the same nest, after coming into contact with the poison, will attack each other with the greatest ferocity.

 

Where ants select a particular point for their incursions it is a good plan to surround it with a "fortification" of obnoxious substance. Sulphur has been used successfully in this way, and so has coal oil. The latter, however, is not a desirable agent, leaving a persistent stain and odor.

 

The use of carbon disulphide is recommended to destroy ants' nests on lawns. A little of the disulphide is poured into the openings of the hills, stepping on each as it is treated to close it up. The volatile vapors of the disulphide will penetrate the chambers of the nest in every direction, and if sufficient has been used will kill not only the adult insects but the larvae as well. A single treatment is generally sufficient.

 

Formulas to Drive Ants Away.

 

I.   

Water                               1 quart

Cape aloes                          4 ounces

 

Boil together and add:

 

Camphor in small pieces             1 1/2 ounces

 

II.  

Powdered cloves                     1 ounce

Insect powder                       1 ounce

 

Scatter around where ants infest.

 

III. 

Cape aloes                          1/2 pound

Water                               4 pints

 

Boil together and add camphor gum, 3 ounces. Sprinkle around where the ants infest.

 

BEDBUG DESTROYERS.

 

A good bug killer is benzine, pure and simple, or mixed with a little oil of mirbane. It evaporates quickly and leaves no stain. The only trouble is the inflammability of its vapor.

 

The following is a popular preparation: To half a gallon of kerosene oil add a quart of spirit of turpentine and an ounce of oil of pennyroyal. This mixture is far less dangerous than benzine. The pennyroyal as well as the turpentine are not only poisonous but exceedingly distasteful to insects of all kinds. The kerosene while less quickly fatal to bugs than benzine is cheaper and safer, and when combined with the other ingredients becomes as efficient.

 

Where the wall paper and wood work of a room have become invaded, the usual remedy is burning sulphur. To be efficient the room must have every door, window, crevice, and crack closed. The floor should be wet in advance so as to moisten the air. A rubber tube should lead from the burning sulphur to a key-hole or auger-hole and through it, and by aid of a pair of bellows air should be blown to facilitate the combustion of the sulphur.

 

Pastes. Some housewives are partial to corrosive sublimate for bedbugs; but it is effective only if the bug eats the poison. The corrosive sublimate cannot penetrate the waxy coat of the insect. But inasmuch as people insist on having this a few formulas are given.

 

I.   

Common soap                         1 av. ounce

Ammonium chloride                   3 av. ounces

Corrosive sublimate                 3 av. ounces

 

Water enough to make 32 fluidounces.

 

Dissolve the salts in the water and add the soap.

 

This will make a paste that can be painted with a brush around in the cracks and crevices. Besides, it will make an excellent filling to keep the cracks of the wall and wainscoting free from bugs of all kinds. The formula could be modified so as to permit the use

 


[421]

 

INSECTICIDES

 

of Paris green or London purple, if desired. A decoction of quassia could be used to dissolve the soap. The latter paste would, of course, not be poisonous, and in many instances it would be preferred. It is possible to make a cold infusion of white hellebore of 25 per cent strength, and in 1 quart of infusion dissolve 1 ounce of common soap. The advantage of the soap paste is simply to keep the poisonous substance thoroughly distributed throughout the mass at all times. The density of the paste can be varied to suit. Kerosene oil or turpentine could replace 6 ounces or 8 ounces of the water in making the paste, and either of these would make a valuable addition.

 

Another paste preparation which will meet with hearty recommendation is blue ointment. This ointment, mixed with turpentine or kerosene oil, can be used to good advantage; especially so as the turpentine is so penetrating that both it and the mercury have a chance to act more effectually. It can be said that turpentine will kill the bedbug if the two come in contact; and kerosene is not far behindhand in its deadly work.

 

II.  

Blue ointment                       1 ounce

Turpentine                          3 ounces

 

Stir well together.

 

Liquid Bedbug Preparations. There is no doubt that the liquid form is the best to use; unlike a powder, or even a paste, it will follow down a crack into remote places where bugs hide, and will prevent their escape, and it will also kill the eggs and nits. The following substances are the most employed, and are probably the best: Kerosene, turpentine, benzine, carbolic acid, corrosive sublimate solution, oil pennyroyal, and strong solution of soap. Here are several good formulas that can be depended upon:

 

I.   

Oil of pennyroyal                   1 drachm

Turpentine                          8 ounces

Kerosene oil,                       enough to make 1 gallon.

 

Put up in 8-ounce bottles as a bedbug exterminator.

 

II.  

Oil of eucalyptus                   1 drachm

Eucalyptus leaves                   1 ounce

Benzine                             2 ounces

Turpentine                          2 ounces

Kerosene                            enough to make 16 ounces.

 

Mix the turpentine, benzine, and kerosene oil, and macerate the eucalyptus leaves in it for 24 hours; then strain and make up the measure to 1 pint, having first added the oil of eucalyptus.

 

FLY KILLERS.

 

A fly poison that is harmless to man may be made from quassia wood as follows:

 

Quassia                             1,000 parts

Molasses                            150 parts

Alcohol                             50 parts

Water                               5,750 parts

 

Macerate the quassia in 500 parts of water for 24 hours, boil for half an hour, set aside for 24 hours, then press out the liquid. Mix this with the molasses and evaporate to 200 parts. Add the alcohol and the remaining 750 parts of water, and without filtering, saturate absorbent paper with it.

 

This being set out on a plate with a little water attracts the flies, which are killed by partaking of the liquid.

 

Sticky Preparations.

 

I.   

Rosin                               150 parts

Linseed oil                         50 parts

Honey                               18 parts

 

Melt the rosin and oil together and stir in the honey.

 

II.  

Rapeseed oil                        70 parts

Rosin                               30 parts

 

Mix and melt together.

 

III. 

Rosin                               60 parts

Linseed oil                         38 parts

Yellow wax                          2 parts

 

IV.  

Rosin                               10 parts

Turpentine                          5 parts

Rapeseed oil                        5 parts 

Honey                               1 part

 

Sprinkling Powders for Flies.

 

I.   

Long peppers, powdered              5 parts

Quassia wood, powdered              5 parts

Sugar, powdered                     10 parts

 

Mix, moisten the mixture with 4 parts of alcohol, dry, and again powder. Keep the powder in closely stoppered jars, taking out a sufficient quantity as desired.

 

II.  

Orris root, powdered                4 parts

Starch, powdered                    15 parts

Eucalyptol                          1 part

 

Mix.  Keep in a closely stoppered jar or boX.   Strew in places affected by flies.

 

Fly Essences.

 

I.   

Eucalyptol                          10 parts

Bergamot oil                        3 parts

Acetic ether                        10 parts

Cologne water                       50 parts

Alcohol, 90 per cent                100 parts

 

Mix.  One part of this "essence" is

 


[422]

 

INSECTICIDES

 

to be added to 10 parts of water and sprayed around the rooms frequently.

 

II.  

Eucalyptol                          10 parts

Acetic ether                        5 parts

Cologne water                       40 parts

Tincture of insect powder (1:5)     50 parts

 

REMEDIES AGAINST HUMAN PARASITES:

 

By weight

I.   

Yellow wax                          85 parts

Spermaceti                          60 parts

Sweet oil                           500 parts

 

Melt and add:

 

Boiling distilled water             150 parts

 

After cooling add:

 

Clove oil                           2 parts

Thyme oil                           3 parts

Eucalyptus oil                      4 parts

 

II.  

Bay oil, pressed                    100 parts

Acetic ether                        12 parts

Clove oil                           4 parts

Eucalyptus oil                      3 parts

 

For Head Lice in Children. One of the best remedies is a vinegar of sabadilla. This is prepared as follows: Sabadilla seed, 5 parts; alcohol, 5 parts; acetic acid, 9 parts; and water, 36 parts. Macerate for 3 days, express and filter. The directions are: Moisten the scalp and hair thoroughly at bedtime, binding a cloth around the head, and let remain overnight. If there are any sore spots on the scalp, these should be well greased before applying the vinegar.

 

To Exterminate Mites. Mix together 10 parts of naphthalene, 10 parts of phenic acid, 5 parts of camphor, 5 parts of lemon oil, 2 parts of thyme oil, 2 parts of oil of lavender, and 2 parts of the oil of juniper, in 500 parts of pure alcohol.

 

Vermin Killer.

 

Sabadilla, powder                   2 av. ounces

Acetic acid                         1/2 fluidounce

Wood alcohol                        2 fluidounces

Water                               sufficient to make 16 fluid ounces.

 

Mix the acetic acid with 14 fluidounces of water and boil the sabadilla in this mixture for 5 to 10 minutes, and when nearly cold add the alcohol, let stand, and decant the clear solution and bottle. Directions: Shake the bottle and apply to the affected parts night and morning.

 

INSECTICIDES FOR PLANTS.

 

Two formulas for insecticides with especial reference to vermin which attack plants:

 

I.   

Kerosene 2 gallons

Common soap 1/2 pound

Water 1 gallon

 

Heat the solution of soap, add it boiling hot to the kerosene and churn until it forms a perfect emulsion. For use upon scale insects it is diluted with 9 parts of water; upon other ordinary insects with 15 parts of water, and upon soft insects, like plant lice, with from 20 to 25 parts of water.

 

For lice, etc., which attack the roots of vines and trees the following is recommended:

 

II.  

Caustic soda                        5 pounds

Rosin                               40 pounds

Water,                              a sufficient quantity.

 

Dissolve the soda in 4 gallons of water, by the aid of heat, add the rosin and after it is dissolved and while boiling add, slowly, enough water to make 50 gallons. For use, 1 part of this mixture is diluted with 10 parts of water and about 5 gallons of the product poured into a depression near the root of the vine or tree.

 

For Cochineal Insects. An emulsion for fumagine (malady of orange trees caused by the cochineal insect) and other diseases caused by insects is as follows:

 

Dissolve, hot, 4 parts of black soap in 15 parts of hot water. Let cool to 104º F., and pour in 10 parts of ordinary petroleum, shaking vigorously. Thus an emulsion of café au lait color is obtained, which may be preserved indefinitely. For employment, each part of the emulsion is diluted, according to circumstances, with from 10 to 20 parts of water.

 

For Locusts. Much trouble is experienced in the Transvaal and Natal with locust pests, the remedies used being either a soap spray, containing 1 pound ordinary household soap in 5 gallons of water, or arsenite of soda, the latter being issued by the government for the purpose, and also used for the destruction of prickly pear, and as a basis of tick dips. A solution of 1 pound in 10 gallons of water is employed for fullgrown insects, and of 1 pound in 20 gallons of water for newly hatched ones, 1 pound of sugar being added to each pound of arsenite dissolved. The solution sometimes causes sores on the skin, and the natives employed in its use are given grease to rub over themselves as a measure of protection. An advantage of the arsenite solution over soap is that much less liquid need be used.

 

A composition for the destruction of pear blight, which has been patented in

 


[423]

 

INSECTICIDES

 

the United States, is as follows: Peppermint oil, 16 parts; ammonia water, 60 parts; calomel, 30 parts; and linseed oil, 1,000 parts.

 

For Moths and Caterpillars.

 

I.   

Venice turpentine                   200 parts

Rosin                               1,000 parts

Turpentine                          140 parts

Tar                                 80 parts

Lard                                500 parts

Rape oil                            240 parts

Tallow                              200 parts

 

II.  

Rosin                               50 parts

Lard                                40 parts

Stearine oil                        40 parts

 

For Non-Masticating Insects. For protection against all non-masticating arid many mandibulate insects, kerosene oil is much used. It is exhibited in the form of emulsion, which may be made as follows:

 

Kerosene                            2 gallons

Common soap                         8 ounces

Water                               1 gallon

 

Dissolve the soap in the water by the aid of heat, bring to the boiling point, and add the kerosene in portions, agitating well after each addition. This is conveniently done by means of the pump to be used for spraying the mixture.

 

For Scale Insects. For destroying scale insects dilute the cochineal emulsion (see above) with 9 times its volume of water; in the case of most others, except lice, dilute with 14 volumes, and for the latter with 20 to 25 volumes.

 

For the extermination of scale insects, resinous preparations are also employed, which kill by covering them with an impervious coating. Such a wash may be made as follows:

 

Rosin                               3 1/2 pounds

Caustic soda                        1 pound

Fish oil                            8 ounces

Water                               20 gallons

 

Boil the rosin, soda, and oil with a small portion of the water, adding the remainder as solution is effected.

 

For the San José scale a stronger preparation is required, the proportion of water being decreased by half, but such a solution is applied only when the tree is dormant.

 

Scale Insects on Orange Trees. Scale insect enemies of orange trees are directly controlled in two ways: (1) By spraying the infested trees with some liquid insecticide, and (2) by subjecting them to the fumes of hydrocyanic acid gas, commonly designated as "gassing." The latter method is claimed to be the most effective means known of destroying scale insects. In practice the method consists in closing a tree at night with a tent and filling the latter with the poisonous fumes generated by treating refined potassium cyanide (98 per cent) with commercial sulphuric acid (66 per cent) and water. The treatment should continue from 30 to 40 minutes, the longer time being preferable. The work is done at night to avoid the scalding which follows day applications, at least in bright sunshine.

 

The oily washes are said to be the best for the use by the spraying method. "Kerosene emulsion" is a type of these washes. A formula published by the United States Department of Agriculture follows: Kerosene, 2 gallons; whale oil soap, 1/2 pound; water, 1 gallon. The soap is dissolved in hot water, the kerosene added, and the whole thoroughly emulsified by means of a power pump until a rather heavy, creamy emulsion is produced. The quantity of soap may be increased if desired. The insecticide is applied by spraying the infected tree with an ordinary force pump with spraying nozzle.

 

Coating Against the Plant Louse.

 

(a) Mix 75 parts of green soap, 50 parts of linseed oil, and 25 parts of carbolic acid. Afterwards mix the mass with 15,000 parts of water.

 

(b) Mix 4 parts of carbolic acid with 100 parts water glass.

 

Louse Washes.

 

Unslaked lime                       18 parts

Sulphur                             9 parts

Salt                                6.75 parts

 

Mix as follows: A fourth part of the lime is slaked and boiled for 2/3 of an hour with the sulphur in 22.6 parts of water. The remainder of the lime is then slaked and added with the salt to the hot mixture. The whole is burned for another half hour or an hour, and then diluted to 353 parts. The fluid is applied lukewarm when the plants are not in active growth.

 

For Slugs on Roses.

 

Powdered pyrethrum                  8 ounces

Powdered colocynth                  4 ounces

Powdered hellebore                  16 ounces

 

Flea Powder.

 

Naphthalene                         4 ounces

Talcum                              10 ounces

Tobacco dust                        2 ounces

 


[424]

 

INSECT POWDERS

 

To Keep Flaxseed Free from Bugs. As a container use a tin can with a close fitting top. At the bottom of the can place a small vial of chloroform with a loose-fitting cork stopper. Then pour the flaxseed, whole or ground, into the can, covering the vial. Enough of the chloroform will escape from the vial to kill such insects as infest the flaxseed.

 

INSECT POWDERS.

 

Pyrethrum, whale oil (in the form of soap), fish oil (in the form of soap), soft soap, paraffine, Prussic acid, Paris green, white lead, sulphur, carbon bisulphide, acorus calamus, camphor, Cayenne pepper, tobacco, snuff, asafetida, white hellebore, eucalyptol, quassia, borax,

acetic ether are most important substances used as insecticides, alone, or in combination of two or more of them. The Prussic acid and Paris green are dangerous poisons and require to be used with extreme care:

 

Insect powder is used for all small insects and as a destroyer of roaches. The observations of some experimenters seem to show that the poisonous principle of these flowers is non-volatile, but the most favorable conditions under which to use them are in a room tightly closed and well warmed. There may be two poisonous principles, one of which is volatile. Disappointment sometimes arises in their use from getting powder either adulterated, or which has been exposed to the air and consequently lost some of its efficiency.

 

The dust resulting from the use of insect powder sometimes proves irritating to the mucous membranes of the one applying the powder. This is best avoided by the use of a spray atomizer.

 

Persistence in the use of any means is an important element in the work of destroying insects. A given poison may be employed and no visible result follow at first, when in reality many may have been destroyed, enough being left to deceive the observer as to numbers. They multiply very rapidly, too, it must be remembered, and vigorous work is required to combat this increase. Where they can easily migrate from one householder's premises to those of another, as in city "flats," it requires constant vigilance to keep them down, and entire extermination is scarcely to be expected.

 

The ordinary insect powder on the market is made from pyrethrum carneum, pyrethrum roseum, and pyrethrum cinerarise-folium. The first two are generally ground together and are commercially called Persian insect powder; while the third is commonly called Dalmatian insect powder. These powders are sold in the stores under many names and in combination with other powders under proprietary names.

 

The powder is obtained by crushing the dried flowers of the pellitory (pyrethrum). The leaves, too, are often used. They are cultivated in the Caucasus, whence the specific name Caucasicum sometimes used. Pyrethrum belongs to the natural order compositse, and is closely allied to the chrysanthemum. The active principle is not a volatile oil, as stated by some writers, but a rosin, which can be dissolved out from the dry flowers by means of ether. The leaves also contain this rosin but in smaller proportions than the flowers. Tincture of pyrethrum is made by infusing the dried flowers in five times their weight of rectified spirit of wine. Diluted with water it is used as a lotion.

 

Borax powder also makes a very good insectifuge. It appears to be particularly effective against the common or kitchen cockroach. Camphor is sometimes used, and the powdered dried root of acorus calamus, the sweet flag. A mixture of white lead with four times its weight of chalk is also highly recommended. The fish-oil soaps used in a powdered form are made from various recipes, of which the following is a typical example:

 

Powdered rosin                      2 pounds

Caustic soda                        8 ounces

Fish or whale oil                   4 ounces

 

Boil together in a gallon of water for at least an hour, replacing some of the water if required.

 

The following insect-powder formulas are perfectly safe to use. In each instance insect powder relates to either one of the pyrethrum plants powdered, or to a mixture:

 

I.   

Insect powder                       8 ounces av.

Powdered borax                      8 ounces av.

Oil of pennyroyal                   2 fluidrachms

 

II.  

Insect powder                       8 ounces av.

Borax                               8 ounces av.

Sulphur                             4 ounces av.

Oil of eucalyptus                   2 fluidrachms

 

This formula is especially good for cockroaches:

 

III. 

Insect powder                       14 ounces av.

Quassia in fine powder              6 ounces av.

White hellebore, powdered           2 ounces av.

 


[425]

 

INSECT POWERS INSULATION

 

Beetle Powder.

 

Cocoa powder                        4 ounces

Starch                              8 ounces

Borax                               37 ounces

 

Mix thoroughly.

 

Remedies Against Mosquitoes. A remedy to keep off mosquitoes, etc., is composed as follows: Cinnamon oil, 1 part; patchouli oil, 1 part; sandal oil, 4 parts; alcohol, 400 parts. This has a pleasant odor.

 

Oil of pennyroyal is commonly used to keep mosquitoes away. Some form of petroleum rubbed on the skin is even more efficient, but unpleasant to use, and if left on long enough will burn the skin.

 

A 40 per cent solution of formaldehyde for mosquito bites gives remarkably quick and good results. It should be applied to the bites as soon as possible with the cork of the bottle, and allowed to dry on. Diluted ammonia is also used to rub on the bites.

 

Roach Exterminators. Borax, starch, and cocoa are said to be the principal ingredients of some of the roach foods on the market. A formula for a poison of this class is as follows:

 

Borax                               37 ounces

Starch                              9 ounces

Cocoa                               4 ounces

 

Moth Exterminators. Cold storage is the most effective means of avoiding the ravages of moths. Where this is impracticable, as in bureau drawers, camphor balls may be scattered about with satisfactory result. The following is also effective:

 

Spanish pepper                      100 parts

Turpentine oil                      50 parts

Camphor                             25 parts

Clove oil                           10 parts

Alcohol, 96 per cent                900 parts

 

Cut the Spanish pepper into little bits, and pour over them the alcohol and oil of turpentine. Let stand 2 or 3 days, then decant, and press out. To the liquid thus obtained add the camphor and clove oil, let stand a few days, then filter and fill into suitable bottles. To use, imbibe bits of bibulous paper in the liquid and put them in the folds of clothing to be protected.

 

Protecting Stuffed Furniture from Moths. The stuffing, no matter whether consisting of tow, hair, or fiber, as well as the covering, should be coated with a 10 per cent solution of sulphur in carbon

sulphide. The carbon sulphide dissolves the sulphur so as to cause a very fine division and to penetrate the fibers completely.

 

Powder to Keep Moths Away.

 

Cloves                              2 ounces

Cinnamon                            2 ounces

Mace                                2 ounces

Black pepper                        2 ounces

Orris root                          2 ounces

 

Powder coarsely and mix well together.

 

Book-Worms. When these insects infest books they are most difficult to deal with, as the ordinary destructive agents injuriously affect the paper of the book. The books should be well beaten and exposed to the sun, and a rag moistened with formalin passed through the binding and the covers where possible. In other cases the bottom edge of the binding should be moistened with formalin before putting on the shelves, so that formaldehyde vapor can be diffused.

 

INSECT POWDERS:

See Insecticides.

 

INSECT TRAP.

 

Into a china wash-basin, half filled with water, pour a glass of beer; cover the basin with a newspaper, in the center of which a small round hole is cut. Place it so that the edges of the paper lie on the floor and the hole is over the center of the basin. At night beetles and other insects, attracted by the smell of beer, climb the paper and fall through the hole into the liquid.

 

INSTRUMENT ALLOYS:

See Alloys.

 

INSTRUMENT CLEANING:

See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.

 

INSTRUMENT LACQUER:

See Lacquers.

 

Insulation

 

ELECTRIC INSULATION:

 

Insulating Varnishes. For earth cables and exposed strong current wires:

 

I.    Melt 2 parts of asphalt together with 0.4 parts of sulphur, add 5 parts of linseed oil varnish, linseed oil or cotton seed oil, keep at 320º F. for 6 hours; next pour in oil of turpentine as required.

 

II.   Maintain 3 parts of elaterite with 2 parts of linseed oil varnish at 392º F. for 5 to 6 hours; next melt 3 parts of asphalt, pour both substances together, and again maintain the temperature of

 


Next 25 Pages or Henley's Main Page
"The Science Notebook"  Copyright 2008-2017 - Norman Young