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Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

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Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 476-500







See Waters.



See Alloys.



See Wines and Liquors.



(See also Glass.)


Mirror Silvering. Mirror silvering is sometimes a misnomer, inasmuch as the coating applied to glass in the manufacture of mirrors does not always contain silver. In formula I it is an amalgam of mercury and tin.


I.    A sheet of pure tin foil, slightly larger than the glass plate to be silvered, is spread evenly on a perfectly plane stone table having a raised edge, and is well cleaned from all dust and impurity. The foil must be free from the slightest flaw or crack. The tin is next covered uniformly to a depth of 1/8 of an inch with mercury, preference being given by some to that containing a small proportion of tin from a previous operation. The glass plate, freed from all dust or grease, and repolished if necessary, is then carefully slid over the mercury.

This part of the work requires skill and experience to exclude all air bubbles, and even the best workmen are not successful every time. If there is a single bubble or scratch the operation must be repeated and the tin foil is lost; not a small expense for large sizes. When this step has been satisfactorily accomplished the remainder is easy. The glass plate is loaded with heavy weights to press out the excess of mercury which is collected and is used again. After 24 hours the mirror is lifted from the table and placed on edge against a wall, where it is left to drain well.


II.   Solution No. 1 is composed as follows: To 8 ounces of distilled water, brought to a boil, add 12 grains of silver nitrate and 12 grains of Rochelle salts. Let it come to a boil for 6 to 7 minutes; then cool and filter.


Solution No. 2 is made as follows: Take 8 ounces of distilled water, and into a small quantity poured into a tumbler put 19 grains of silver nitrate. Stir well until dissolved. Then add several drops of 26º ammonia until the solution becomes clear. Add 16 grains more of nitrate of silver, stirring well until dissolved. Add balance of distilled water and filter. The filtering must be done through a glass funnel, in which the filter paper is placed. The solution must be stirred with a glass rod. Keep the solutions in separate bottles marked No. 1 and No. 2.


Directions for Silvering: Clean the glass with ammonia and wipe with a wet chamois. Then take half and half of the two solutions in a graduating glass, stirring well with a glass rod. Pour the contents on the middle of the glass to be silvered. It will spread over the surface of itself if the glass is laid flat. Leave it until the solution precipitates.


Silvering Globes. The insides of globes may be silvered, it is said, by the following methods:


I.    Take 1/3 ounce of clean lead, and melt it with an equal weight of pure tin; then immediately add 1/2 ounce of bismuth, and carefully skim off the dross; remove the alloy from the fire, and before it grows cold add 5 ounces of mercury, and stir the whole well together; then put the fluid amalgam into a clean glass, and it is fit for use. When this amalgam is used for silvering, it should be first strained through a linen rag; then gently pour some ounces of it into the globe intended to be silvered; the alloy should be poured into the globe by means of a paper or glass funnel reaching almost to the bottom of the globe, to prevent it splashing the sides; the globe should be turned every way very slowly, to fasten the silvering.


II.   Make an alloy of 3 ounces of lead, 2 ounces of tin, and 5 ounces of bismuth. Put a portion of this alloy into the globe and expose it to a gentle heat until the compound is melted; it melts at 197º F.; then by turning the globe slowly round, an equal coating may be laid on, which, when cold, hardens and firmly adheres.


Resilvering Mirrors. If mirrors coated with amalgam become damaged they may sometimes be successfully repaired by one of the following processes:


I.    Place the old mirror in a weak solution of nitric acid - say 5 per cent - which immediately removes the silver. Rinse it a little, and then clean very thoroughly with a pledget of cotton-wool and a mixture of whiting and ammonia. Rouge will answer in place of whiting, or, as a last extreme, finest levigated pumice, first applied to a waste glass to crush down any possible grit. This cleaning is of the utmost importance, as upon its thoroughness depends eventual success.

Front, back, and edges must alike be left in a state above suspicion. The






plate is then again flowed with weak acid, rinsed under the tap, then flowed back and front with distilled water, and kept immersed in a glass-covered dish of distilled water until the solutions are ready.


The depositing vessel is the next consideration, and it should be realized that unless most of the silver in the solution finds its way on to the face of the mirror it were cheaper that the glass should be sent to the professional mirror-maker. The best plan is to use a glass dish allowing a 1/16 inch margin all round the mirror, inside. But such a glass dish is expensive, having to be made specially, there being no regular sizes near enough to 4x7 or 8x5 (usual mirror sizes). If too large, a dish must perforce be used, the sides or ends of which should be filled up with sealing wax.     Four strips of glass are temporarily bound together with 2 or 3 turns of string, so as to form a hollow square. The side pieces are 1/8 inch longer outside, and the end pieces 1/8 inch wider than the mirror glass. This frame is placed in about the center of the dish, moistened with glycerine, and the molten wax flowed outside of it to a depth of about 3/4 of an inch or more. For economy's sake, good "parcel wax" may be used, but best red sealing wax is safer. This wax frame may be used repeatedly, being cleaned prior to each silvering operation. It is the only special appliance necessary, and half an hour is a liberal time allowance for making it.


Use a stock solution of silver nitrate of the strength of 25 grains to 1 ounce of distilled water: Take 2 drachms of silver nitrate stock solution and convert it to ammonia nitrate, by adding ammonia drop by drop until the precipitate is redissolved. Add 3 1/2 ounces of distilled water.


In another measure take 80 drops (approximately 74 minims) of 40 per cent formalin. Pour the solution of ammonio nitrate of silver into the measure containing the formalin, then back into the original measure, and finally into the dish containing the glass to be silvered.

This should be done rapidly, and the dish containing the mirror well rocked until the silvering is complete, which may be ascertained by the precipitation of a black, flocculent deposit, and the clearing of the solution. The actual process of silvering takes about 2 minutes.


Cleanliness throughout is of the greatest importance. The vessels in which the solutions are mixed should be well rinsed with a solution of bichromate of potash and sulphuric acid, then washed out three or four times under the tap, and finally with distilled water. For cleans-

ing, dip the glass for a short time in a solution of bichromate of potash, to which a little sulphuric acid is added. The glass is afterwards well rinsed for a minute or two under the tap, flooded with distilled water, and dried with a clean linen cloth. A little absolute alcohol is then rubbed on with a soft linen handkerchief, which is immediately rolled into a pad and used for well polishing the surface. The cleaning with alcohol is repeated to avoid risk of failure.


After the mirror has been silvered, hold it under the tap and allow water to flow over it for about 3 minutes. Rinse it with distilled water, and stand it up on edge on blotting paper. When it is quite dry take a pad of very soft wash leather, spread a small quantity of finest opticians' rouge on a sheet of clean glass, and well coat the pad with rouge by polishing the sheet of glass. A minute quantity of rouge is sufficient. Afterwards polish the mirror by gently rubbing the surface with the pad, using a circular stroke.


It will be seen that with this process it is unnecessary to suspend the mirror in the silvering solution, as usually recommended. The mirror is laid in the dish, which is a distinct advantage, as the progress of the silvering may be watched until complete. The film also is much more robust than that obtained by the older methods.


II.   Clean the bare portion of the glass by rubbing it gently with fine cotton, taking care to remove any trace of dust and grease. If this cleaning be not done very carefully, defects will appear around the place repaired. With the point of a penknife cut upon the back of another looking glass around a portion of the silvering of the required form, but a little larger. Upon it place a small drop of mercury; a drop the size of a pin's head will be sufficient for a surface equal to the size of the nail. The mercury spreads immediately, penetrates the amalgam to where it was cut off with the knife, and the required piece may be now lifted and removed to the place to be repaired. This is the most difficult part of the operation. Then press lightly the renewed portion with cotton; it hardens almost immediately, and the glass pre-

sents the same appearance.


Clouding of Mouth Mirrors. By means of the finger, slightly moistened, apply a film of soap of any brand or kind to the mirror; then rub this off with a clean, dry cloth; the mirror will be as






bright and clear as ever. Breathing on it will not affect its clearness and the mirror does not suffer from the operation.


Magic Mirrors. Among the many amusing and curious articles which the amateur mechanic can turn out, metallic mirrors having concealed designs on them, and which can be brought into view by breathing on the polished surface, are both funny and easy to produce. To produce steel mirrors either tough bronze or good cast mottled iron discs should be used, and the design should be on the bottom of the cast disc, as this is the soundest and densest part of the metal. The method of working is different with bronze and iron, and bronze will be dealt with first.


The cast disk of bronze should be turned up level on both sides, and the edges should be turned or shaped up, the metal being about half an inch thick. On the side which was at the bottom in casting, a line should be drawn to allow for working up the border or frame of the mirror, and on the rest of the smooth surface the design should be drawn, not having too much detail. It is best to mark the lines with a sharp scriber, to prevent their effacement during working. When the disk is marked out, it should be laid on a smoothly planed iron block, and the lines punched to a depth of about 1/4 inch, a punch with round edges being used. Then the disk should be turned down to just below the surface of the punched-in metal, and the border or edge formed, finishing smoothly, but without burnishing. The back can be turned down and, with the outer edge, burnished; but the inside of the edge and the face of the mirror should be polished with fine abrasive powder, and finished with fine rouge. When dry, the mirror will appear equally bright all over; but when breathed on the design will show, again disappearing as the moisture is removed. The metal punched in will be more dense than the rest of the surface, and will also be very slightly raised, this being imperceptible unless the polishing has been too long continued.


With iron mirrors a good mottled iron must be used, selecting hematite for preference; but in any case it must be chillable metal. Preferably it should be melted in a crucible, as this causes the least change in the metallic content, and as the metal can be made hot and fluid, it works well. The design must be worked out in iron of about 1/8 inch in thickness, and must be level, as it has to touch the molten metal in the bottom of the mold. If preferred, the design may be cast and ground flat, but this depends largely on the design. The chill pattern should be coated with plumbago, and in molding the disk pattern of about 1/4 inch in thickness should be laid on a board, and on this the design – chill - should be placed, and the mold should be rammed up from the back in the ordinary manner. The casting should be allowed to get cold in the mold, and should then be removed and dressed in the usual way. It should then be ground bright all over on emery wheels of successively finer grades, and the mirror surface should be buffed and polished until a steely mirror surface is produced. With a good mottled iron the chilled design will not show until the surface is breathed on or rubbed with a greasy rag, but will then show clearly.



See Alloys.



See Glass.



See Lettering.



See Polishes.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Glass.



See Varnishes.



See Insecticides.



See Paint.



See Wax, Modeling.



See Insulation.



See also Casting and Matrix. 


Molding Sand. A high grade of molding sand should be fat, i.e, strongly mixed with clay. Naturally the molds of this sand should be employed only in a perfectly dry state. The fat molding sand is prepared artificially from quartz sand (fine sprinkling sand), fat clay, free






from lime and ferric oxide (red ocher). The molding sand is fixed by breaking up the loose pieces in which it is partly dug; next it is passed through a fine sieve and mixed up to one-third of its volume with charcoal dust, or, better still, with lampblack, which, owing to its looseness and fatness, does not detract so much from the binding qualities of the sand. The utility of the sand may be tested by pressing the finger into it, whereupon the fine lines of the skin should appear sharply defined; its binding power is ascertained by dropping a lump pressed together with the hand from a height, which is increased until it breaks.



See Plaster.



See also Warts.


Lunar caustic is frequently used to remove warts and moles. It should be wrapped in tin foil or placed in a quill so that it will not touch the bare flesh. Moisten the raised surface and touch with the caustic night and morning. Successive layers of skin will dry up and peel off. When on a level with the surrounding flesh apply a healing ointment.

Let the last crust formed drop without touching it. Unless carefully done this process may leave a white scar.


A simple remedy for warts consists in wetting and rubbing them several times a day in a strong solution of common washing soda. The electric treatment, however, is now the most popular.



See also Dyes.


Mordant for Cement Surfaces. Take green vitriol and dissolve it in hot water. If the cement is rather fresh add 1 part of vinegar for each part of green vitriol. Best suited, however, is triple vinegar (vinegar containing 11/13 per cent of acetic acid), which is alone sufficient for well dried places. For such surfaces that have been smoothed with a steel tool and have hardly any pores, take alcohol, 1 part, and green vitriol, 10 parts, and apply this twice until the iron has acquired a yellowish color. This mordant forms a neutral layer between cement and paint, and causes the latter to dry well.


Mordant for Gold Size. A mordant for gold size gilding that has been thoroughly tested and found to be often preferable to the shellac-mixed article, is prepared from yolk of egg and glycerine. The yolk of an egg is twirled in a cup and up to 30 drops of glycerine are added to it. The more glycerine added, the longer the mordant will take to dry. Or else an equal portion of ordinary syrup is mixed with the yolk of egg. Same must be thinly liquid. If the mass becomes too tough it is warmed a little or thinned with a few drops of warm water. A single application is sufficient. Naturally, this style of gilding is only practicable indoors; it cannot withstand the influence of moisture.




Asbestos mortar consists of a mixture of asbestos with 10 per cent of white lime. Canadian asbestos is generally used, which is composed of 80 per cent of asbestos and 20 per cent of serpentine. The asbestos is ground and the coarse powder used for the first rough cast, while the finer material is employed for the second top-plastering. This mortar is highly fire resisting and waterproof, is only half as heavy as cement mortar, and tough enough to admit of nails being driven in without breaking it.



See Insecticides.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under Miscellaneous Methods.



See Turpentine.



See Paper.



See Household Formulas.



See Pearl.



See Freezing Preventives.



See also Adhesives and Photography.


Mounting Drawings, Photos, etc., upon Fine Pasteboard. It frequently happens that the pasteboard will warp toward the face of the picture, even if left in a press till the gluing medium is perfectly dry. This fault can be obvi-






ated by moistening the back of the pasteboard moderately with a sponge, and, while this is still wet, pasting the picture on with good, thin glue. If moistening the pasteboard is impracticable (with sensitive drawings, paintings, etc.), paste which has been pressed through a fine cloth is rubbed on, always in the same direction, and the picture is carefully and evenly pressed on. Then bend the pasteboard backward in a wide semicircle, and place it between two heavy objects on the table. After a few hours, when the paste is completely dry, put the picture down flat and load proportionately. Papers of large size, which cannot conveniently be placed between two objects, are wrapped up, and twine is stretched around, thus keeping them bent.


Mounting Prints on Glass. Take 4 ounces of gelatin; soak 1/2 hour in cold water; then place in a glass jar, adding 16 ounces of water; put the jar in a large dish of warm water and dissolve the gelatin. When dissolved pour in a shallow tray; have the prints rolled on a roller, albumen side up; take the print by the corners and pass rapidly through the gelatin, using great care to avoid air bubbles. Squeeze carefully onto the glass. The better the quality of glass, the finer the effect.



See Antiseptics.



See Dentifrices.



See Photography.



See Adhesives.




Care must be exercised in taking apart, for if the box is wound up and the fly is removed, the cylinder is ruined. The spring relaxes at a bound, causing the cylinder to turn with such rapidity that the pins cannot resist the teeth, whose force is intensified by the velocity of the cylinder. The pins originally bent forward are broken, or pressed backwards; as they are hardened, they cannot be bent forward again without breaking. This accident involves the cost of a new cylinder, the most expensive part of the apparatus. Besides, the comb almost always loses some teeth and the wheelwork also suffers in its turn.


To avoid such mishaps the careful operator will take the parts asunder in the following order:


1. Remove the comb.

2. Take the apparatus from the box and completely disarm the spring.

3. Remove the barrel.

4. Remove the escapement.

5. Remove the cylinder.


The barrel and the wheels are cleaned like those of a watch.


The cylinder should be handled carefully. The holes should be well cleaned. Oil should be put only on the pivots, especially none on the part of the arbor to which the cylinder is attached. It is the first piece to be replaced, care being taken to see that the arbor turns freely, but without play, between the bridges. When it is in position, put in the escapement, then the barrel, and finally the comb.


The comb, representing the musical part of a simple box, cannot receive too much care. Before replacing it examine the springs closely, and in supplying the ones that are lacking, take for the model of size and form those resembling them the most. If the parts have been put together properly, then, as soon as the comb is screwed in its place, these should be found in good working order: the levée (lift) that is, that the pins do not lift the teeth too much or too little; the tombée (fall) that is, that the chords, the bass, the medium, and the treble, fall together; and the visee (pointing) that the pins catch at the center of the ends of the teeth.



See Painting.




Balsam of Tolu                      1 part

Rectified spirit                    3 parts

Jockey club                         1 part


Dissolve the balsam in the liquids. Apply a few drops to the mustache with a brush, then twist into the desired shape.





India rubber                        1 part

Benzol                              49 parts

Black mustard in powder,            a sufficiency.


Dissolve the India rubber in the benzol, then stir in the mustard until the mixture is of a suitable consistence for spreading. It was further recommended to remove the fixed oil from the mustard by percolation with benzol. Mustard paper thus made is of good quality, very active, and keeps well.









Black and white mustard, in No.

60 powder, deprived of fixed oil .              1 part

Benzol solution of India rubber (1 in 40)       4 parts


Mix to a smooth mass, and spread the same over one side of a suitable paper by means of a plaster-spreading machine, or passing the paper over the mass contained in a suitable shallow vessel. Expose to warm air for a short time to dry. Preserve the dry paper in well-closed boxes. It may be useful to know that mustard paper, after spreading, should not be long exposed to light and air. By so doing not only does the mustard bleach but the rubber soon perishes. Moreover, mustard paper is hygroscopic, so that in a moist atmosphere it soon loses its virtue. It is, therefore, highly important that mustard paper should be rapidly dried in a warm atmosphere with free ventilation, then at once stored in well-closed packets. Thus prepared they keep well and remain active for many years.



See Condiments.



See Dentifrices.




Copious applications of dried powdered alum are sufficient to cure every case of ingrowing nail in about 5 days. The applications are not painful in the least, and the destruction of the pathologic tissue results in the formation of a hard, resistant, and non-sensitive bed for the nail, a perfect cure for the ingrowing tendency. Apply a fomentation of soap and water for 24 hours beforehand and then pour the alum into the space between the nail and its bed, tamponing with cotton to keep the alum in place, and repeating the application daily. The suppuration rapidly dries up, and pain and discomfort are relieved almost at once.



See Cosmetics.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Soap.




Crude neatsfoot oil                 5,000 parts

Alcohol, 90 per cent                2,500 parts

Tannin                              5 parts


Place in a clearing flask, agitate vigorously and allow to stand for 8 days in a warm room with daily repetition of the shaking. Then draw off the spirit of wine on top, rinse again with 1,000 parts of spirit of wine (90 per cent) and place the oil in a temperature of about 53 1/2º F. Allow to stand in this temperature for at least 6 weeks, protected from the light, and then filter.



See Rust Preventives.



See Photography.



See also Dental Cements, under Cements.


Arsenious acid                4 parts

Morphine sulphate             2 parts

Clove oil                     1 part

Creosote,                     quantity sufficient to make a paste.


After the nerve is destroyed the following paste is to be put in the cavity:


Alum                          1 part

Thymol                        1 part

Zinc oxide                    1 part

Glycerine                     1 part



See Ointments.



See Ice Creams.



See Cordage.




Pure nickel will remain nearly white, while "patent nickel," or nickel- copper will not retain its primitive brilliancy, but soon becomes slightly oxidized and grayish in color. The magnet furnishes a good means of testing. The unadulterated nickel is distinctly sensitive to magnetism, while that much alloyed is destitute of this property.



See Alloys.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Plating.



See Steel.



See Plating.







See Steel.



See Explosives.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Confectionery.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Wood.



See Dentifrices.




Clock Oil. Put 2,000 parts, by weight, of virgin oil in a decanting vessel, add a solution of 40 parts of ether tannin in 400 parts of water and shake until completely emulsified. Let stand for 8 days, with frequent shaking; next, add 100 parts of talcum and, when this has also been well shaken, 1,600 parts of water. Allow to settle for 24 hours, and then run off the lower water layer, repeating the washing as long as the wash water still shows a coloration with ferric chloride. Pour the contents of the decanting vessel into an evaporating dish; then add 200 parts of thoroughly dried and finely ground cooking salt; let stand for 24 hours and filter through paper. The clock oil is now ready, and should be filled in brown glass bottles, holding 20 to 25 parts (about 1 ounce), which must be corded up well and kept at a cool temperature.




Aromatic Cod-Liver Oil.


Coumarin                            0.01 parts

Saccharine                          0.50 parts

Vanillin                            0.10 parts

Alcohol, absolute                   5.40 parts

Oil of lemon                        5.00 parts

Oil of peppermint                   1.00 part

Oil of neroli                       1.00 part

Cod-liver oil                       to make 1,000 parts


Deodorized Cod-Liver Oil. Mix 400 parts of cod-liver oil with 20 parts of ground coffee and 10 parts of bone black, warm the mixture in an open vessel to 140º F., let it stand 5 days, shaking occasionally, and strain through linen. The oil acquires the taste of coffee.


Cod-Liver Oil Emulsions.



Calcium hypophosphite               80 grains

Sodium hypophosphite                120 grains

Sodium chloride                     60 grains

Gum acacia, in powder               2 ounces

Elixir of glucoside                 20 minims

Essential oil of almonds            15 minims

Glycerine                           2 fluidounces

Cod-liver oil                       8 fluidounces

Distilled water,                    a sufficient quantity

to produce 16 fluidounces.


II.   Mix 190 parts of powdered sugar with 5 parts of acacia and 500 parts of tragacanth in a mortar. Mix in a large bottle and shake thoroughly together 500 parts of cod-liver oil and 200 parts of a cold infusion of coffee. Gradually add a part of this mixture to the powder in the mortar and triturate until emulsified. To the remaining liquid mixture add 100 parts of rum, then gradually incorporate with the contents of the mortar by trituration.


Extracting Oil from Cottonseed. Claim is made for a process of extraction, in an English patent, in which the seeds are placed in a rotable vessel mounted on a hollow shaft divided into compartments by means of a partition. The solvent is introduced at one end of this shaft and passes into the vessel, which is then made to rotate. After the extraction the bulk of the solvent and the extracted oil pass away through an exit pipe, and steam is then introduced through the same opening as the solvent, in order to cook the seeds and expel the residual solvent. The steam and the vapors pass through perforations in a scraper fixed to the shaft and thence through connected pipes into the other compartment of the shaft, the end of which is attached to a condenser.


Silver Nitrate Test for Cottonseed Oil. Investigations of Charabout and

March throw some light on the value of this test in presence of olive oil. The free-fat acids obtained from cottonseed oil by saponification were treated in accordance with the method of Milliau on a water bath with a 3 per cent solution of silver nitrate, and the brown precipitate thus formed subjected to a chemical examination. It was found to consist chiefly of a brown silver salt composed of a fat acid melting at 52º F., and congeal-






ing at 120º to 122 6º F., and of sulphide of silver. Olive oil, which contains a sulphur compound of an analogous composition, is also capable of forming a more or less distinct precipitate of a dark colored silver sulphide with nitrate of silver. It is important to bear this fact in mind when examining olive oil for cottonseed oil.


Floral Hair Oil.


White Vaseline                      5000 parts

Floricin, pure                      800 parts

Linalool rose                       60 parts

Terpineol                           50 parts

Aubepine (haw thorne), liquid       12 parts


Floral Hair Pomade


White ceresine                      250 parts

Floricin, pure                      1,600 parts

Vanillin                            3 parts

Geranium oil                        5 parts

Isoeugenol                          4 parts


Floricin Brilliantine


Floricin oil                        2,100 parts

White ceresine                      250 parts

Ylang-ylangoil                      2 parts

Kananga oil                         5 parts

Oil of rose, artificial             1 part

Cheirantia                          5 parts


Solid Linseed Oil. Cements for the manufacture of linoleum and other similar substances are composed to a large extent of linseed oil, oxidized or polymerized until it has become solid. The old process of preparing this solid oil is tedious, costly, and invites danger from

fire. It consists in running linseed oil over sheets of thin cloth hung from the top of a high building. The thin layer of oil upon the cloth dries, and then a second layer is obtained in the same way. This is continued until a thick skin of solid oil is formed on either side of the cloth. A new method of solidifying linseed oil is by means of alkalies. The drying oils, when heated with basic substances such as the alkalies, polymerize and become solid. Hertkorn makes use of the oxides of the alkaline earths, or their salts with weak acids, such as their soaps. When chalk or lime is added to the oil during the process of oxidation, either during the liquid or the plastic stage, it forms a calcium soap, and causes polymerization to set in in the partially oxidized oil. Similarly, if caustic soda or caustic potash be added, the action is not caused by them in the free state, but by the soaps which they form. Oxidized oil is more readily saponified than raw oil, and the greater the oxidation, the more readily does saponification take place. Lime soaps are not soluble in water, whereas soda and potash soaps are. Consequently a cement made with the latter, if exposed to the weather, will be acted upon by rain and moisture, owing to the soluble soap contained in it, while a cement made with lime will not be acted upon. It is suggested that the action of the bases on linseed oil is simply due to their neutralization of the free acid.

The acidity of linseed oil increases as it becomes oxidized. When the basic matter is added part of the free acid is neutralized, and polymerization sets in. The presence of a large amount of free acid must therefore hinder polymerization. From 5 to 10 per cent of chalk or lime is considered to be the amount which gives the best result in practice.


Decolorizing or Bleaching Linseed Oil. Linseed oil may be bleached by the aid of chemical bodies, the process of oxidizing or bleaching being best performed by means of peroxide of hydrogen. For this purpose, the linseed oil to be bleached is mixed with 5 per cent peroxide of hydrogen in a tin or glass bottle, and the mixture is shaken repeatedly. After a few days have elapsed the linseed oil is entirely bleached and clarified, so that it can be poured off from the peroxide of hydrogen, which has been reduced to oxide of hydrogen, i.e, water, by the process of oxidation. The use of another oxidizing medium, such as chloride of lime and hydrochloric acid or bichromate of calcium and sulphuric acid, etc., cannot be recommended to the layman, as the operation requires more care and is not without danger. If there is no hurry about the preparation of bleached linseed oil, sun bleaching seems to be the most recommendable method. For this only a glass bottle is required, or, better still, a flat glass dish, of any shape, which can be covered with a protruding piece of glass. For the admission of air, lay some sticks of wood over the dish and the glass on top. The thinner the layer of linseed oil, the quicker will be the oxidation process. It is, of course, necessary to place the vessel in such a manner that it is exposed to the rays of the sun for many hours daily.


Linseed Oil for Varnish-Making. Heat in a copper vessel 50 gallons Baltic oil to 280º F., add 2 1/2 pounds calcined white vitriol, and stir well together. Keep the oil at the above temperature for half an hour, then draw the fire, and in 24 hours decant the clear oil. It should stand for at least 4 weeks.






Refining Linseed Oil. Put 236 gallons of oil into a copper boiler, pour in 6 pounds of oil of vitriol, and stir them together for 3 hours, then add 6 pounds fuller's earth well mixed with 14 pounds hot lime, and stir for 3 hours. The oil must be put in a copper vessel with an equal quantity of water. Now boil for 3 hours, then extinguish the fire. When cold draw off the water. Let the mixture settle for a few weeks.



See also Petroleum.


Production of Consistent Mineral Oils.


                                    By weight


Mineral oil                         100 parts

Linseed oil                         25 parts

Ground nut oil                      25 parts

Lime                                10 parts



Mineral oil                         100 parts

Rosin oil                           100 parts

Rape seed oil                       50 parts

Linseed oil                         75 parts

Lime                                25 parts


Mixing Castor Oil with Mineral Oils. Castor oil is heated for 6 hours in an autoclave at a temperature of 500 to 575º F., and under a pressure of 4 to 6 atmospheres. When cold the resulting product mixes in all proportions with mineral oils.




Linseed Oil or Poppy Oil. Agitate in a glass balloon 25,000 parts, by weight, of oil with a solution of 50 parts, by weight, potassium permanganate in 1,250 parts, by volume, of water. Let stand for 24 hours at a gentle warmth and add 75 parts, by weight, of powdered sodium sulphite. Agitate strongly and add 100 parts, by weight, of hydrochloric acid and again agitate. Let stand until decolorization takes place, then wash the oil with a sufficiency of water, carrying in suspension chalk, finely powdered, until the liquid no longer has an acid reaction. Finally filter off over anhydrous sodium sulphate.


Boiled Oil. The following is especially adapted for zinc painting, but will also answer for any paint: Mix 1 part binoxide of manganese, in coarse powder, but not dusty, with 10 parts nut or linseed oil. Keep it gently heated and frequently stirred for about 30 hours, or until the oil begins to turn reddish.


British Oil.



Oil of turpentine                   40 parts

Barbadoes pitch                     26 parts

Oil of rosemary                     1 part

Oil of origanum                     1 part



Oil of turpentine                   2 parts

Rape oil                            20 parts

Spirit of tar                       2 parts

Alkanet root,                       quantity sufficient.


Macerate the alkanet root in the rape oil until the latter is colored deep red; then strain off and add the other ingredients.


Decolorizing and Deodorizing Oils.


I.    One may partially or completely deodorize and decolorize rank fish and other oils by sending a current of hot air or of steam through them, after having heated them from 175 to 200º F. To decolorize palm oil pass through it a current of steam under pressure corresponding to a temperature of 230º F., agitating the oil constantly. The vapor is then passed through leaden tuyeres of about 2 inches diameter, 10 hours being sufficient for deodorizing 4 tons of oil.


II.   Another method that may be applied to almost all kinds of fats and oils with excellent results is the following: Melt say 112 parts, by weight, of palm oil in a boiler. When the mass is entirely liquefied add to it a solution of calcium chloride, made by dissolving 7 parts, by weight, of lime chloride for every 84 parts, by weight, of oil in water, and mix intimately. After cooling, the mass hardens and is cut into small bits and exposed to the air for a few weeks. After this exposure the material is reassembled in a boiler of iron, jacketed on the inside with lead; a quantity of sulphuric acid diluted to 5 per cent, equal in amount to the lime chloride previously used, is added, and heat is applied until the oil melts and separates from the other substances. It is then left to cool off and solidify.


Decomposition of Oils, Fats, etc. In many of the processes at present in use, whereby oils and fats are decomposed by steam at a high pressure, the time during which the oil or fat has to be exposed to high pressure and temperature has the effect of considerably darkening the resulting product. Hannig's process claims to shorten the time required, by bringing the steam and oil into more intimate contact. The oil to be treated is projected in fine streams into the chamber containing steam at 8 to 10 atmospheres pressure. The streams of oil are projected with sufficient force to cause them to strike against the walls of the chamber, and they are thus broken up into minute globules which mix intimately with the steam. In this way the most satisfactory conditions for the decomposition of the oil are obtained.






Driffield Oils.


Barbadoes tar                       1 ounce

Linseed oil                         16 ounces

Oil turpentine                      3 ounces

Oil vitriol                         1/2 ounce


Add the oil of vitriol to the other ingredients very gradually, with constant stirring.


Drying Oils. To dry oils for varnishes, paintings, etc., the most economical means is to boil them with shot, to leave them for some time in contact with shot, or else to boil them with litharge. Another method consists in boiling the oils with equal parts of lead, tin, and sulphate of zinc in the ratio of 1/10 part (weight) of the united metals to 1 part of oil to be treated. These metals must be granulated, which is easily accomplished by melting them separately and putting them in cold water. They will be found at the bottom of the water in the shape of small balls. It is in this manner, by the way, that shot is produced.


Dust-Laying Oil. A process has been patented for rendering mineral oils miscible in all proportions of water. The method consists of forming an intimate mixture of the oil with a soap which is soluble in water. The most simple method is as follows: The oil is placed in a tank provided with an agitator. The latter is set in motion and the fatty oil or free fatty acid from which the soap is to be formed is added, and mixed intimately with the mineral oil. When the mixture is seen to be thoroughly homogeneous, the alkali, in solution in water, is added little by little and the stirring continued until a thorough emulsion is obtained, of which the constituents do not separate, even after prolonged standing at ordinary temperatures. The agitation may be produced either by a mechanical apparatus or by forcing air in under pressure. As a rule, the operation can be carried out in the cold, but in certain cases the solution of the fatty body and its saponification requires the application of moderate heat. This may be obtained by using either a steam jacketed pan, or by having the steam coil within the pan, or live steam may be blown through the mixture, serving at the same time both as a heating and stirring agent. Any fatty matter or fatty acid suitable for soap-making may be used, and the base may be any one capable of forming a soluble soap, most commonly the alkaline hydroxides, caustic soda, and caustic potash, as also ammonia. The raw materials are chosen according to the use to which the finished product is to be applied. A good formula, suitable for preparing an oily liquid for watering dusty roads, is as follows:


By weight

Heavy mineral oil                   75 parts

Commercial olein                    2 parts

Commercial ammonia                  1.5 parts

Water                               21.5 parts


Floor Oils.



Neatsfoot oil                       1 part

Cottonseed oil                      1 part

Petroleum oil                       1 part



Beeswax                             8 parts

Water                               56 parts

Potassium carbonate                 4 parts


Dissolve the potash in 12 parts of water; heat together the wax and the remaining water till the wax is liquefied; then mix the two and boil together until a perfect emulsion is effected. Color, if desired, with a solution of annatto.


Ground-Laying Oil for Ceramics. Boil together until thoroughly incorporated 1 pint of linseed oil, 1 pint of dissolved gum mastic, 1/2 ounce of red lead, 1/2 ounce of rosin. In using mix with Venice turpentine.


Oil Suitable for Use with Gold. Heat and incorporate linseed oil, 1 quart; rape oil, 1 pint; Canadian balsam, 3 pints; rectified spirits of tar, 1 quart.


Wool Oil. These are usually produced by the distillation in retorts of Yorkshire grease and other greases. The distilled oil is tested for quality, and is brought down to 70 per cent or 50 per cent grades by the addition of a suitable quantity of mineral oil. The lower the quality of the grease used the lower is the grade of the resulting wool oil.



See Castor Oil.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Leather.



See Foods.



See Castor Oil.



See Lubricants.







See Fats.



See Linoleum.



See Adhesives.



See Varnishes.



See Waterproofing.



See Waterproofing.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Lubricants.




Arnica Salve.


Solid extract of arnica             2 parts

Rosin ointment                      16 parts

Petrolatum                          4 parts

Sultanas                            16 parts

Fine cut tobacco                    1 part


Boil the raisins and the tobacco in 40 ounces of water until exhausted, express the liquid, and evaporate down to 8 ounces. Soften the arnica extract in a little hot water and mix in the liquid. Melt the rosin ointment and petrolatum together, and add the liquid to the melted mass and incorporate thoroughly.


Barbers' Itch.


Ichthyol                            30 grains

Salicylic acid                      12 grains

Mercury oleate (10 per cent)        3 drachms

Lanolin                             1 ounce


Mix.  To be kept constantly applied to the affected parts.


Brown Ointment.


Rosin                               1 ounce

Lead plaster                        4 ounces

Soap cerate                         8 ounces

Yellow beeswax                      1 ounce

Olive oil                           7 1/2 fluidounces


Chilblains. The following are for unbroken chilblains:



Sulphurous acid                     3 parts

Glycerine                           1 part

Water                               1 part



Balsam Peru                         1 part

Alcohol                             24 parts

Hydrochloric acid                   1 part

Tincture benzoin compound           8 parts


Dissolve the balsam in the alcohol, and add the acid and tincture. Apply morning and evening.


Domestic Ointments.



Vaseline                            80 parts

Diachylon ointment                  30 parts

Carbolic acid                       4 parts

Camphor                             5 parts



Butter, fresh (unsalted)            750 parts

Wax, yellow                         125 parts

Rosin, white                        100 parts

Nutmeg oil                          15 parts

Peru balsam                         1 part



Lead plaster, simple                6,090 parts

Vaseline, yellow                    1,000 parts

Camphor                             65 parts

Carbolic acid                       50 parts




Green Salve.


White pine turpentine               8 ounces

Lard, fresh                         8 ounces

Honey                               4 ounces

Beeswax, yellow                     4 ounces


Melt, stir well, and add


Verdigris, powdered                 4 drachms


Apply locally.


This cannot be surpassed when used for deep wounds, as it prevents the formation of proud flesh and keeps up a healthy discharge.


Salve for all Wounds.


Lard, fresh                         16 ounces

White lead, dry                     3 ounces

Red lead, dry                       1 ounce

Beeswax, yellow                     3 ounces

Black rosin                         2 ounces


Mix, melt, and boil for 45 minutes, then add


Common turpentine                   4 ounces


Boil for 3 minutes and cool.


Apply locally to cuts, burns, sores, ulcers, etc. It first draws, then heals.


Irritating Plaster.


Tar, purified                       16 ounces

Burgundy pitch                      1 ounce

White pine turpentine               1 ounce

Rosin, common                       2 ounces


Melt and add


Mandrake root, powdered             1 drachm

Bloodroot, powdered                 1 ounce

Poke root, powdered                 1 ounce

Indian turnip root, powdered        1 ounce


Apply to the skin in the form of a






plaster (spread on muslin) and renew it daily.


This salve will raise a sore which is to be wiped with a dry cloth to remove matter, etc. The sore must not be wetted. This is a powerful counter-irritant for removing internal pains, and in other cases where an irritating plaster is necessary.


Mercury Salves.


I.    Red Salve. Red mercury oxide, 1 part; melted lard, 9 parts.


II.   White Salve. Mercury precipitate, 1 part; melted lard, 9 parts.


Pink salve.


Ammoniated mercury                  1 ounce

Mercuric oxide, precipitated        2 1/2 ounces

Red mercuric sulphide (vermilion)   60 grains

Perfume                             1/2 fluidounce

Lard                                1 1/2 pounds

Prepared suet                       1/2 pound


Antiseptic Nervine Ointment.


Iodoform                            2 parts

Salol                               4 parts

Boric acid                          5 parts

Antipyrine                          5 parts

Vaseline                            80 parts


Photographers' Ointment. The following protects the hands from photographic chemicals:


Best castile soap,

in fine shavings                    1 ounce

Water                               1 ounce

Wax                                 1 ounce

Ammonia                             45 minims

Lanolin                             1 ounce


The soap is dissolved in the water heated for that purpose, the wax mixed in with much stirring, and, when all is in solution, the ammonia is added. When clear, the lanolin is put in, and then, if the mixture is very thick, water is added until the whole has the consistency of honey. Keep in a covered stoneware jar. The hands should be first washed with ordinary soap, and then, while the lather is still on them, a bit of the mixture about the size of a hazel nut is rubbed in until all is absorbed, and the hands are dry. At the close of the work, the film of wax is washed off in warm water and a little lanolin rubbed into the hands.


Pain-Subduing Ointment. The following is an excellent formula:


Tincture of capsicum                5 parts

Tincture of camphor                 1 part

Ammonia water                       2 parts

Alcohol                             2 parts

Soap liniment                       2 parts



Skin Ointment.


I.    Add about 2 per cent of phenol to petrolatum, perfuming it with oil of bergamot and color a dull green. It has been suggested that a mixture of Prussian blue and yellow ocher would answer as the coloring agent.



Phenol                              40 grains

Boric acid                          2 drachms

Oil of bergamot                     90 minims

Petrolatum                          1 pound


Color with chlorophyll.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Soap.



See Butter.



See Butter Substitutes.



See Adhesives.



See Beverages, under Lemonades.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Confectionery.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Beverages, under Lemonades.



See Beverages.



See Beverages, under Lemonades.



See Photography.



See Bronzing, Plating, Painting.



See Rust Preventives.



See Rubber.



See Air Purifying.



See Beverages, under Ginger Ale.



See Waxes.








Packing for Stuffing Boxes.


Tallow                              10 parts

Barrel soap, non-filled             30 parts

Cylinder oil                        10 parts

Talcum Venetian, finely powdered    20 parts

Graphite, finely washed             6 parts

Powdered asbestos                   6 parts


Melt the tallow and barrel soap together, add the other materials in rotation, mix intimately in a mixing machine, and fill in 4-pound cans.


Packing for Gasoline Pumps. For packing pumps on gasoline engines use asbestos wick-packing rubbed full of regular laundry soap; it will work without undue friction and will pack tightly. Common rubber packing is not as good, as the gasoline cuts it out.



See Paper Pads.



See Ointments.




Painting Ornaments or Letters on Cloth and Paper. Dissolve gum shellac in 95 per cent alcohol at the rate of 1 pound of shellac to 3 pints of alcohol, and mix with it any dry color desired. If it becomes too thick, thin with more alcohol. This works free, does not bleed out, imparts brilliancy to the color, and wears well. The preparation can be used also on paper.


Painting on Marble. To paint marble in water colors, it must be first thoroughly cleaned and all grease completely removed. The slab is washed well, and then rubbed off with benzine by means of a rag or sponge. In order to be quite sure, add a little ox gall or aguoline to the colors. After marble has been painted with water colors it cannot be polished any more.


Painting on Muslin. To paint on muslin requires considerable skill. Select a smooth wall or partition, upon which tack the muslin, drawing the fabric taut and firm. Then make a solution of starch and water, adding one-fourth starch to three-fourths water, and apply a glaze of this to the muslin. To guard against the striking in of the paint, and to hold it more securely in place and texture, mix the pigment with rubbing varnish to the consistency of a stiff paste, and then thin with turpentine to a free working condition. A double thick camel's-hair brush, of a width to correspond properly with the size of the surface to be coated, is the best tool with which to coat fine muslin. A fitch-hair tool is probably best suited to the coarser muslin. Many painters, when about to letter on muslin, wet the material with water; but this method is not so reliable as sizing with starch and water. Wetting canvas or duck operates very successfully in holding the paint or color in check, but these materials should not be confounded with muslin, which is of an entirely different texture.



See Leather.




Protection for Oil Paintings. Oil paintings should under no circumstances be varnished over before the colors are surely and unmistakably dry, otherwise the fissuring and early decay of the surface may be anticipated. The contention of some people that oil paintings need the protection of a coat of varnish is based upon the claim that the picture, unvarnished, looks dead and lusterless in parts and glossy in still others, the value and real beauty of the color being thus unequally manifested. It is not to be inferred, however, that a heavy coating of varnish is required. When it is deemed advisable to varnish over an oil painting the varnish should be mastic,

with perhaps 3 or 4 drops of refined linseed oil added to insure against cracking. A heavy body of varnish used over paintings must be strictly prohibited, inasmuch as the varnish, as it grows in age, naturally darkens in color, and in so doing carries with it a decided clouding and discoloration of the delicate pigments. A thinly applied coat of mastic varnish affords the required protection from all sorts and conditions of atmospheric impurities, besides fulfilling its mission in other directions.


Oil paintings, aquarelles, etc., may be also coated with a thin layer of Canada balsam, and placed smoothly on a pane of glass likewise coated with Canada balsam, so that both layers of balsam come together. Then the pictures are pressed down from the back, to remove all air bubbles.


To Renovate Old Oil Paintings. When old oil paintings have become dark and cracked, proceed as follows: Pour alcohol in a dish and put the picture over it, face downward. The fumes of the alcohol dissolve the paint of the picture, the fissures close up again, and






the color assumes a freshness which is surprising. Great caution is absolutely necessary, and one must look at the painting very often, otherwise it may happen that the colors will run together or even run off in drops.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



(See also Acid-Proofing, Ceramics, Enamels, Fireproofing, Glazing, Painting Processes, Pigments, Rust Preventives, Varnishes, and Waterproofing.)




Dry Bases for Paints. The following colors and minerals, mixed in the proportions given and then ground to fine powder, make excellent dry paints, and may be thinned with turpentine oil, and a small percentage of cheap varnish to consistency required.




Yellow ocher                        44 pounds

Whiting                             6 pounds

Oxide of zinc                       5 pounds

Plaster of Paris                    1/2 pound


Brick Brown.


Yellow ocher                        26 pounds

Calcined copperas                   4 pounds

Red hematite                        1 1/4 pounds

Best silica                         7 pounds

Whiting                             18 pounds




Oxide of zinc                       30 pounds

White lead                          6 pounds

Whiting                             12 pounds

Bone black                          1/4 pound

Yellow ocher                        2 pounds




Indian red                          25 pounds

Crocus martis                       7 pounds

Oxide of zinc                       6 pounds

Whiting                             6 pounds


Vandyke Brown.


Yellow ocher                        25 pounds

Whiting                             18 pounds

Umber                               4 pounds

Oxide of zinc                       7 pounds

Purple oxide of iron                1 pound


Blood Red.


Crocus martis                       30 pounds

Whiting                             20 pounds

Hematite                            3 pounds

Silica                              6 pounds

Venetian red                        2 pounds




Yellow ocher                        40 pounds

Whiting                             10 pounds

Oxide of zinc                       8 1/2 pounds

Sulphate of barites                 1 pound


Paint for Blackboards.


Shellac                             1 pound

Alcohol                             1 gallon

Lampblack (fine quality)            4 ounces

Powdered emery                      4 ounces

Ultramarine blue                    4 ounces


Dissolve the shellac in the alcohol. Place the lampblack, emery, and ultramarine blue on a cheesecloth strainer, pour on part of the shellac solution, stirring constantly and gradually adding the solution until all of the powders have passed through the strainer.


Dark-Green Paint for Blackboards. Mix 1 part Prussian blue and 1 part chrome green with equal parts of gilders' size and alcohol to a thin cream consistency. Apply with a large, stiff brush and after an hour a second coat is given. After 24 to 48 hours smooth the surface with a felt cloth. This renders it rich and velvety. The shade must be a deep black green and the quantities of the colors have to be modified accordingly if necessary. Old blackboards should be previously thoroughly cleaned with soda.




I.    The so-called "banana solution " (the name being derived from its odor) which is used in applying bronzes of various kinds, is usually a mixture of equal parts of amyl acetate, acetone, and benzine, with just enough pyroxyline dissolved therein to give it body. Powdered bronze is put into a bottle containing this mixture and the paint so formed applied with a brush. The thin covering of pyroxyline that is left after the evaporation of the liquid protects the bronze from the air and keeps it from being wiped off by the cleanly housemaid. Tarnished picture frames and tarnished chandeliers to which a gold bronze has been applied from such a solution will look fresh and new for a long time. Copper bronze as well as gold bronze and the various colored bronze powders can be used in the "banana solution" for making very pretty advertising signs for use in the drug store. Lettering and bordering work upon the signs can be done with it. Several very small, stiff painters' brushes are needed for such work and they must






be either kept in the solution when not in use, or, better still, washed in benzine or acetone immediately after use and put away for future service. As the "banana solution" is volatile, it must be kept well corked.


II.   A good bronzing solution for paint tins, applied by dipping, is made by dissolving Syrian asphaltum in spirits of turpentine, etc., and thinning it down with these solvents to the proper bronze color and consistency. A little good boiled oil will increase the adherence.


Paint Brushes. To soften a hard paint brush, stand the brush overnight in a pot of soft soap and clean in warm water. Afterwards clean in benzine. If the brush is wrapped with a string do not let the string touch the soap.


Paint brushes which have dried up as hard as stone can be cleaned in the following manner: Dissolve 1 part soda in 3 parts water; pour the solution in a cylinder glass, and suspend in it the brushes to be cleaned, so that they are about 2 inches from the bottom of the vessel. Let it remain undisturbed at a temperature of 140º to 158º F., 12 to 24 hours, after which the most indurated brushes will have become soft, so that they can be readily cleaned with soap. It is essential, however, to observe the temperature, as bristle brushes will be injured and spoiled if the heat is greater.


Black. A Permanent Black of Rich Luster for Metal Boxes. Dissolve chlorate of potassium and blue vitriol, equal parts, in 36 times as much water, and allow the solution to cool. The parts to be blacked may be either dipped in the solution, or the solution may be flowed on and allowed to remain until the metal becomes black, after which the fixtures should be rinsed in clean water and allowed to dry. Those parts of the surface which show imperfections in the black should be recoated.


Dead White on Silver Work, etc. Bruise charcoal very finely and mix it with calcined borax in the proportion of 4 parts of charcoal to 1 of borax.  Of this make a paste with water; apply this paste on the parts to be deadened; next expose the piece to the fire of well-lit coal until it acquires a cherry-red shade; allow to cool and then place it in water slightly acidulated with sulphuric acid. The bath must not be more than 5º Bé. Leave the piece in the bath about 2 hours, then rinse off several times.


White 'Coating for Signs, etc. A white color for signs and articles exposed to the air is prepared as follows for the last coat: Thin so called Dutch "stand" oil with oil of turpentine to working consistency, and grind in it equal parts of zinc white and white lead, not adding much siccative, as the white lead assists the drying considerably. If the paint is smoothed well with a badger brush, a very durable white color of great gloss is obtained. Linseed oil, or varnish which has thickened like "stand" oil by long open storing, will answer equally well.


To Prevent Crawling of Paints. Probably the best method to pursue will be to take an ordinary flannel rag and carefully rub it over the work previous to varnishing, striping, or painting. This simple operation will obviate the possibility of crawling.


In some instances, however, crawling may be traced to a defective varnish. The latter, after drying evenly on a well prepared paint surface will at times crawl, leaving small pitmarks. For this, the simple remedy consists in purchasing varnish from a reputable manufacturer.



See also Fireproofing.


Fireproofing paints of effective quality are prepared in different ways. Naturally no oily or greasy substances enter into their composition, the blending agent being simply water.


I.    One of the standing paints consists of 40 pounds of powdered asbestos, 10 pounds of aluminate of soda, 10 pounds of lime, and 30 pounds of silicate of soda, with the addition of any nonrosinous coloring matter desired. The whole is thoroughly mixed with enough water to produce a perfect blend and render an easy application. Two or more coats of this is the rule in applying it to any wood surface, inside or outside of building.


II.   Another formula involves the use of 40 pounds of finely ground glass, a like amount of ground porcelain, and similarly of China clay or the same quantity of powdered asbestos, and 20 pounds of quicklime. These materials are ground very fine and then mixed in 60 pounds of liquid silicate of soda with water, as in the preceding formula. Two or more coats, if necessary, are given.


Each of these paints is applied with a brush in the ordinary way, the drying being accomplished in a few hours, and, if coloring matter is desired, the above proportions are varied accordingly.


III.  A surface coated with 3 coats of water glass, these 3 coats being subse-






quently coated with water glass containing enough whiting or ground chalk to make it a trifle thicker than ordinary paint, is practically non-inflammable, only yielding to fierce consuming flames after a somewhat protracted exposure.


IV.   Zinc white, 70 pounds; air slaked lime, 39 pounds; white lead, 50 pounds; sulphate of zinc, 10 pounds; silicate of soda, 7 gallons. The zinc white and lime are mixed together, then ground in elastic oil, after which the silicate of soda is added, this addition being followed by the white lead and sulphate of zinc. This white paint can be colored to meet any desired shade and it may be classed as a good working paint and probably fireproof to the same extent that most of the pretentiously sounded pigments on the markets are.


Fireproof and Waterproof Paints.

The following recipes are claimed to resist both fire and water: A preparation for protecting wood against the action of fire and of moisture, and also for producing on the surface of wood and metal a coat, insulating with reference to electricity and preservative from corrosion, has been introduced in France by Louis Bethisy and Myrthil Rose. The bases or fundamental raw materials quite distinct from those hitherto employed for the same purpose, are 100 parts, by weight, of nitro-cellulose and 30 parts, by weight, of chloride of lime, dissolved in 50 per cent alcohol.


Preparation of the Bases. The cellulose (of wood, paper, cotton, linen, ramie, or hemp) is put in contact with two thirds part of sulphuric acid of 66º Bé. and one-third part of nitric acid of 42º Bé. for some 20 or 30 minutes, washed with plenty of water, and kept for 24 hours in a tank of water supplied with an energetic current.


The nitro-cellulose thus obtained is bleached for this purpose; a double hypochlorite of aluminum and magnesium is employed. This is obtained by grinding together 100 parts of chloride of lime, 60 parts of aluminum sulphate, 23 parts of magnesium sulphate, with 200 parts of water.


When the nitro-cellulose is bleached and rewashed, it is reduced to powder and dried as thoroughly as possible. It is then placed in a vat hermetically closed and put in contact with the indicated proportion of calcium chloride dissolved in alcohol. This solution of calcium chloride should be prepared at least 24 hours in advance and filtered.


Composition of the Coating. This has the following constituents: Bases

(nitro-cellulose and solution of calcium chloride), 1 part; amyl acetate (solvent of the bases), 5 parts, by weight; sulphuric ether of 65º, 1.650 parts, by weight; alcohol, 0.850 parts, by weight; one of these powders, alum, talc, asbestos, or mica, 0.100 parts. Other solvents may be employed instead of amyl acetate; for example, acetone, acetic acid, ether alcohol, or methylic alcohol. The ether alcohol furnishes a product drying very quickly. If a very pliant coating is desired, the amyl acetate is employed preferably, with addition of vaseline oil, 0.20 parts, and lavender oil, 0.010 parts.


Method of Operating. The sulphuric acid is mixed with the alcohol, and left for an hour in contact, shaking from time to time. Afterwards the amyl acetate is added, and left in contact for another hour under similar agitation. In case of the employment of vaseline oil and lavender oil, these two are mingled in ether alcohol. The base is introduced and left in contact for 24 hours, with frequent agitation. The fluidity of the product is augmented by increasing the quantity of the solvent.


Properties. Wood covered with this coating is fireproof, non-hygrometric, and refractory to the electric current. It also resists the action of acids and alkalies. Metals covered with it are sheltered from oxidation, and effectually insulated on their surface from the electric current. The coating is liquid in form, and applied like collodions, either by the brush or by immersion or other suitable method.


Paint Deadening. In order to obtain an even dullness of large walls, proceed as follows: After all the dirt has been carefully swept off, oil with 2 parts linseed oil and 1 part turpentine and rub down the smooth places in the wet oil with pumice stone. When the oil coating is dry, mix the ground paint, consisting of whiting, 2 parts; and white lead, 1 part; both finely ground and diluted as above. Do not apply the grounding too thin, because the chalk in itself possesses little covering power. It is not the mission of the chalk, however, to adulterate the material, but to afford a hard foundation for the subsequent coats. For the third coating take white lead, 1 part; and zinc white, 1 part; thin as above and blend with a soft hair pencil.

For the final application use only zinc white, ground stiff in oil with any desired mixing color and thinned with turpentine and rain water. Mix the






water and the turpentine with the color at the same time, and this coat may be dabbed instead of blended. By the addition of water the paint becomes dull more slowly and is a little more difficult to lay on; but it does not show a trace of gloss after a few days and never turns yellow, even in places less exposed to the air, and besides excels by great permanency.


Another way is to add white wax instead of water to the last coating. This wax paint also gives a handsome dullness but is more difficult of treatment. A nice matt coating is also obtained by addition of Venetian soap, dissolved in water instead of the wax. This is very desirable for church decorations where exceptionally large surfaces are to be deadened.





Ordinary barites                    25 pounds

Whiting                             4 pounds

Litharge                            2 pounds

Sulphate of zinc                    2 pounds

Sugar of lead                       2 pounds

Boiled linseed oil                  5 pounds

Plaster of Paris                    1/2 pound



Whiting                             16 pounds

Barytes                             16 pounds

White lead                          3 pounds

Boiled linseed oil                  3/4 gallon




Gold Paints. The formulas of the various gold paints on the market are carefully guarded trade secrets. Essentially they consist of a bronze powder mixed with a varnish. The best bronze powder for the purpose is what is known in the trade as "French flake," a deep gold bronze. This bronze, as seen under the microscope, consists of tiny flakes or spangles of the bronze metal. As each minute flake forms a facet for the reflection of color, the paint made with it is much more brilliant than that prepared from finely powdered bronze.


For making gold paint like the socalled "washable gold enamel " that is sold by the manufacturers at the present time, it is necessary to mix a celluloid varnish with the French flake bronze powder. This varnish is made by dissolving transparent celluloid in amyl acetate in the proportion of about 5 per cent of celluloid.


Transparent celluloid,

finely shredded                     1 ounce

Acetone                             sufficient quantity

Amyl acetate                        to make 20 ounces


Digest the celluloid in the acetone until dissolved and add the amyl acetate. From 1 to 4 ounces of flake bronze is to be mixed with this quantity of varnish. For silver paint or "aluminum enamel," flake aluminum bronze powder should be used in place of the gold. The celluloid varnish incloses the bronze particles in an impervious coating, air-tight and water-tight. As it contains nothing that will act upon the bronze, the latter retains its luster for a long period, until the varnished surface becomes worn or abraded and the bronze thus exposed to atmospheric action.


All of the "gold" or, more properly, gilt furniture that is sold so cheaply by the furniture and department stores is gilded with a paint of this kind, and for that reason such furniture can be offered at a moderate price. The finish is surprisingly durable, and in color and luster is a very close imitation of real gold-leaf work. This paint is also used on picture frames of cheap and medium grades, taking the place of gold leaf or the lacquered silver leaf formerly used on articles of the better grades; it is also substituted for "Dutch metal," or imitation gold leaf, on the cheapest class of work.


A cheaper gold paint is made by using an inexpensive varnish composed of gutta percha, gum dammar, or some other varnish gum, dissolved in benzole, or in a mixture of benzole and benzine. The paints made with a celluloid-amyl-acetate varnish give off a strong banana like odor when applied, and may be readily recognized by this characteristic.


The impalpably powdered bronzes are called "lining" bronzes. They are chiefly used for striping or lining by carriage painters; in bronzing gas fixtures and metal work; in fresco and other interior decoration, and in printing; the use of a very fine powder in inks or paints admits of the drawing or printing of very delicate lines.


Lining bronze is also used on picture frames or other plastic ornamental work. Mixed with a thin weak glue sizing it is applied over "burnishing clay," and when dry is polished with agate burnishers. The object thus treated, after receiving a finishing coat of a thin transparent varnish, imitates very closely in appearance a piece of finely cast antique bronze. To add still more to this effect the burnishing clay is colored the greenish black that is seen in the deep parts of real antique bronzes, and the bronze powder, mixed with size, is applied only to the most prominent parts or "high lights" of the ornament.






Since the discovery of the celluloid-amyl-acetate varnish, or bronze liquid, and its preservative properties on bronze powders, manufacturers have discontinued the use of liquids containing oils, turpentine, or gums, since their constituents corrode the bronze metal, causing the paint finally to turn black.


Gilding in Size. The old painters and gilders used to prepare the gold size themselves, but nowadays it is usually bought ready made, barring the white of egg additional. The best and most reliable, and especially suited for fine work, is undoubtedly the red French gold size. It is cleaned, as far as possible, of all impurities, and powdered. For 246 grains take 1 white of egg; put it into a glass, taking care to exclude the yolk entirely otherwise the burnish will show black spots. Beat the white of egg to a froth with a long, well-cleaned bristle brush; add the froth to the size and grind finely together, which is soon done.

When grinding, a little water and red size, if necessary, may be added (use only water for thinning). After being ground, the size is forced through a very fine hair sieve into a perfectly clean vessel, and covered up well, for immediate or subsequent use.


The raw stuff of the red size is bolus, which is dug in France and Armenia in excellent quality. Besides the red size there are yellow, white (pipe clay), blue, and gray (alumina), which are used for certain purposes, to enumerate which here would lead too far.


For burnish gold, always take yellow size for ground work. Dip a finely ground bristle brush in the gold size prepared for use; fill a well-cleaned glass (holding 1 pint) half full of water, and add the size contained in the brush, also about 4 to 5 spoonfuls of pure alcohol.

It is advisable not to take too much size; the liquid, when applied, must hardly have a yellow tint. When this is dry soon after, commence applying the size, for which a hair pencil is used. The essentials are to paint evenly and not too thickly, so that the tone remains uniform.

Apply three coats of size.


When the size is laid on correctly and has become dry, brush the whole with a special brush, or rub with a flannel rag, so as to obtain the highest possible luster. The size must not stand too long; otherwise no gloss can be developed. After brushing, coat the work with weak glue water and wrap it up in tissue paper if the gilding is not to be done at once.


The strictest cleanliness is essential, as the red gold size is very sensitive. The parts where the size has been applied must not be touched with the hand, else grease spots will ensue, which will make a flawless gloss in gilding impossible. The least relaxation of the necessary attention may spoil the whole job, so that everything has to be ground off again.


The necessary tools for the application of gold leaf are: Hair pencils of various sizes, tip, cushion, and gilding knife, as with oil gilding. Take pure alcohol or grain brandy, and dilute with two thirds water. When ready to apply the gold leaf, dip a hair pencil of suitable size into the fluid, but do not have it full enough that the alcohol will run on the size ground. Moisten a portion of the ground surface as large as the gold leaf, which is laid on immediately after. Proceed in the same manner, first moistening, then applying the ready-cut gold

leaf. The latter must not be pressed on, but merely laid down lightly, one leaf a little over the edge of the previous one, without using up too much gold. Technical practice in gold-leaf gilding is presupposed; through this alone can any skill be acquired, reading being of no avail.


The leaf of gold being applied, all dust must be swept off by means of a light, fine hair pencil (but never against the overlapping edges), and the burnishing is commenced. For this purpose there are special agate tools of the shape of a horn. Flint stone, blood stone, and wolf's teeth are sometimes, but gradually more seldom, employed. Burnish till a full, fine luster appears; but very carefully avoid dents and lines, not to speak of scratches, which would be very hard to mend.


Gold Enamel Paints.



Pure turps                          6 pints

Copal varnish                       1 pint

Good gold bronze                    6 1/2 pounds

Calcis hydrate (dry slaked lime)    1/2 ounce


Mix the varnish and turps at a gentle heat, then slake well with the lime, and settle for a few days, then pour off the clean portion and mix with the powder.



White hard varnish                  1 gallon

Methylated spirit                   3/4 gallon

Gold bronze                         12 pounds

Finely powdered mica                3 ounces


Mix the varnish and the spirit, reduce the mica to an impalpable powder, mix with the gold, then add to the liquid. Many bronze powders contain a goodly






proportion of mica, as it imparts brilliancy. Powdered mother of pearl is used also.



See also Wood.


Oak Graining. Prepare a paint of two thirds of white lead and one third of golden ocher with the requisite amount of boiled linseed oil and a little drier, and cover the floor twice with this mixture, which possesses great covering power. When the last coating is dry, paint the floor with a thinly liquid paint consisting of varnish and sienna, applying the same in the longitudinal direction of the boards. Treat a strip about 20 inches wide at a time, and draw at once a broad paint brush or, in the absence of such, an ordinary brush or goose feather along the planks through the wet paint, whereupon the floor will acquire a nicely grained appearance. The paint requires several days to dry. A subsequent coating of varnish will cause the graining to stand out still more prominently.


Birch. Imitations of birch are usefully employed for furniture. The ground should be a light, clean buff, made from white lead, stained with either yellow ocher or raw sienna in oil. In graining, brush over the surface with a thin wash of warm brown, making the panel of 2 or 3 broad color shades. Then take a large mottler and mottle the darker parts into the light, working slantwise, as for maple, but leaving a broad and stiff mark. While this is still wet soften the panel and then slightly mottle across the previous work to break it up. When thoroughly dry, carefully wet the work over with clean water and clean mottler, and put in darker overgrain with a thin oak overgrainer or

overgrainer in tubes.


Maple. Sixty pounds white lead; 1 ounce deep vermilion; 1 ounce lemon chrome.


Ash. Sixty pounds white lead; 1 ounce deep vermilion; 1 ounce lemon chrome.


Medium Oak. Sixty pounds white lead; 2 pounds French ocher; 1 ounce burnt umber.


Light Oak. Sixty pounds white lead; 1 ounce lemon chrome; 1/2 pound French ocher.


Dark Oak. Sixty pounds white lead; 10 pounds burnt umber; 1 1/2 pounds medium Venetian red.


Satin Wood. Sixty pounds white lead; 1 ounce deep vermilion; 1 1/2 pounds lemon chrome.


Pollard Oak. Seventy-five pounds white lead; 20 pounds French ocher; 3 pounds burnt umber; 2A pounds medium Venetian red.


Pitch Pine. Sixty pounds white lead; 1/4 pound French ocher; 1/2 pound medium Venetian red.


Knotted Oak. Sixty pounds white lead; 9 pounds French ocher; 3 1/2 pounds burnt umber.


Italian Walnut. Sixty pounds white lead; 6 pounds French ocher; 1 1/2 pounds burnt umber; 1 1/4 pounds medium Venetian red.


Rosewood. Nine and one-half pounds burnt umber; 40 pounds medium Venetian red; 10 pounds orange chrome.


Dark Mahogany. Nine and one-half pounds burnt umber; 40 pounds medium Venetian red; 10 pounds orange chrome.


Light Mahogany. Sixty pounds white lead; 3 pounds burnt umber; 10 pounds medium Venetian red.


American Walnut. Thirty pounds white lead; 9 pounds French ocher; 4 pounds burnt umber; 1 pound medium Venetian red.




The illuminating power of the phosphorescent masses obtained by heating strontium thiosulphate or barium thiosulphate is considerably increased by the addition, before heating, of small quantities of the nitrates of uranium, bismuth, or thorium. Added to calcium thiosulphate, these nitrates do not heighten the luminosity or phosphorescence. The product from strontium thiosulphate is more luminous than that of the barium compound. Among the best luminous paints are the following:


I.    Lennord's. One hundred parts, by weight, of strontium carbonate; 100 parts, by weight, of sulphur; 0.5 parts, by weight, of potassium chloride; 0.5 parts, by weight, of sodium chloride; 0.4 parts, by weight, of manganese chloride. The materials are heated for three-quarters of an hour to one hour, to about 2,372º F. The product gives a violet light.


II.   Mourel's. One hundred parts, by weight, of strontium carbonate; 30 parts, by weight, of sulphur; 2 parts by weight, of sodium carbonate; 0.5 parts, by weight, of sodium chloride: 0.2 parts, by weight, of manganese sulphate. The method of treatment is the same as in the first, the phosphorescence deep yellow.






III.  Vanino's. Sixty parts, by weight, of strontium thiosulphate; 12 parts, by weight, of a 0.5 per cent acidified alcoholic solution of bismuth nitrate; 6 parts, by weight, of a 0.5 per cent alcoholic solution of uranium nitrate. The materials are mixed, dried, brought gradually to a temperature of 2,372º F., and heated for about an hour. The phosphorescence is emerald green.


IV.   Balmain's. Twenty parts, by weight, of calcium oxide (burnt lime), free from iron; 6 parts, by weight, of sulphur; 2 parts, by weight, of starch; 1 part, by weight, of a 0.5 per cent solution of bismuth nitrate; 0.15 parts, by weight, of potassium chloride; 0.15 parts, by weight, of sodium chloride. The materials are mixed, dried, and heated to 1,300 C. (2,372º F.). The product gives a violet light.


To make these phosphorescent substances effective, they are exposed for a time to direct sunlight; or a mercury lamp may be used. Powerful incandescent gas light also does well, but requires more time.




Blackening Ornaments of Iron.


I.    To give iron ornaments a black-brown to black color, proceed in the following manner: The articles are treated with corrosives, cleaned of all adhering grease, and placed in a 10 per cent solution of potassium bichromate, dried in the air, and finally held over an open, well-glowing, non-sooting fire for 2 minutes. The first coloring is usually black brown, but if this process is repeated several times, a pure black shade is obtained. Special attention has to be paid to removing all grease, otherwise the greasy spots will not be touched by the liquid, and the coloring produced will become irregular.

Benzine is employed for that purpose and the articles must not be touched with the fingers afterwards.


II.   This process protects the iron from rust for a long time. The treatment consists in coating the objects very uniformly with a thin layer of linseed-oil varnish, and burning it off over a charcoal fire. During the deflagration the draught must be stopped. The varnish will first go up in smoke with a strong formation of soot, and finally burn up entirely. The process is repeated, i.e, after one coating is burned off a new one is applied, until the parts exhibit a uniformly handsome, deep black color. Next, wipe off the covering with a dry rag and heat again, but only moderately. Finally, the articles are taken from the fire and rubbed with a rag well saturated with linseed-oil varnish. The black turns completely dull, and forms a real durable covering for the objects.


Black for Polished Iron Pieces. Apply successive layers of a very concentrated solution of nitrate of manganese dissolved in alcohol over a gentle fire and the water bath. The surfaces to be blackened should be previously heated. By repeating the layers all the tints between brownish black and bluish black may be obtained.


Glossy Black for Bicycles, etc.


Amber                               8 ounces

Linseed oil                         4 ounces

Asphaltum                           1 1/2 ounces

Rosin                               1 1/2 ounces

Oil turpentine                      8 ounces


Heat the linseed oil to boiling point, add the amber, asphaltum, and rosin, and when all melted remove from the fire and gradually add the turpentine.


Japan Black. The following is a good japan black for metal surfaces:

Take 12 ounces of amber and 2 ounces of asphaltum. Fuse by heat, and add 1/2 pint boiled oil and 2 ounces of rosin. When cooling add 16 ounces of oil of turpentine.


Brass and Bronze Protective Paint. As a protective covering, especially for brass and bronze objects, a colorless celluloid solution is recommended, such as is found in trade under the name of

"Zapon" (q.v.).


Paint for Copper. Dissolve 1 ounce of alum in 1 quart of warm soft water. When cold add flour to make it about the consistency of cream, then add 1/2 thimble of rosin and 1/2 ounce of sugar of lead.


Priming Iron. The following, if carefully carried out, gives the best satisfaction: The first step consists in thoroughly cleaning the surface of the iron, removing all adhesions in the way of dirt, rust, etc., before the question of priming is considered. As paint in this instance is applied more with a view of protecting the iron from atmospheric influences, rather than for a decorative effect, careful attention should be devoted for securing a base or surface which is calculated to produce a thorough and permanent application. A great deal depends upon the nature of the metal to be painted. Common cast iron, for instance, possessing a rough exterior,






with ordinary precautions can be more readily painted with the prospect of a permanent adhesion of the paint, than a planed steel or wrought-iron surface. With the latter it has been demonstrated that a hard and elastic paint is needed, while with regard to cast iron, other paints containing iron oxides are more suitable. For good drying and covering properties, as well as elasticity, a good boiled oil to which has been added an adequate proportion of red lead will be found to form an excellent paint for smooth metal surfaces. The primary object is to protect the surface of the iron from moisture for the purpose of avoiding rust. The priming must therefore be carried out so that it will stick, after which subsequent coats may be added if desired.


It is advisable that articles made of iron should first be coated with linseed oil varnish. It dries slowly, hardens, and enables the operator afterwards to exercise an effective control over the condition of his material. Iron must be absolutely dry and free from rust when it is to be painted. It is best to apply next a coating of hot linseed oil; when dry this should be followed by a priming of pure red lead in good linseed oil, and the iron should then be painted as desired, using ground oil paints and leaving an interval of a week between each coating. Cementing should be done after the red lead priming, but the last coat must not be given until the whole is thoroughly dry. Bright oil paints and an upper coating with plenty of oil resist the effects of heat better than thin coatings; moreover, rust can be detected in

its early stages with the former. Coatings of tar and asphalt (asphalt dissolved in turpentine) are practicable for underground pipes, but are not adapted for pipes exposed to the air, as they are quickly spoiled. Asphalt varnish, used for coating coal scuttles, fire screens, etc., consists of asphalt dissolved in linseed oil varnish. Iron stoves and stovepipes are best coated with graphite.


Galvanized Iron. For galvanized iron there has been recommended a wash consisting simply of dilute hydrochloric acid, which produces chloride of zinc, that in combination with the oxygen of the air is said to produce a film upon which oil color takes as good a hold as it would upon ordinary sheet iron.


Another method which has been tested and found effective is to make a solution as follows: One ounce of chloride of copper; 1 ounce nitrate of copper; 1 ounce sal ammoniac, dissolved in 2 quarts of soft water, to which is added 1 ounce of crude or commercial hydrochloric acid. This solution should be made in an earthenware dish or pot, or in glass or stoneware, as tin will precipitate the copper salts and make the solution imperfect. To large surfaces this solution is applied with a broad brush, when the surface assumes a deep black color, which in drying out in from 12 to 24 hours becomes a gray white, upon which the properly prepared primer will take a permanent grip. On the film so produced a much thinner paint will coyer very much better than a stouter paint would on the untreated galvanized or ordinary iron surface. A single trial will convince the craftsman that this treatment is a method that will give lasting results, provided he tries the same priming paint on the treated and untreated surface.


To Paint Wrought Iron with Graphite. In order to make wrought iron look like new mix fine graphite with equal parts of varnish and turpentine oil, adding a little siccative. Paint the iron parts with this twice, allowing to dry each time. Especially the second coating must be perfectly dry before further treatment. The latter consists in preparing graphite with spirit and applying it very thinly over the first coat. After the drying or evaporation of the spirit the graphite last applied is brushed vigorously, whereby a handsome, durable gloss is produced.


Paint for Iron Bodies Exposed to Heat. Dilute 1 part soda water glass

with 2 parts water and mix intimately with the following pigments:


White. White lead or sulphate of barium.


Yellow. Chromate of barium, ocher,

or uranium yellow.


Green. Chromic oxide or ultramarine green.


Blue. Ultramarine.


Brown. Oxide of cadmium, oxide of manganese or terra di sienna.


Red. English red or chrome red.


Bronze powder in a suitable quantity may be added to the mixture, but not more paint should be prepared than can be used up in a few hours. The bronze powder may also be strewn on the fresh paint, or applied with a dry brush, to enhance the gloss. This paint is not affected by heat, and is inodorous.


Protective Coating for Bright Iron Articles. Zinc white, 30 parts; lamp-






black, 2 parts; tallow, 7 parts; vaseline, 1 part; olive oil, 3 parts; varnish, 1 part. Boil together 1/4 hour and add 1/2 part of benzine and 1/4 part of turpentine, stirring the mass carefully and boiling for some time. The finished paste-like substance can be readily removed with a rag without the use of solvents.


Rust Paints.


I.    A new rust paint is produced by the following process: Mix

100 parts dry iron sulphate and 87 parts sodium chlorate and heat to 1,500º to 1,800º F. The chlorine set free seems to have a very favorable action on the color of the simultaneously forming iron oxide. In order to avoid, however, too far-reaching an effect of the chlorine gas, about 18 pounds of a substance which absorbs the same mechanically, such as kaolin, ground pumice stone, ocher, etc., are added to the mixture.


II.   A material known under the names of lardite, steatite, agalmatolite, pagodite, is excellently adapted as a substitute for the ordinary metallic protective agent of the pigments and has the property of protecting iron from rust in an effective manner. In China, lardite is used for protecting edifices of sandstone, which crumbles under the action of the atmosphere. Likewise a thin layer of powdered steatite, applied in the form of paint, has been found valuable there as a protector against the decay of obelisks, statues, etc. Lardite, besides, possesses the quality of being exceedingly fine-grained, which renders this material valuable for use in ship painting. Ground steatite is one of the finest materials which can be produced, and no other so quickly and firmly adheres to the fibers of iron and steel. Furthermore, steatite is lighter than metallic covering agents, and covers, mixed in paint, a larger surface than zinc white, red lead, or iron oxide. Steatite as it occurs in Switzerland is used there and in the Tyrol for stoves, since it is fireproof.


Steel. An excellent coating for steel, imitating the blue color of natural steel, is composed of white shellac, 5 parts; borax, 1 part; alcohol, 5 parts; water, 4 parts; and a sufficient quantity of methylene blue. The borax is dissolved in water, the shellac in alcohol. The aqueous solution of the borax is heated to a boil and the alcoholic solution of the shellac is added with constant stirring.

Next add the blue color, continuing to stir. Before this coating is applied to the steel, e. g., the spokes of a bicycle, the latter are first rubbed off with fine emery paper. The coat is put on with a soft rag. The quantity of pigment to be added is very small. By varying the quantity a paler or darker coloring of the steel can be produced.




Carbolineum. This German preparation is made in three colors.


I.    Pale. Melt together in an iron kettle, over a naked fire, 30 parts of American rosin F and 150 parts of pale paraffine oil and stir in 10 parts of single rectified rosin oil.


II.   Dark. Melt 100 parts of anthracene oil and 20 parts of American rosin F on a slow fire. Next stir in 2 parts of Para rubber solution (or solution of caoutchouc waste) and keep on boiling until all is dissolved. When this is done there should be still added 5 parts of crude concentrated carbolic acid and 5 parts of zinc chloride lye, 50º Bé., stirring until cool. The last-named admixture is not absolutely necessary, but highly advisable, owing to its extraordinary preservative and bactericidal properties.


III.  Colored. For red, melt 100 parts of coal-tar oil, then stir in 50 parts of pale paraffine oil, and finally 75 parts of bole or iron minium, and pass through the paint mill. Although the addition of iron minium is very desirable, it is considerably more expensive. For gray, proceed as above, with the exception that metallic gray is used in place of the bole. For green, metallic green is employed. The colors are identical with those used in the manufacture of roof varnish. To increase the antiseptic properties of the colored carbolineum, any desired additions of phenol or zinc chloride solutions may be made, but the chief requirement in the case of colored carbolineum is good covering power of the coating.


Paints for Roofs Covered with Tar Paper, for Roofing Paper, etc.



Distilled coal tar                  70 parts

Heavy mineral oil (lubricating oil) 10 parts

American rosin                      20 parts



Distilled coal tar                  50 parts

Trinidad asphalt                    15 parts

Mineral oil, containing paraffine   10 parts

Dry clay, finely ground             25 parts


Imitation Oil Paint. Schulz's German patent paint is cheap, and claimed to be






durable, weatherproof, and glossy, like oil paint. The application consists of a ground coat, upon which the surface coat proper is applied after the former is dry. For the preparation of the grounding dissolve 1,000 parts, by weight, of Marseilles soap in 10,000 parts of boiling water and stir. In a separate vessel dissolve 2,000 parts of glue in 10,000 parts of boiling water, adding 17,500 parts of spirit of sal ammoniac. These two solutions are poured together and well stirred. Then dissolve 400 parts of chrome alum in 5,000 parts of water, and pour into the above mixture. To this mixture add 10,000 parts of pipe clay, stirring the whole well and tinting with earth colors, ocher, Vandyke brown, etc. The solid ingredients must be dissolved in boiling hot water, and sifted so as to obtain a finely divided ground color. This priming is applied in a warm state. The coating proper is put on the ground coat after it is dry, in about one-half to one hour. For this coat dissolve 2,000 parts of crystallized alum in 10,000 parts of boiling water and add to this liquid a solution of 2,000 parts of glue in 10,000 parts of water; in a special vessel prepare soapsuds of 1,000 parts of Marseilles soap in 12,000 parts of boiling water; dissolve

120 parts of chrome alum in 1,500 parts of boiling water, and mix the three solutions together with diligent stirring. This paint or liquid should also be put on hot, and assures a durable exterior paint.




Anti -Fouling Composition. Make an agglutinant by heating together


By weight

White lead, ground in oil           2 parts

Red lead, dry                       1 part

Raw linseed oil                     14 parts


While hot stir in yellow ocher, kaolin, baked clay in powder, or any inert body, such as silica, barytes, gypsum, etc., to form a stiff dough, and, without allowing this compound to become cold (the vessel should not be removed from the source of heat), dilute with more or less manganese linoleate to the required consistency.


Marine Paint to Resist Sea Water. First prepare the water- resisting agglutinant by heating together


Dry white lead, carbonate only      1 part

Litharge                            1 part

Linseed oil (fluid measure)         14 parts


Heat these and stir until of the consistency of thick glue, and for every 36 parts, by weight, of this compound add 3 parts, by weight, of turpentine, and 1 part, by weight, of mastic varnish (mastic rosin dissolved in turpentine); reheat the whole, and for every 32 parts, by weight, stir in and mix the following:


Baked and powdered clay             4 parts

Portland cement                     16 parts

Zinc white                          1 part

Red lead                            1 part


After well mixing, dilute with more or less turpentine (not exceeding 25 per cent of the whole), or linoleate of manganese, the latter being preferable, as it has greater binding power. For colored paints use red oxide of iron or green oxide of chrome, but do not use chrome green or lead, as they will not stand the action of the sea water.


Compositions for Ships' Bottoms.




Pale rosin                          25 pounds

Prepared mineral green              8 pounds

D.L. zinc                           13 pounds

Boiled oil                          2 pounds

Mineral naphtha                     1 gallon

Petroleum spirit                    1 1/2 gallons


Prepared Mineral Green.


Dry levigated mineral green         28 pounds

Turpentine                          7 pounds

Turpentine varnish                  7 pounds

Refined linseed oil                 7 pounds


Copper Color.


Pale rosin                          25 pounds

Light Italian ocher                 15 pounds

D.L. zinc                           5 pounds

Turkey red paint                    1/2 pound

Petroleum spirit                    1 1/2 pounds

Mineral naphtha                     1 pound




Pale rosin                          25 pounds

D.L. zinc                           16 pounds

Deep vermilion                      7 pounds

Mineral naphtha                     1 gallon

Petroleum spirit                    1 1/2 gallons




Coating for Bathrooms. As a rule cement plastering, as well as oil paint, suffices for the protection of walls and ceilings in bathrooms, but attention must be called to the destructive action of medicinal admixtures. For such rooms as well as for laboratories, an






application of Swedish wood tar, made into a flowing consistency with a little oil of turpentine and put on hot, has been found very excellent. It is of advantage previously to warm the wall slightly. To the second coat add some wax.    A very durable coating is obtained, which looks so pleasing that it is only necessary to draw some stripes with a darker paint so as to divide the surface into fields.


Cement, to Paint Over Fresh. The wall should be washed with dilute sulphuric acid several days before painting. This will change the surplus caustic lime to sulphate of lime or gypsum. The acid should be about one-half chamber acid and one-half water. This should be repeated before painting, and a coat of raw linseed oil flowed on freely should be given for the first coat. While this cannot be always guaranteed as effectual for making the paint hold, it is the best method our correspondent has heard of for the purpose, and is worth trying when it is absolutely necessary to paint over fresh cement.


Damp Walls, Coating for. Thirty parts of tin are dissolved in 40 parts of hydrochloric acid, and 30 parts of sal ammoniac are added. A powder composed of freestone, 50 parts; zinc oxide, 20 parts; pounded glass, 15 parts; powdered marble, 10 parts; and calcined magnesia, 5 parts, is prepared, and made into a paste with the liquid above mentioned. Coloring matter may be added. The composition may be used as a damp proof coating for walls, or for repairing stonework, or for molding

statues or ornaments.


Facade Paint. For this zinc oxide is especially adapted, prepared with size or casein. Any desired earth colors may also be added. The surfaces are coated 3 times with this mass. After the third application is dry, put on a single coating of zinc chloride solution of 30º Bé. to which 3 per cent borax is added.


This coating is very solid, can be washed, and is not injured by hydrogen sulphide.


Hard-Finished Walls. The treatment for hard-finished walls which are to be painted in flat colors is to prime with a thin coat of lead and oil well brushed into the wall. Next put on a thin coat of glue size; next a coat mixed with 1/3 oil and 2/3 turpentine; next a coat of flat paint mixed with turpentine. If you use any dry pigment mix it stiff in oil and thin with turps. If in either case the paint dries too fast, and is liable to show laps, put a little glycerine in, to retard the drying.



See also Fireproof Paint.


The following are claimed to be both waterproof and weatherproof:


I.    In 50 parts, by weight, of spirit of 96 per cent, dissolve 16 parts, by weight, of shellac, orange, finely powdered; 3 parts, by weight, of silver lake, finely powdered; and 0.6 parts, by weight, of gamboge, finely powdered. This paint may be employed without admixture of any siccative, and is excellently adapted for painting objects which are exposed to the inclemencies of the weather, as it is perfectly weatherproof. 


II.   Mix glue water with zinc oxide (zinc white) and paint the respective object with this mixture. When this is dry (after about 2 hours) it is followed up with a coating of glue water and zinc chloride in a highly diluted state. Zinc oxide enters into a chemical combination with zinc chloride, which acquires the hardness of glass and a mirror-like bright surface. Any desired colors can be prepared with the glue water (size) and are practically imperishable. This zinc coating is very durable, dries quickly, and is 50 per cent cheaper than oil paint.


Water and Acid Resisting Paint. Caoutchouc is melted with colophony at a low temperature, after the caoutchouc has been dried in a drying closet (stove) at 158º to 176º F., until no more considerable increase in weight is perceptible, while the colophony has completely lost its moisture by repeated melting. The raw products thus prepared will readily melt upon slight heating. To the melted colophony and caoutchouc add in a hot liquid state zinc white or any similar pigment. Thin with a varnish consisting of 50 parts of perfectly anhydrous colophony, 40 parts of absolute alcohol, and 40 parts of benzine. The whole syrupy mass is worked through in a paint mill to obtain a uniform product, at which operation more or less colophony varnish is added according to the desired consistency.


Water and Air Proof Paint. An airproof and waterproof paint, the subject of a recent French patent, is a compound of 30 parts, by weight, acetone; 100 parts acetic ether; 50 parts sulphuric ether; 100 parts camphor; 50 parts gum lac; 200 parts cotton; 100 parts paper






(dissolved in sulphuric acid); 100 parts mastic in drops. These proportions may fluctuate according to need. The paper is reduced well and dissolved without heat with sufficient sulphuric ether; the cotton is dissolved in the acetone and the whole is mixed together with the other ingredients and stirred well. The application is performed as with any other varnish. The coating is said not to crack or shrink and to be particularly useful as a protection against moisture for all stuffs.



See also Wood.


Floor Coating. A new paint for floors, especially those of soft wood: Mix together 2.2 pounds joiners' glue; a little over 1 ounce powdered bichromate of potash; 3 1/2 ounces aniline brown; and 10 1/2 quarts water in a tin vessel. After 6 hours have elapsed (when the glue is completely soaked), heat gradually to the boiling point. The coating becomes perfectly water-tight after 2 or 3 days; it is not opaque, as the earthy body is lacking. The glue causes the wood fibers to be firmly united. It becomes insoluble by the addition of bichromate of potash, under the influence of light. Without this admixture a simple glue coat has formerly not been found satisfactory, as it dissolves if cleaned with water.


Durable House Paint.


I.    New houses should be primed once with pure linseed oil, then painted with a thin paint from white lead and chalk, and thus gradually covered. The last coat is prepared of well-boiled varnish, white lead, and chalk. The chalk has the mission to moderate the saponification of the linseed oil by the white lead. Mixing colors such as ocher and black, which take up plenty of oil, materially assist in producing a durable covering.


II.   Prime with zinc white and let this be succeeded by a coating with zinc chloride in glue water (size). The zinc oxide forms with the zinc chloride an oxy-chloride of great hardness and glossy surface. By admixture of pigments any desired shade may be produced. The zinc coating is indestructible, dries quickly, does not peel, is free from the smell of fresh oil paint, and more than 5 per cent cheaper.


Ivory Coating for Smooth, Light Wood. In order to cover the articles, which may be flat or round, with this coating, they must first be polished quite smooth and clean; then they are coated with thin, hot, white glue. When the coat is thoroughly dry, the glue is rubbed off again with fine glass paper. The mass is prepared as follows: Take 3 pounds (more or less, according to the number of articles) of the purest and best collodion; grind upon a clean grinding stone twice the quantity that can be taken up with the point of a knife of Krems white, with enough good pale linseed oil as is necessary to grind the white smooth and fine. Take a clean bottle, into which one half of the collodion is poured; to this add the ground white, which can be removed clean from the stone by means of a good spatula and put in the bottle.

Add about 100 drops of linseed oil, and shake the mass till it looks like milk.


Now painting with this milky substance may be commenced, using a fine hair pencil of excellent quality. The pencil is not dipped in the large bottle; but a glass is kept at hand with an opening of about 1 inch, so as to be able to immerse the pencil quickly. The substance is not flowing like the alcohol lacquers, for which reason it may be put on thick, for the ether, chiefly constituting the mass, evaporates at once and leaves but a very thin film which becomes noticeable only after about 10 such applications have been made. Shake the bottle well each time before filling the small glass, as the heavy Krems white is very apt to sink to the bottom of the bottle. If it is observed that the substance becomes too thick, which may easily occur on account of the evaporation, a part of the remaining ether is added, to which in turn 30 to 40 drops of oil are added, shaking it till the oil appears to be completely dissolved.


The operator must put on the mass in quick succession and rather thick.

After about 10 coats have been applied the work is allowed to rest several hours; then 3 or 4 coats of pure collodion, to which likewise several drops of oil have been added, are given. Another pause of several hours having been allowed to intervene, application of the mass is once more begun.


When it is noticed that a layer of the thickness of paper has formed, the articles, after drying thoroughly, should be softly rubbed off with very fine glass paper, after which they require to be wiped off well with a clean linen rag, so that no dust remains. Then coating is continued till the work seems serviceable.


A few applications of pure collodion should be made, and when this has become perfectly hard, after a few hours, it can be rubbed down with a rag,


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