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Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

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Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 601-625






termine the hardness of the powder. The darker the powder, the greater is its degree of hardness; the red or reddish is always very soft, wherefore the former is used for polishing steel and the latter for softer metals.


For the most part, Paris red consists of ferric oxide or ferrous oxide. In its production advantage is taken of a peculiarity common to most salts of iron, that when heated to a red heat they separate the iron oxide from the acid combination. In its manufacture it is usual to take commercial green vitriol, copperas crystals, and subject them to a moderate heat to drive off the water of crystallization. When this is nearly accomplished they will settle down in a white powder, which is now placed in a crucible and raised to a glowing red heat till no more vapor arises, when the residue will be found a soft smooth red powder. As the temperature is raised in the crucible, the darker will become the color of the powder and the harder the abrasive.


Should an especially pure rouge be desired, it may be made so by boiling the powder we have just made in a weak solution of soda and afterwards washing it out repeatedly and thoroughly with clean water. If treated in this way, all the impurities that may chance to stick to the iron oxide will be separated from it.


Should a rouge be needed to put a specially brilliant polish upon any object its manufacture ought to be conducted according to the following formula: Dissolve commercial green vitriol in water; dissolve also a like weight of sorrel salt in water; filter both solutions; mix them well, and warm to 140º F.; a yellow precipitate, which on account of its weight, will settle immediately; decant the fluid, dry out the residue, and afterwards heat it as before in an iron dish in a moderately hot furnace till it glows red.


By this process an exceptionally smooth, deep-red powder is obtained, which, if proper care has been exercised in the various steps, will need no elutriation, but can be used for polishing at once. With powders prepared in this wise our optical glasses and lenses of finest quality are polished.



See Laundry Preparations.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Cosmetics.



See Essences and Extracts.



See also Ceramics.


Mending Porcelain by Riveting. (see Adhesives for methods of mending Porcelain by means of cements).


Porcelain and glass can be readily pierced with steel tools. Best suited are hardened drills of ordinary shape, moistened with oil of turpentine, if the glazed or vitreous body is to be pierced. In the case of majolica and glass without enamel the purpose is best reached if the drilling is done under water. Thus, the vessel should previously be filled with water, and placed in a receptacle containing water, so that the drill is used under water, and, after piercing the clay body, reaches the water again. In the case of objects glazed on the inside, instead of filling them with water, the spot where the drill must come through may be underlaid with cork. The pressure with which the drill is worked is determined by the hardness of the material, but when the tool is about to reach the other side it should gradually decrease and finally cease almost altogether, so as to avoid chipping. In order to enlarge small bore holes already existing, threecornered or four-square broaches, ground and polished, are best adapted. These are likewise employed under water or, if the material is too hard (glass or enamel), moistened with oil of turpentine. The simultaneous use of oil of turpentine and water is most advisable in all cases, even where the nature of the article to be pierced does not admit the use of oil alone, as in the case of majolica and non-glazed porcelain, which absorb the oil, without the use of water.


Porcelain Decoration. A brilliant yellow color, known as "gold luster," may be produced on porcelain by the use of paint prepared as follows: Melt over a sand bath 30 parts of rosin, add 10 parts of uranic nitrate, and, while constantly stirring, incorporate with the liquid 35 to 40 parts of oil of lavender. After the mixture has become entirely homogeneous, remove the source of heat, and add 30 to 40 parts more of oil of lavender. Intimately mix the mass thus obtained with a like quantity of bismuth glass prepared by fusing together equal parts of oxide of bismuth and crystallized boric acid. The paint is to be burned in in the usual manner.



See Ceramics.







See Cement.



See Adhesives.



See Photography, under Paper-Sensitizing Processes.



See Adhesives, under Water-Glass Cements.



See Starch.



See Ceramics.



See Insecticides.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods, under Ink Eradicators.



See Pyrotechnics.



See Cosmetics.



See Roup Powder.



See Stamping.



See Cosmetics.



(See also Foods.)


Preservative Fluid for Museums.


Formaldehyde solution               6 parts

Glycerine                           12 parts

Alcohol                             3 parts

Water                               100 parts


The addition of glycerine becomes necessary only if it is desired to keep the pieces in a soft state. Filtering through animal charcoal renders the liquid perfectly colorless. For dense objects, such as lungs and liver, it is best to make incisions so as to facilitate the penetration of the fluid. In the case of very thick pieces, it is best to take 80 to 100 parts of formaldehyde solution for above quantities.


Preservative for Stone, etc. A new composition, or paint, for protecting stone, wood, cement, etc., from the effects of damp or other deleterious influences consists of quicklime, chalk, mineral colors, turpentine, boiled oil, galipot, rosin, and benzine. The lime, chalk, colors, and turpentine are first fixed and then made into a paste with the boiled oil. The paste is finely ground and mixed with the rosins previously dissolved in the benzine.


Preservative for Stuffed Animals. For the exterior preservation use


Arsenic                             0.7 parts

Alum                                15.0 parts

Water                               100.0 parts


For sprinkling the inside skin as well as filling bones, the following is employed:


Camphor                             2 parts

Insect powder                       2 parts

Black pepper                        1 part

Flowers of sulphur                  4 parts

Alum                                3 parts

Calcined soda                       3 parts

Tobacco powder                      3 parts


Preservatives for Zoological and Anatomical Specimens. The preparations are first placed in a solution or mixture of


Sodium fluoride                     5 parts

Formaldehyde (40 per cent)          2 parts

Water                               100 parts


After leaving this fixing liquid they are put in the following preservative solution:


Glycerine (28º Bé.)                 5 parts

Water                               10 parts

Magnesium chloride                  1 part

Sodium fluoride                     0.2 parts


In this liquid zoological preparations, especially reptiles, retain their natural coloring. Most anatomical preparations likewise remain unchanged therein.



See Wood.




Canning. There should be no trouble in having canned fruit keep well if perfect or "chemical cleanliness" is observed in regard to jars, lids, etc., and if the fruit or vegetables are in good order, not overripe or beginning to ferment where bruised or crushed. Fruit will






never come out of jars better than it goes in. It is better to put up a little fruit at a time when it is just ripe than to wait for a large amount to ripen, when the first may be overripe and fermenting and likely to spoil the whole lot. Use only the finest flavored fruit.


Have everything ready before beginning canning. Put water in each jar, fit on rubbers and tops, and invert the jar on the table. If any water oozes out try another top and rubber until sure the jar is air-tight. Wash jars and tops, put them in cold water and bring to a boil. When the fruit is cooked ready take a jar from the boiling water, set it on a damp cloth laid in a soup plate, dip a rubber in boiling water, and fit it on firmly. Fill the jar to overflowing, wipe the brim, screw on the top, and turn it upside down on a table. If any syrup oozes out empty the jar back into the kettle and fit on a tighter rubber. Let it stand upside down till cold, wipe clean, wrap in thick paper, and keep in a cool, dry place.


These general directions are for all fruits and vegetables that are cooked before putting in the jars. Fruit keeps its shape better if cooked in the jars, which should be prepared as above, the fruit carefully looked over and filled into the jars. If a juicy fruit, like blackberries or raspberries, put the sugar in with it in alternate layers. For cherries the amount of sugar depends on the acidity of the fruit and is best made into a syrup with a little water and poured down through them. Peaches and pears after paring, are packed into the jars and a syrup of about a quarter of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit poured over them. Most fruits need to be cooked from 10 to 15 minutes after the water around them begins to boil.


Red raspberries ought not to be boiled. Put them into jars as gently as possible; they are the tenderest of all fruits and will bear the slightest handling. Drop them in loosely, fold a saucer into a clean cloth, and lay over the top, set on a perforated board in a boiler, pour water to two-thirds, cover and set over a slow fire. As the fruit settles add more until full. When it is cooked soft lift the jar out and fill to the top with boiling syrup of equal parts of sugar and water, and seal.


Do not can all the fruit, for jams and jellies are a welcome change and also easier to keep. Raspberries and currants mixed make delicious jam. Use the juice of a third as many currants and 3/4 of a pound of sugar to a pound of fruit.


The flavor of all kinds of fruit is injured by cooking it long with the sugar, so heat the latter in the oven and add when the fruit is nearly done.


Jelly is best made on a clear day, for small fruits absorb moisture, and if picked after a rain require longer boiling, and every minute of unnecessary boiling gives jelly a less delicate color and flavor. When jelly is syrupy, it has been boiled too long; if it drops from the spoon with a spring, or wrinkles as you push it with the spoon in a saucer while cooling, it is done enough. Try it after 5 minutes' boil. Cook the fruit only until the skin is broken and pulp softened. Strain without squeezing for jelly, and use the last juice you squeeze out for jam. Measure the juice and boil uncovered, skimming off. For sweet fruits 3/4 of a pound of sugar is enough to a pint of juice. Heat the sugar in the oven, add to the boiling juice; stir till dissolved. When it boils up, draw to the back of the stove. Scald the jelly glasses, fill and let stand in a clean, cool place till next day; then cover. Blackberries make jelly of a delicious flavor and jelly easily when a little under-ripe. Currants should be barely ripe; the ends of the bunches may be rather green.


A highly prized way of canning cherries: Stone and let them stand overnight. In the morning pour off the juice, add sugar to taste, and some water if there is not much juice, and boil and skim till it is a rich syrup. If the cherries are sweet a pint of juice and 3/4 of a pint of sugar will be right. Heat the jars, put in the uncooked cherries till they are nearly full; then pour over them the boiling syrup and fasten on the covers. Set the jars in a wash boiler, fill it with very hot water and let it stand all night. The heat of the syrup and of the water will cook the fruit, but the flavor and color will be that of fresh and uncooked cherries.


Canning without Sugar.


I.    In order to preserve the juices of fruit merely by sterilization, put the juice into the bottles in which it is to be kept, filling them very nearly full; place the bottles, unstoppered, in a kettle filled with cold water, so arranging them on a wooden perforated "false bottom," or other like contrivance, as to prevent their immediate contact with the metal, thus preventing unequal heating and possible fracture. Now heat the water, gradually raising the temperature to the boiling point, and maintain at that until the juice attains a boiling temperature; then close the bottles with perfectly fitting corks, which






have been kept immersed in boiling water for a short time before use. The corks should not be fastened in any way, for if the sterilization is not complete, fermentation and consequent explosion of the bottle might occur, unless the cork should be forced out. The addition of sugar is not necessary to secure the success of the operation; in fact a small proportion would have no antiseptic effect. If the juice is to be used for syrup as for use at the soda fountain, the best method is to make a concentrated syrup at once, using about 2 pounds of refined sugar to 1 pint of juice, dissolving by a gentle heat. The syrup may be made by simple agitation without heat and a finer flavor thus results, but its keeping quality would be uncertain.


II.   Fruit juices may be preserved by gentle heating and after protection from the air in sterilized containers. The heat required is much below the boiling point. Professor Müller finds that a temperature of from 140º to 158º F., maintained for 15 minutes, is sufficient to render the fermenting agents present inactive. The bottles must also be heated to destroy any adherent germs. The juices may be placed in them as expressed and the container then placed in a water bath. As soon as the heating is finished the bottles must be securely closed. The heating process will, in consequence of coagulating certain substances, produce turbidity, and if clear liquid is required, filtration is, of course, necessary. In this case it is better to heat the juice in bulk in a kettle, filter through felt, fill the bottles, and then heat again in the containers as in the first instance. It is said that grape juice prepared in this manner has been found unaltered after keeping for many years. Various antiseptics nave been proposed as preservatives for fruit juices and other articles of food, but all such agents are objectionable both on account of their direct action on the system and their effect in rendering food less digestible. While small quantities of such drugs occasionally taken may exert no appreciable effect, continuous use is liable to be more or less harmful.




Crushed Pineapples. Secure a good brand of canned grated pineapple and drain off about one-half of the liquor by placing on a strainer. Add to each pound of pineapple 1 pound of granulated sugar. Place on the fire and bring to boiling point, stirring constantly. Just before removing from the fire, add to each gallon of pulp 1 ounce saturated alcoholic solution salicylic acid. Put into air-tight jars until wanted for use.


Crushed Peach. Take a good brand of canned yellow peaches, drain off liquor, and rub through a No. 8 sieve. Add sugar, bring to the boiling point, and when ready to remove from fire add to each gallon 1 ounce saturated alcoholic solution of salicylic acid. Put into jars and seal hermetically.


Crushed Apricots. Prepared in similar manner to crushed peach, using canned apricots.


Crushed Orange. Secure oranges with a thin peel and containing plenty of juice. Remove the outer or yellow peel first, taking care not to include any of bitter peel. The outer peel may be used in making orange phosphate or tincture sweet orange peel. After removing the outer peel, remove the inner, bitter peel, quarter and remove the seeds. Extract part of the juice and grind the pulp through an ordinary meat grinder. Add sugar, place on the fire, and bring to the boiling point. When ready to remove, add to each gallon 1 ounce saturated alcoholic solution of salicylic acid and 1 ounce glycerine. Put into jars and seal.


Crushed Cherries. If obtainable, the large, dark California cherry should be used. Stone the cherries, and grind to a pulp. Add sugar, and place on the fire, stirring constantly. Before removing, add to each gallon 1 ounce of the saturated solution of salicylic acid. Put into jars and seal.


Dry Sugar Preserving. The fruits are embedded in a thick layer of dry, powdered sugar to which they give up the greater part of the water contained in them. At the same time, a quantity of sugar passes through the skins into the interior of the fruits. Afterwards, the fruits are washed once, wiped, and completely dried.


Fruit Preserving. Express the juice and filter at once, through two thicknesses of best white Swedish paper, into a container that has been sterilized immediately before letting the juice run into it, by boiling water. The better plan is to take out of water in active ebullition at the moment you desire to use it. Have ready some long-necked, 8 ounce vials, which should also be kept in boiling water until needed. Pour the juice into these, leaving room in the upper part of the body of the vial to re-






ceive a teaspoonful of the best olive oil. Pour the latter in so that it will trickle down the neck and form a layer on top of the juice, and close the neck with a wad of antiseptic cotton thrust into it in such manner that it does not touch the oil, and leaves room for the cork to be put in without touching it. Cork and cap or seal the vial, and put in a cool, dark place, and keep standing upright. If carried out faithfully with due attention to cleanliness, this process will keep the juice in a perfectly natural condition for a very long time. The two essentials are the careful and rapid filtration, and the complete asepticization of the containers. Another process, in use in the French Navy, depends upon the rapid and careful filtering of the juice, and the addition of from 8 to 10 per cent of alcohol.


Raspberry Juice. A dark juice is obtained by adding to the crushed raspberries, before the fermentation, slight quantities of sugar in layers. The ethyl-alcohol forming during the fermentation is said to cause a better extraction of the raspberry red. Furthermore, the boiling should not be conducted on a naked fire, but by means of superheated steam, so as to avoid formation of caramel. Finally, the sugar used should be perfectly free from ultramarine and lime, since both impurities detract from the red color of the raspberries.


Spice for Fruit Compote. This is greatly in demand in neighborhoods where many plums and pears are preserved.


Parts       Parts

Lemon peel                          15    or    ...

Cinnamon, ordinary                  15    or    50

Star aniseed                        10    or    15

Coriander                           3     or    100

Carob pods                          5     or    ...

Ginger root, peeled                 2     or    200

Pimento                             ...   or    100

Licorice                            ...   or    100

Cloves, without stems               ...   or    30

Spanish peppers                     ...   or    2

Oil of lemon                        ...   or    4

Oil of cinnamon                     ...   or    2

Oil of cloves                       ...   or    2


All the solid constituents are powdered moderately fine and thoroughly mixed; the oils dropped in last, and rubbed into the powder.


Strawberries. Carefully remove the stems and calyxes, place the strawberries on a sieve, and move the latter about in a tub of water for a few moments, to remove any dirt clinging to them. Drain and partially dry spontaneously, then remove from the sieve and put into a porcelain lined kettle provided with a tight cover. To every pound of berries take a half pound of sugar and 2 ounces of water and put the same in a kettle over the fire. Let remain until the sugar has dissolved or become liquid, and then pour the same, while still hot, over the berries, cover the kettle tightly and let it stand overnight. The next morning put the kettle over the fire, removing the cover when the berries begin to boil, and let boil gently for 6 to 8 minutes (according to the mass), removing all scum as it arises. Remove from the fire, and with a perforated spoon or dipper take the fruit from the syrup, and fill into any suitable vessel. Replace the syrup on the fire and boil for about the same length of time as before, then pour, all hot, over the berries. The next day empty out the contents of the vessel on a sieve, and let the berries drain off; remove the syrup that drains off, add water, put on the fire, and boil until you obtain a syrup which flows but slowly from the stirring spoon. At this point add the berries, and let boil gently for a few moments. Have your preserve jars as hot as possible, by putting them into a pot of cold water and bringing the latter to a boil, and into them fill the berries, hot from the kettle. Cool down, cover with buttered paper, and immediately close the jars hermetically. If corks are used, they should be protected below with parchment paper, and afterwards covered with wet bladder stretched over the top, securely tied and waxed. The process seems very troublesome and tedious, but all of the care expended is repaid by the richness and pureness of the flavor of the preserve, which maintains the odor and taste of the fresh berry in perfection.


Hydrogen Peroxide as a Preservative. Hydrogen peroxide is one of the best, least harmful, and most convenient agents for preserving syrups, wine, beer, cider, and vinegar. For this purpose 2 1/2 fluidrachms of the commercial peroxide of hydrogen may be added to each quart of the article to be preserved. Hydrogen peroxide also affords an easy test for bacteria in water. When hydrogen peroxide is added to water that contains bacteria, these organisms decompose it, and consequently oxygen gas is given off. If the water be much contaminated the disengagement of gas may be quite brisk.






To Preserve Milk (which should be as fresh as possible) there should be added enough hydrogen peroxide to cause it to be completely decomposed by the enzymes of the milk. For this purpose 1.3 per cent, by volume, of a 3 per cent hydrogen peroxide solution is required. The milk is well shaken and kept for 5 hours at 122º to 125º F. in well closed vessels. Upon cooling, it may keep fresh for about a month and also to retain its natural fresh taste. With this process, if pure milk is used, the ordinary disease germs are killed off soon after milking and the milk sterilized.


Powdered Cork as a Preservative. Tests have shown that powdered cork is very efficacious for packing and preserving fruits and vegetables. A bed of cork is placed at the bottom of the case, and the fruits or vegetables and the cork are then disposed in alternate layers, with a final one of cork at the top. Care should be taken to fill up the interstices, in order to prevent friction. Fruit may thus be kept fresh a year, provided any unsound parts have been removed preliminarily. When unpacking for sale, it suffices to plunge the fruit into water. Generally speaking, 50 pounds of cork go with 1,000 or 1,200 pounds of fruit. The cork serves as a protection against cold, heat, and humidity. Various fruits, such as grapes, mandarines, tomatoes, and early vegetables, are successfully packed in this way.



See Tables.



See Copying.



See Oil.



See Photography.



See Engravings.



See Engravings.



See Gold.



See Photography, under Paper-Sensitizing Processes.



See Roller Compositions for Printers.



See Poisons.



While emery is used for polishing tools, polishing sand for stones and glass, ferric oxide for fine glassware, and lime and felt for metals, pumice stone is more frequently employed for polishing softer objects. Natural pumice stone presents but little firmness, and the search has therefore been made to replace the natural product with an artificial one. An artificial stone has been produced by means of sandstone and clay, designed to be used for a variety of purposes. No. 1, hard or soft, with coarse grain, is designed for leather and waterproof garments, and for the industries of felt and wool; No. 2, hard and soft, of average grain, is designed for work in stucco and sculptors' use, and for rubbing down wood before painting; No. 3, soft, with fine grain, is used for polishing wood and tin articles; No. 4, of average hardness, with fine grain, is used for giving to wood a surface previous to polishing with oil; No. 5, hard, with fine grain, is employed for metal work and stones, especially lithographic stones. These artificial products are utilized in the same manner as the volcanic products. For giving a smooth surface to wood, the operation is dry; but for finishing, the product is diluted with oil.



See Soaps.



See Ice Creams.



See Cement.



See Gold.



(See also Lutes, under Adhesives and Cements.)


Common putty, as used by carpenters, painters, and glaziers, is whiting mixed with linseed oil to the consistency of dough. Plasterers use a fine lime mortar that is called putty. Jewelers use a tin oxide for polishing, called putty powder or putz powder. (See Putz Powder, under Jewelers' Polishes, under Polishes.)







Acid-Proof Putty.


I.    Melt 1 part of gum elastic with 2 parts of linseed oil and mix with the necessary quantity of white bole by continued kneading to the desired consistency. Hydrochloric acid and nitric acid do not attack this putty, it softens somewhat in the warm and does not dry readily on the surface. The drying and hardening is effected by an admixture of 1/2 part of litharge or red lead.


II.   A putty which will even resist boiling sulphuric acid is prepared by melting caoutchouc at a moderate heat, then adding 8 per cent of tallow, stirring constantly, whereupon sufficiently slaked lime is added until the whole has the consistency of soft dough. Finally about 20 per cent of red lead is still added, which causes the mass to set immediately and to harden and dry. A solution of caoutchouc in double its weight of linseed oil, added by means of heat and with the like quantity (weight) of pipe clay, gives a plastic mass which likewise resists most acids.


Black Putty. Mix whiting and antimony sulphide, the latter finely powdered, with soluble glass. This putty, it is claimed, can be polished, after nhardening, by means of a burnishing agate.


Durable Putty. According to the "Gewerbeschau," mix a handful of burnt lime with 4 1/2 ounces of linseed oil; allow this mixture to boil down to the consistency of common putty, and dry the extensible mass received, in a place not accessible to the rays of the sun. When the putty, which has become very hard through the drying, is to be used, it is warmed. Over the flame it will become soft and pliable, but after having been applied and become cold, it binds the various materials very firmly.


Glaziers' Putty.


I.    For puttying panes or looking glasses into picture frames a mixture prepared as follows is well adapted: Make a solution of gum elastic in benzine, strong enough so that a syrup-like fluid results. If the solution be too thin, wait until the benzine evaporates. Then grind white lead in linseed-oil varnish to a stiff paste and add the gum solution. This putty may be used, besides the above purposes, for the tight puttying-in of window panes into their frames. The putty is applied on the glass lap of the frames and the panes are firmly pressed into it. The glass plates thereby obtain a good, firm support and stick to the wood, as the putty adheres both to the glass and to the wood.


II.   A useful putty for mirrors, etc., is prepared by dissolving gummi elasticum (caoutchouc) in benzol to a syrupy solution, and incorporating this latter with a mixture of white lead and linseed oil to make a stiff pulp. The putty adheres strongly to both glass and wood, and may therefore be applied to the framework of the window, mirror, etc., to be glazed, the glass being then pressed firmly on the cementing layer thus formed.


Hard Putty. This is used by carriage painters and jewelers. Boil 4 pounds brown umber and 7 pounds linseed oil for 2 hours; stir in 2 ounces beeswax; take from the fire and mix in 5 1/2 pounds chalk and 11 pounds white lead; the mixing must be done very thoroughly.


Painters' Putty and Rough Stuff. Gradually knead sifted dry chalk (whiting) or else rye flour, powdered white lead, zinc white, or lithopone white with good linseed oil varnish. The best putty is produced from varnish with plenty of chalk and some zinc white. This mixture can be tinted with earth colors. These oil putties must be well kneaded together and rather compact (like glaziers' putty).


If flour paste is boiled (this is best produced by scalding with hot water, pouring in, gradually, the rye flour which has been previously dissolved in a little cold water and stirring constantly until the proper consistency is attained) and dry sifted chalk and a little varnish are added, a good rough stuff for wood or iron is obtained, which can be rubbed. This may also be produced from glaziers' oil putty by gradually kneading into it flour paste and a little more sifted dry chalk.


To Soften Glaziers' Putty.


I.    Glaziers' putty which has become hard can be softened with the following mixture: Mix carefully equal parts of crude powdered potash and freshly burnt lime and make it into a paste with a little water. This dough, to which about 1/4 part of soft soap is still added, is applied on the putty to be softened, but care has to be taken not to cover other paint, as it would be surely destroyed thereby. After a few hours the hardest putty will be softened by this caustic mass and can be removed from glass and wood.


II.   A good way to make the putty soft and plastic enough in a few hours so that it can be taken off like fresh putty, is by the use of kerosene, which entirely dissolves the linseed oil of the putty,






transformed into rosin, and quickly penetrates it.


Substitute for Putty. A cheap and effective substitute for putty to stop cracks in woodwork is made by soaking newspapers in a paste made by boiling a pound of flour in 3 quarts of water, and adding a teaspoonful of alum. This mixture should be of about the same consistency as putty, and should be forced into the cracks with a blunt knife. It will harden, like papier maché, and when dry may be painted or stained to match the boards, when it will be almost imperceptible.


Waterproof Putties.


I.    Grind powdered white lead or minium (red lead) with thick linseed oil varnish to a stiff paste. This putty is used extensively for tightening wrought-iron gas pipes, for tightening rivet seams on gas meters, hotw ater furnaces, cast-iron flange pipes for hot-water heating, etc. The putty made with minium dries very slowly, but becomes tight even before it is quite hard, and holds very firmly after solidification. Sometimes a little ground gypsum is added to it.


The two following putties are cheaper than the above mentioned red lead putty:


II.   One part white lead, 1 part manganese, one part white pipe clay, prepared with linseed oil varnish.


III.  Two parts red lead, 5 parts white lead, 4 parts clay, ground in or prepared with linseed oil varnish.


IV.   Excellent putty, which has been found invaluable where waterproof closing and permanent adhesion are desired, is made from litharge and glycerine. The litharge must be finely pulverized and the glycerine very concentrated, thickly liquid, and clear as water. Both substances are mixed into a viscid, thickly liquid pulp. The pegs of kerosene lamps, for instance, can be fixed in so firmly with this putty that they can only be removed by chiseling it out. For puttying in the glass panes of aquariums it is equally valuable. As it can withstand higher temperatures it may be successfully used for fixing tools, curling irons, forks, etc., in the wooden handles. The thickish putty mass is rubbed into the hole, and the part to be fixed is inserted. As this putty hardens very quickly it cannot be prepared in large quantities, and only enough for immediate use must be compounded in each case.


V.    Five parts of hydraulic lime, 0.3 parts of tar, 0.3 parts of rosin. 1 part of horn water (the decoction resulting from boiling horn in water and decanting the latter). The materials are to be mixed and boiled. After cooling, the putty is ready for use. This is an excellent cement for glass, and may be used also for reservoirs and any vessels for holding water, to cement the cracks; also for many other purposes. It will not give way, and is equally good for glass, wood, and metal.


VI.   This is especially recommended for boiler leaks: Mix well together 6 parts of powdered graphite, 3 parts of slaked lime, 8 parts of heavy spar (barytes), and 8 parts of thick linseed-oil varnish, and apply in the ordinary way to the spots.



See Adhesives, under Sign-Letter Cements.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Photography.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods and Photography.



See Photography.






The chief chemical process is, of course, oxidation. Oxidation may be produced by the atmosphere, but in many cases this is not enough, and then the pyrotechnist must employ his knowledge of chemistry in selecting oxidizing agents.


The chief of these oxidizing agents are chlorates and nitrates, the effect of which is to promote the continuance of combustion when it is once started. They are specially useful, owing to their solid non-hygroscopic nature. Then ingredients are needed to prevent the too speedy action of the oxidizing agents, to regulate the process of combustion, such as calomel, sand, and sulphate of potash. Thirdly, there are the active ingredients that produce the desired effect, prominent among which are substances that in contact with flame impart some special color to it. Brilliancy and brightness are imparted by steel, zinc, and copper






filings. Other substances employed are lampblack with gunpowder, and, for theatre purposes, lycopodium.


Fireworks may be classified under four heads, viz.:


1. Single fireworks.

2. Terrestrial fireworks, which are placed upon the ground and the fire issues direct from the surface.

3. Atmospheric fireworks, which begin their display in the air.

4. Aquatic fireworks, in which oxidation is so intense that they produce a flame under water.


Rockets. First and foremost among atmospheric fireworks are rockets, made in different sizes, each requiring a slightly different percentage composition. A good formula is


Sulphur                             1 part

Carbon, wood                        2 parts

Niter                               4 parts

Meal powder                         1 part


Meal powder is a fine black or brown dust, which acts as a diluent.


Roman Candles. Roman candles are somewhat after the same principle. An average formula is:


Sulphur                             4 parts

Carbon                              3 parts

Niter                               8 parts


Pin Wheels. These are also similar in composition to the preceding. The formula for the basis is


Sulphur                             5 parts

Niter                               9 parts

Meal powder                         15 parts

Color                               as desired.


Bengal Lights. Bengal lights have the disadvantage of being poisonous. A typical preparation can be made according to this formula:


Realgar                             1 part

Black antimony                      5 parts

Red lead                            1 part

Sulphur                             3 parts

Niter                               14 parts




The compounds should be ignited in a small pill box resting on a plate. All the ingredients must be dried and powdered separately, and then lightly mixed on a sheet of paper. Always bear in mind that sulphur and chlorate of potassium explode violently if rubbed together.


Smokeless Vari-Colored Fire. First take barytes or strontium, and bring to a glowing heat in a suitable dish, remove from the fire, and add the shellac. The latter (unpowdered) will melt at once, and can then be intimately mixed with the barytes or strontium by means of a spatula. After cooling, pulverize. One may also add about 2 1/2 per cent of powdered magnesium to increase the effect. Take for instance 4 parts of barytes or strontium and 1 part of shellac.


The following salts, if finely powdered and burned in an iron ladle with a little spirits, will communicate to the flame their peculiar colors.


Potassium nitrate or sodium chlorate,     yellow.

Potassium chlorate,                       violet.

Calcium chloride,                         orange.

Strontium nitrate,                        red.

Barium nitrate,                           apple green.

Copper nitrate,                           emerald green.

Borax,                                    green.

Lithium chloride,                         purple.


The colored fires are used largely in the production of various theatrical effects.


Blue Fire.



Ter-sulphuret of antimony           1 part

Sulphur                             2 parts

Nitrate of potassium                6 parts



Sulphur                             15 parts

Potassium sulphate                  15 parts

Ammonio cupric sulphate             15 parts

Potassium nitrate                   27 parts

Potassium chlorate                  28 parts



Chlorate of potash                  8 parts

Calomel                             4 parts

Copper sulphate                     5 parts

Shellac                             3 parts



Ore pigment                         2 parts

Charcoal                            3 parts

Potassium chloride                  5 parts

Sulphur                             13 parts

Potassium nitrate                   77 parts



Potassium chlorate                  10 parts

Copper chlorate                     20 parts

Alcohol                             20 parts

Water                               100 parts



Copper chlorate                     100 parts

Copper nitrate                      50 parts

Barium chlorate                     25 parts

Potassium chlorate                  100 parts

Alcohol                             500 parts

Water                               1,000 parts





Barium chlorate                     20 parts

Alcohol                             20 parts

Water                               100 parts



Barium nitrate                      10 parts

Potassium chlorate 1                0 parts

Alcohol                             20 parts

Water                               100 parts







Shellac                             5 parts

Barium nitrate                      1 1/4 parts


Pound after cooling, and add


Barium chlorate, 2 to 5 per cent.





Shellac                             5 parts

Strontium nitrate                   1 to 1.2 parts


Preparation as in green fire. In damp weather add 2 to 4 per cent of potassium chlorate to the red flame; the latter causes a little more smoke.



Strontium nitrate                   20 parts

Potassium chlorate                  10 parts

Alcohol                             20 parts

Water                               100 parts





Sulphur                             16 parts

Dried carbonate of soda             23 parts

Chlorate of potassium               61 parts



Sodium chlorate                     20 parts

Potassium oxalate                   10 parts

Alcohol                             20 parts

Water                               100 parts





Strontium chlorate                  15 parts

Copper chlorate                     15 parts

Potassium chlorate                  15 parts

Alcohol                             50 parts

Water                               100 parts



Potassium chlorate                  20 parts

Strontium chlorate                  20 parts

Copper chlorate                     10 parts

Alcohol                             50 parts

Water                               100 parts




Potassium chlorate                  20 parts

Copper chlorate                     10 parts

Strontium chloride                  10 parts

Alcohol                             50 parts

Water                               100 parts




Chlorate of potash                  28 parts

Calomel                             12 parts

Shellac                             4 parts

Strontium nitrate                   4 parts

Cupric sulphate                     2 parts

Fat                                 1 part




Copper sulphide                     8 parts

Calomel                             7 parts

Sulphur                             2 parts

Chlorate of potash                  16 parts





Gunpowder                           15 parts

Sulphur                             22 parts

Nitrate of potassium                64 parts



Potassium nitrate                   30 parts

Sulphur                             10 parts

Antimony sulphide (black)           5 parts

Flour                               3 parts

Powdered camphor                    2 parts



Charcoal                            1 part

Sulphur                             11 parts

Potassium sulphide                  38 parts



Stearine                            1 part

Barium carbonate                    1 part

Milk sugar                          4 parts

Potassium nitrate                   4 parts

Potassium chlorate                  12 parts


As a general rule, a corresponding quantity of shellac may be taken instead of the sulphur for inside fireworks.


The directions for using these solutions are simply to imbibe bibulous papers in them, then carefully dry and roll tightly into rolls of suitable length, according to the length of time they are to burn.


Fuses. For fuses or igniting papers, the following is used:


Potassium nitrate                   2 parts

Lead acetate                        40 parts

Water                               100 parts


Mix and dissolve, and in the solution place unsized paper; raise to nearly a boil and keep at this temperature for 20 minutes. If the paper is to be "slow," it may now be taken out, dried, cut into strips, and rolled. If to be "faster," the heat is to be continued longer, according to the quickness desired. Care must be taken to avoid boiling, which might disintegrate the paper.


In preparing these papers, every precaution against fire should be taken, and their preparation in the shop or house should not be thought of. In making the solutions, etc., where heat is necessary, the water bath should invariably be used.




[Caution. When about to place any lighted material in the mouth be sure that the mouth is well coated with saliva, and that you are exhaling the breath continuously, with greater or less force, according to the amount of heat you can bear.


If the lighted material shows a tendency to burn the mouth, do not attempt to drag it out quickly, but simply shut the lips tight, and breathe through the nose, and the fire must go out instantly.


In the Human Gas Trick, where a flame 10 to 15 inches long is blown from the mouth, be careful after lighting the






gas, to continue to exhale the breath. When you desire the gas to go out, simply shut the lips tight and hold the breath for a few seconds. In this trick, until the gas is well out, any inhalation is likely to be attended with the most serious results.


The several cautions above given may be examined with a lighted match, first removing, after lighting the match, any brimstone or phosphorus from its end.]


To Fire Paper, etc., by Breathing on it. This secret seems little known to conjurers. Pay particular attention to the caution concerning phosphorus at the head of this article, and the caution respecting the dangerous nature of the prepared fluid given.


Half fill a half-ounce bottle with carbon disulphide, and drop in 1 or 2 fragments of phosphorus, each the size of a pea, which will quickly dissolve. Shake up the liquid, and pour out a small teaspoonful onto a piece of blotting paper. The carbon disulphide will quickly evaporate, leaving a film of phosphorus on the paper, which will quickly emit fumes and burst into flame. The once-popular term Fenian fire was derived from the supposed use of this liquid by the Fenians for the purpose of setting fire to houses by throwing a bottle down a chimney or through a window, the bottle to break and its contents to speedily set fire to the place.


For the purpose of experiment this liquid should only be prepared in small quantities as above, and any left over should be poured away onto the soil in the open air, so as to obviate the risk of fire. Thin paper may be fired in a similar manner with the acid bulbs and powder already mentioned. The powder should be formed into a paste, laid on the paper, and allowed to dry. Then the acid bulb is pasted over the powder.


Burning Brimstone. Wrap cotton around two small pieces of brimstone and wet it with gasoline; take between the fingers, squeezing the surplus liquid out, light it with a candle, throw back the head well, and put it on the tongue blazing. Blow fire from mouth, and observe that a freshly blown out candle may be lighted from the flame, which makes it more effective. After lighting candle chew up brimstone and pretend to swallow.


Blazing Sponge Trick. Take 2 or 3 small sponges, place them in a ladle; pour just enough oil or gasoline over them to wet them. Be very careful not to have enough oil on them to cause them to drip. Set fire to the sponges and take one of them up with the tongs s and throw the head back and drop the blazing sponge in the mouth, expelling the breath all the time. Now close your mouth quickly; this cuts off the air from the flame and it immediately goes out. Be careful not to drop the sponge on the face or chin. Remove sponge under cover of a handkerchief before placing the second one in the mouth.


Burning Sealing Wax.    Take a stick of common sealing wax in one hand and a candle in the other, melt the wax over the candle, and put on your tongue while blazing. The moisture of the mouth cools it almost instantly. Care should be taken not to get any on the lips, chin, or hands.


Demon Bowls of Fire. The performer has three 6 1/2 inch brass bowls on a table, and openly pours ordinary clean water (may be drunk) into bowls, until each is about half full. Then by simply passing the hand over bowls they each take fire and produce a flame 12 to 20 inches high.


Each bowl contains about 2 teaspoonfuls of ether, upon which is placed a small piece of the metal potassium, about the size of a pea. If the ether be pure the potassium will not be acted upon. When the water is poured into the bowl the ether and potassium float up, the latter acting vigorously on the water, evolving hydrogen and setting fire thereto, and to the ether as well.


The water may be poured into the bowl and lighted at command. In this case the potassium and ether are kept separated in the bowl, the former in a little cup on one side, and the latter in the body of the bowl. The water is poured in, and on rocking the bowl it is caused to wash into the little cup, the potassium floats up, and the fire is produced.


N. B. The above tricks are not safe in any but specially made bowls, i.e, bowls with the wide flange round edge to prevent the accidental spilling of any portion of the burning ether.


The Burning Banana. Place some alcohol in a ladle and set fire to it. Dip a banana in the blazing alcohol and eat it while it is blazing. As soon as it is placed in the mouth the fire goes out.


Sparks from the Finger Tips. Take a small piece of tin about 1/2 inch wide and 1 1/2 inches long. Bend this in the shape of a ring. To the center of this piece solder another small piece of tin bent in the shape of a letter U; between the






ends of this U place a small piece of wax tape about 1/2 inch long. Take a piece of small rubber tubing about 2 feet in length and to one end of this attach a hollow rubber ball, which you must partly fill with iron filings. Place the rubber ball containing the iron filings under the arm and pass the rubber tube down through the sleeve of the coat to the palm of the hand; now place the tin ring upon the middle finger, with the wax taper inside of the hand. Light this taper. By pressing the arm down sharply on the rubber ball, the force of the air will drive some of the iron filings through the rubber tube and out through the flame of the burning taper, when they will ignite and cause a beautiful shower of sparks to appear to rain from the finger tips.


To Take Boiling Lead in the Mouth. The metal used, while not unlike lead in appearance, is not the ordinary metal, but is really an alloy composed of the following substances:


Bismuth                             8 parts

Lead                                5 parts

Tin                                 2 parts


To prepare it, first melt the lead in a crucible, then add the bismuth and finally the tin, and stir well together with a piece of tobacco pipe stem. This "fusible metal" will melt in boiling water, and a teaspoon cast from the alloy will melt if very hot water be poured into it, or if boiling water be stirred with it. If the water be not quite boiling, as is pretty sure to be the case if tea from a teapot is used, in all probability the heat will be insufficient to melt the spoon. But by melting the alloy and adding to it a small quantity of quicksilver a compound will be produced, which, though solid at the ordinary temperature, will melt in water very much below the boiling point. Another variety of easily fusible alloy is made by melting together


Bismuth                             7 to 8 parts

Lead                                4 parts

Tin                                 2 parts

Cadmium                             1 to 2 parts


This mixture melts at 158º, that given above at 208º F.


Either one of the several alloys above given will contain considerably less heat than lead, and in consequence be the more suitable for the purposes of a "Fire King."


When a body is melted it is raised to a certain temperature and then gets no hotter, not even if the fire be increased all the extra heat goes to melt the remainder of the substance.


Second Method. This is done with a ladle constructed similarly to the tin cup in a previous trick. The lead, genuine in this case, is, apparently, drunk from the ladle, which is then tilted, that it may be seen to be empty. The lead is concealed in the secret interior of the ladle, and a solid piece of lead is in conclusion dropped from the mouth, as congealed metal.


To Eat Burning Coals. In the first place make a good charcoal fire in the furnace. Just before commencing the act throw in three or four pieces of soft pine. When burnt to a coal one cannot tell the difference between this and charcoal, except by sticking a fork into it. This will not burn in the least, while the genuine charcoal will. You can stick your fork into these coals without any difficulty, but the charcoal is brittle and hard; it breaks before the fork goes into it.


Chain of Fire. Take a piece of candle wick 8 or 10 inches long, saturated with kerosene oil, squeeze out surplus oil. Take hold of one end with your fire tongs, light by furnace, throw back your head, and lower it into your mouth while exhaling the breath freely. When all in, close your lips and remove in handkerchief.


NOTE. Have a good hold of the end with the tongs, for if it should fall it would probably inflict a serious burn; for this reason also no burning oil must drop from the cotton.


Biting Off Red-Hot Iron. Take a piece of hoop iron about 2 feet long, place it in a vise and bend it backwards and forwards, about an inch from the end, until it is nearly broken off. Put this in a furnace until it becomes red hot, then take it in your right hand, grasp the broken end in your teeth, being careful not to let it touch your lips or your tongue, make a "face" as though it was terribly hard to bite off, and let the broken end drop from between your teeth into a pail of water (which you should always have at hand in case of fire), when the hissing will induce the belief that the portion bitten off is still "red hot" it may be, for that matter, if the iron be nearly broken off in the first place and if you have good teeth and are not afraid to injure them.


Water Stirred Yellow, Scarlet, and Colorless. Obtain a glass tube with one end hermetically sealed and drawn into a fine point that will break easily. Into an ale glass put a solution of mercury bi-






chloride (corrosive sublimate, a deadly poison) and into the tube a strong solution of potassium iodide so adjusted in strength that it will redissolve the scarlet precipitate formed by the union of the two liquids. While stirring the solution in the glass the bottom of the tube (apparently a glass rod) is broken and a small portion of its contents allowed to escape, which produces a beautiful scarlet. The balance of the fluid in the tube is retained there by simply keeping the thumb on the open top end. Continue the stirring, allowing the balance of the contents of the tube to escape, and the scarlet fluid again becomes colorless. Before the scarlet appears the liquid is yellow.


To heighten the effect, another ale glass, containing only clean water and a solid glass stirring-rod, may be handed to one of the company, with instructions to do the same as the performer; the result is amusing.



See Alloys.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Salts, Effervescent.



See Essences and Extracts.


Rat Poisons

(See also Turpentine.)


Poisons for rats may be divided into two classes, quick and slow. Potassium cyanide and strychnine belong to the first, and phosphorus and arsenic to the second. Both should be kept away from children, dogs, and cats, and this is best done by putting them in places too narrow for anything larger than a rat to squeeze into. If the poison is too quick, the effect of it is visible to the same rats which saw the cause, and those which have not eaten of the bait will leave it alone. On the other hand, if it is too slow, the poisoned rat may spread it to  edible things in the pantry, by vomiting. Slow poisons generally cause the rat to seek water, and when they are used water should not be left about promiscuously.


The substances most useful as rat poisons, and which are without danger to the larger domestic animals, are plaster of Paris and fresh squills. Less dangerous than strychnine and arsenic are the baryta preparations, of which the most valuable is barium carbonate. Like plaster of Paris, this substance, when used for the purpose, must be mixed with sugar and meal, or flour, and as a decoy some strong-smelling cheese should be added. In closed places there should be left vessels containing water easily accessible to the creatures.


One advantage over these substances possessed by the squill is that it is greedily eaten by rats and mice. When it is used, however, the same precaution as to water, noted above, is necessary, a circumstance too frequently forgotten. In preparing the squill for this purpose, by the addition of bacon, or fat meat of any kind, the use of a decoy like cheese is unnecessary, as the fats are sufficiently appetizing to the rodents. It is to be noted that only fresh squills should be used for this purpose, as in keeping the bulb the poisonous principle is destroyed, or, at least, is so modified as to seriously injure its value.


Squill Poisons. The preparation of the squill as a rat poison can be effected in several different ways. Usually, after the removal of the outer peel, the bulb is cut up into little slices and mixed with milk and flour; these are stirred into a dough or paste, which, with bits of bacon rind, is put into the oven and baked. Another plan is to grate the squill on a grater and mingle the gratings with mashed, boiled, or roasted potato. This method of preparing them necessitates the immediate use of the poison. The following is, however, a stable preparation that keeps well:



Hog's lard                          500 grams

Acid salicylic                      5 grams

Squill                              1 bulb

Beef suet                           50 to 100 grams

Barium carbonate                    500 grams

Solution of ammonium copper

acetate, 20 per cent                50 grams


Cut or grate the squill into very small pieces, and fry it in the lard and suet until it has acquired a dark-brown color and






the fats have taken up the characteristic squill odor; then to the mess add the other substances, and stir well together.



Squill, bruised                     4 ounces

Bacon, chopped fine                 6 ounces

Flour or meal,                      enough.

Water,                              enough.


Make into a stiff mass, divide into small cakes, and bake.


Phosphorus Poisons. Next to the squill in value as a poison comes phospnorus in the shape of an electuary, or in pills. For readily preparing the electuary, when needed or ordered, it is a good plan to keep on hand a phosphorated syrup made as follows:


To 200 parts of simple syrup, in a strong flask, add 50 parts of phosphorus and 10 parts of talc powder; place the container in a suitable vessel and surround it with water heated to 120º to 130º F., and let it stand until the phosphorus is melted. Now, cork the flask well, tie down the cork, and agitate until the mixture is completely cold. As a measure of precaution, the flask should be wrapped with a cloth.


To make the poison take 50 parts of rye flour and mix with it 10 parts of powdered sugar. To the mixture add about 40 parts of water and from 30 to 40 parts of the phosphorated syrup, and mix the mass thoroughly.


While it is best to make the phosphorated syrup fresh every time that it is required, a stable syrup can be made as follows:


Heat together very carefully in a water bath 5 parts of phosphorus, 3 parts of sublimea sulphur, and 30 parts of water, until the phosphorus is completely melted and taken up; then add 30 parts of wheat flour and 6 parts of ground mustard seed, and work up, with the addition of warm water from time to time, if necessary, into a stiff paste, finally adding and working in from 1 to 2 parts of oil of anise.


Borax in powder, it may be noticed, is also useful as a preservative of phosphorated paste or the electuary.


Mühsam gives the following formula for an electuary of phosphorus for this purpose:



Phosphorus, granulated              1 part

Rye flour                           30 parts

Simple syrup                        10 parts

Mustard seed, powdered              1 part

Sublimed sulphur                    1 part

Water                               10 parts


Proceed as indicated above.


Hager's formula for "Phosphorus globules" is as follows:



Phosphorus, amorphous               10 parts

Glycerine                           20 parts

Linseed, powdered                   100 parts

Meat extract                        15 parts

Quark, recently coagulated,         quantity sufficient.


Mix, and make a mass, and divide into 200 globules, weighing about 15 grains each. Roll in wheat flour, in which a little powdered sugar has been mixed.


Phosphorus electuary, made as indicated above, may be smeared upon bits of fried bacon, which should be tacked firmly to a bit of board or to the floor. It is essential that either flour or sugar, or both, be strewn over the surface of the phosphorus.


The most convenient in practice, on the whole, are the phosphorus globules, either made after Hager's formula, or, more readily, by adding rye flour and sugar to the electuary and working up to a pill mass, or barium carbonate and plaster may be added.


Arsenical Poisons. The following are some of the formulas given by Hager for preparing globules, or pills, of arsenic:



Arsenic, white, powdered            100 parts

Soot from the kitchen               5 parts

Oil of anise                        1 part

Lard,                               sufficient.

Wheat flour,                        sufficient.


Make into 400 globules.



Beef suet                           500 parts

Rye flour                           500 parts

Arsenic, white, powdered            50 parts

Ultramarine                         10 parts

Oil of anise                        1 part


Melt the suet, and add to the flour, mix in the other ingredients, and work up while hot, beating the mass with a roller. Make 1,000 globules.


Strychnine Poisons. The strychnine preparations are also valuable in the destruction of rats and mice. The first of these in point of usefulness is strychnine-wheat, or strychnine-oats (Strychninweizen or Strycnninhafer), in the proportion of 1 part of strychnine to 100 or 150 parts of wheat or oat flour, prepared by dissolving 1 part of strychnine in 40 to 50 parts of hot water, mixing well up with the flour, and drying in the water






bath. Strychnine may also be used on fresh or salted meat, sausage, etc., by insertion of the powder, or the heads of fried fish are opened and the powder strewn on the inside. The latter is an especially deadly method, since the odor of the fish acts as a powerful lure, as also do the bits of bacon or other fats used in frying fish. Strong cheese is also a good vehicle for strychnine, acting as a powerful lure for the rodents.


Strychnine sulph                    1 drachm

Sugar milk                          3 drachms

Prussian blue                       5 grains

Sugar                               1/2 ounce

Oat flour                           1/2 ounce


Nux Vomica Poison.


Oatmeal                             1 pound

Powdered nux vomica                 1 ounce

Oil of anise                        5 drops

Tincture of asafetida               5 drops


Barium Poison.


Barium carbonate                    4 ounces

Sugar                               6 ounces

Oatmeal                             6 ounces

Oil of anise                        4 drops

Oil of caraway                      4 drops



See Paper.



See also Pastes.


The razor pastes, razor creams, etc., on the market, have for their cutting, or sharpening, agent jewelers' rouge, or rouge and emery. When emery is used it should be ground to an impalpable powder and levigated.


I.    The simplest formula is a mixture in equal parts of rouge and emery powder, rubbed up with spermaceti ointment. Coke is also used as a cutting agent. Suet, prepared lard, in fact, any greasy or soapy substance, will answer for the vehicle.


II.   Melt 1,000 parts of beef tallow and pour 250 parts of oil to it. To this mixture, which is uniformly combined by thorough stirring, add in the same manner 150 parts of washed emery, 100 parts of tin ashes, and 50 parts of iron oxide. The stirring of these ingredients must be continued until the mass is cool, as otherwise they would be unevenly distributed. The leather of the strop should be rubbed with this grease, applying only small quantities at a time. This renders it possible to produce a very uniform coating, since little quantities penetrate the fibers of the leather more easily.



Tin putty (tin ashes)               2 parts

Colcothar                           2 parts

Forged iron scales or filings       1 part

Pure levantine honing stone

finely powdered                     7 parts

Beef suet                           3 parts


All the ingredients with the exception of the suet should be finely powdered. The suet is melted, the ingredients poured in, and the whole thoroughly mixed to form a doughy mass.



Colcothar                           1 1/2 parts

Pumice stone                        1 1/2 parts

Graphite                            4 1/2 parts

Bloodstone (red hematite)           2 parts

Iron filings                        1 part


These ingredients are finely powdered, washed, and mixed with the following:


Grafting wax                        2 parts

Soap                                2 parts

Lard                                2 parts

Olive oil                           2 parts


Naturally the fatty ingredients are to be heated before the solid substances are commingled with them.


The side of the blade to be polished should be treated with the following compositions:


a. Tin ashes (tin putty) rubbed down to a fine powder on a honing stone and mixed with axle grease.


b. Washed graphite mingled with olive oil.



See Photography.



See Photography.



See Alloys.





Potassium nitrate                   2 pounds

Ammonium chloride                   2 pounds

Water                               5 pints



Potassium nitrate                   2 1/2 pounds

Ammonium chloride                   2 1/2 pounds

Sodium sulphate                     4 pounds

Water                               9 pints



Ammonia nitrate                     4 pounds

Water                               4 pints


IV.   Sodium sulphate               8 parts

Dilute hydrochloric acid            5 parts







Snow                                1 part

Water                               1 part

Sulphuric acid                      4 parts



Snow                                3 parts

Calcium chloride                    4 parts




If water to be frozen is placed in a tin bucket or other receptacle it can be readily congealed by putting it in a pail containing a weak dilution of sulphuric acid and water. Into this throw a handful of common Glauber salts, and the resulting cold is so great that water immersed in the mixture will be frozen solid in a few minutes, and ice cream or ices may be quickly and easily prepared. The cost is only a few cents. The same process in an ice-cream freezer will do the trick for ice cream.


Home Made Refrigerators.


I.    Partly fill with water a shallow granite-ware pan. Place it in an open, shady window where there is a good draught of air. In this put bottles of water, milk, and cream (sealed), wrapped with wet cloths reaching into the water. Put butter in an earthen dish deep enough to prevent water getting in. Over this turn an earthen flower-pot wrapped with a wet cloth reaching into the water. The pan should be fixed every morning and evening. With several of these pans one can keep house very comfortably without ice.


II.   Procure a wire meat safe that is, a box covered by wire netting on three sides, with a fly-proof door. On top place a deep pan filled with water. Take a piece of burlap the height of the pan and safe, and of sufficient length to reach around the entire safe. Tack it fast where the door opens and closes. Tuck the upper edge in the water. Place it where there is a draught and where the dripping will do no damage. This constitutes a well-ventilated refrigerator chat costs nothing but water to maintain.


III.  Take a store box, any convenient size, and place in this a smaller box, having the bottom and space around the sides packed with sawdust. Have a galvanized iron pan made, the size of the inside box and half as deep, to hold the ice. Have the pan made with, a spout 6 inches long to drain off the water as the ice melts. Bore a hole the size of the spout through the double bottom and sawdust packing to admit the spout. Short legs may be nailed on the sides of the box and a vessel set underneath to catch the drippings. Put on a tight board cover. A shelf may be placed in the box above the ice. This box will keep ice for three days.


IV.   Select a large cracker box with a hinged cover. Knock out the bottom and cut windows in each side, leaving a 3 inch frame, over which tack wire gauze. In the coolest part of the cellar dig away the earth to a level depth of 3 inches and fit the box into the space.


Mix plaster of Paris to a consistency of thick cream and pour into the box for a 1/2 inch thick bottom. Twenty-four hours will harden it sufficiently. Put a hook and catch on the lid. A box of this sort can be cleaned easily, and insects cannot penetrate it.


To Drain a Refrigerator.


I.    Have a stout tin funnel made, 7 inches in diameter at the top. The tube portion should be at least 8 inches long and of uniform diameter. Bore a hole through the floor directly under the drain-pipe of the refrigerator; insert the funnel, then force a piece of rubber tubing (a tight fit) over the funnel from the cellar side. Pass the tubing through a hole cut in the screen frame of a cellar window, and drain into any convenient place. This avoids the necessity of continually emptying the drain-pan, and prevents the overflow that frequently occurs when it is forgotten.


II.   This simple device saves the inconvenience of having a drip-pan under the refrigerator: If the refrigerator is placed near the outer wall get a piece of rubber hose long enough to reach from the waste pipe to the outside of the wall. Bore a hole through the wall under the refrigerator, where baseboard and floor meet. Attach the hose to the waste-pipe and pass through the hole in the wall. A small trough outside should carry the water away from the house.



See Household Formulas.



See Plating.



See Mirrors.



See Lubricants.



See Cholera Remedies.







See Typewriter Ribbons.



See Adhesives.



See Cosmetics.



See Lubricants.



See Solders.



See Plating.



See Insecticides.



See Explosives.



See Photography.




Rollers for transferring ink to types have to possess special properties, which have reference both to the nature of the ink and that of the types to which it is to be transferred. They must be as little liable as possible to changes of temperature. They must be sticky, but only just sticky enough, and must have elasticity enough to exert a uniform pressure over the varying surface with which they meet in the form. Originally, the composition was one of glue and molasses in varying proportions, and the only practical improvement that has been made is the addition of glycerine. This being slightly hygroscopic, helps to keep the roller at the right degree of softness, and being practically unfreezable, it is a great assistance in keeping the rollers from hardening in cold weather.


The recipes given in technical works for printing roller compositions are numerous and very different. All contain glue and molasses, and it is the practice to put a larger proportion of glue in rollers to be used in the summer than in those intended for winter use. The following is a selection of recipes:


I.    Soak 8 pounds of glue in as much water as it will absorb. When there is no visible water, treat the glue till melted, and add 7 pounds of hot molasses.



Glue (summer)                       8 pounds

Glue (winter)                       4 pounds

Molasses                            1 gallon



Molasses                            12 pounds

Glue                                4 pounds



Molasses                            24 pounds

Glue                                16 pounds

Paris white                         2 pounds



Glue or gelatin                     64 pounds

Water                               48 pounds

Linseed oil                         96 pounds

Molasses or sugar                   64 to 96 pounds

Chloride of calcium                 3 pounds

Powdered rosin                      8 pounds


Soak the glue in the water and then liquefy by heat. Then stir in the oil, first heated to 150º F. Then add the molasses and the chloride of calcium, and finally the fused rosin. The latter ingredient is only to be added when very tough rollers are required. This recipe is interesting from the inclusion in it of the hygroscopic salt, chloride of calcium, the object of which is obviously to keep the rollers moist.



See Household Formulas.



See Household Formulas.



See Paint.



See Household Formulas.




To protect ropes, cordage, and cloths made of flax and hemp against rot, it has been recommended to leave them for 4 days in a solution of copper sulphate, 20 parts by weight to a liter, then allow them to dry, and then, to prevent the copper sulphate being washed away by the water, place in tar or a solution of soap - 1 to 10. In the latter case an insoluble copper soap is formed. To secure the same result with twine, the following process has been recommended: Place the string for an hour in a solution of glue, then allow to dry, and place in a solution of tannin. After removal from the tannin, again dry, and soak in oil. The process first described has been shown by experience to be very effective; but to prevent the washing away of the copper sulphate, it is advisable to use the solution of soap in preference to the tar, as articles steeped in the latter substance are apt to become stiff, and consequently brittle. The






treatment with glue and tannin in the second process has the drawback that it tends to make the string too stiff and inflexible, and thus impair its usefulness.



See Lubricant.



See Waterproofing.



See Wines and Liquors.



See Wood.



See Cosmetics.



See Foods.



See Oil.



See Depilatories.




Remedies for Dry Rot. A good remedy for dry rot is petroleum. The sick parts of the wood are painted with it, which causes the fungi to die, turn black, and finally drop off. The best preventive of dry rot is plenty of draught. If the portions are already affected so badly that they must be removed and renewed, the freshly inserted wood is coated with "carbolineum" to prevent a fresh appearance of dry rot. Another remedy is ordinary salt, which is known to have a highly hygroscopic action. It absorbs the moisture of the wood, whereby it is itself dissolved, thus gradually impregnating the planks, etc. In order to combat dry rot with salt, proceed as follows: Throw salt into boiling water until a perfectly saturated solution is obtained. With this repeatedly wash the wood and masonry afflicted with dry rot. Wherever practicable the salt may be sprinkled direct upon the affected place.



See Cosmetics.




The rouge employed by machinists, watchmakers, and jewelers, is obtained by directly subjecting crystals of sulphate of iron or copperas to a high heat by which the sulphuric acid is expelled and the oxide of iron remains. Those portions least calcined, when ground, are used for polishing gold and silver. These are of bright crimson color. The darker and more calcined portions are known as “crocus” and are used for polishing brass and steel. Others prefer for the production of rouge the peroxide of iron precipitated by ammonia from a dilute solution of sulphate of iron, which is washed, compressed until dry, then exposed to a low red heat and ground to powder. Of course, there are other substances besides rouge which are employed in polishing, as powdered emery, kieselguhr, carborundum, rotten stone, etc.



See Polishes.



See Wood.



See Veterinary Formulas.






Austin G. Day tried hundreds of experiments and took out many patents for rubber substitutes. He was in a measure, successful, his "Kerite" compound proving of great value and being a result of his seeking for something that would wholly supplant rubber. As far back as 1866 he made public the results of some of his work, giving as formulas for rubber substitutes the following compounds:



Linseed oil                         2 pounds

Cottonseed oil                      1 pound

Petroleum                           2 pounds

Raw turpentine                      2 pounds

Sulphur                             2 pounds


Boil 2 hours.



Linseed oil                         2 pounds

Cottonseed oil                      1 pound

Petroleum                           1 pound

Raw turpentine                      2 pounds

Castor oil                          1 pound

Sulphur                             2 pounds


Boil 1/2 hour.



Linseed oil                         2 pounds

Cottonseed oil                      1 pound

Petroleum                           1 pound

Raw turpentine                      1/2 pound

Liquid coal tar                     3 pounds

Peanut oil                          1 pound

Spirits turpentine                  1 pound

Sulphur                             4 pounds


Boil 35 minutes.



Linseed oil                         2 pounds

Cottonseed oil                      1 pound

Petroleum                           2 pounds

Raw turpentine                      1/2 pound

Liquid coal tar                     2 pounds






Spirits turpentine                  1 pound

Rubber                              [?]pound

Sulphur                             2 pounds


Boil 1 hour.


In 1871 Mr. Day had brought his experimenting down to the following formula:



Cottonseed oil                      14 pounds

Linseed oil                         14 pounds

Asphaltum                           8 pounds

Coal tar                            8 pounds

Sulphur                             10 pounds

Camphor                             1/2 pound


In this the tar and asphaltum were first mixed with the cottonseed oil, after which was added the linseed oil and camphor, and, last of all, the sulphur, when the temperature was about 270º F. A substitute designed to be used in rubber compounding in place, say, of reclaimed rubber, was made as follows:



Cottonseed oil                      27 pounds

Coal tar                            30 pounds

Earthy matter                       5 pounds


To be mixed and heated to 300º F., and then strained and cooled to 200º F. Then were added 27 pounds linseed oil, the heat raised to 220º F., and 15 to 18 pounds of sulphur added, the heat being continually raised until the mass was sulphurized. When the heat reached 240º F., 1 to 1 1/2 ounces of nitric acid were added, and at 270 to 280º F., from 1 to 3 ounces camphor were added to help the sulphurization. The resultant compound was used on the following basis:



Para rubber                         20 pounds

Litharge                            5 pounds

Sulphur                             1 pound

Above compound                      20 to 40 pounds


Mr. Day did not insist on the compound quoted, but advised that the proportions be varied as widely as the exigencies of the case might demand. Whiting, barytes, infusorial earth, white lead, blacks, in fact almost any of the oxides, carbonates, or earthy materials commonly used in compounding, were used in connection with his substitute, as also were any grades of crude rubber. Among other ingredients that he found of use in making his substitutes were vegetable and animal waxes, together with ozokerite and paraffine. These were only used in small quantities, and always in connection with the linseed and cottonseed oils, and generally asphaltum or coal tar. One of his compounds also called for a quantity of golden sulphuret of antimony, presumably to assist in the sulphurization, and a small amount of tannic acid.


Another line of experimenting that is interesting, and that will yet produce good results, although so far it has not amounted to much, is in the use of cellulose. A very simple formula is of French origin and calls for the treating of cellulose with sulphuric acid, washing, drying, granulating, treating with resinate of soda which is afterwards precipitated by sulphate of alumina then drying and molding under pressure. As a matter of fact, the resultant mass would not be mistaken for rubber. An English formula is more like it. This consists of



Cellulose                           15 pounds

Pitch                               25 pounds

Asphalt                             20 pounds

Silica                              20 pounds

Mastic                              5 pounds

Bitumen                             5 pounds

Rosin                               10 pounds

Coal tar                            12 pounds


This makes a thick gummy varnish which is of little use except as for its waterproof qualities. Allen's formula for a cellulose substitute might have a value if it were carried further. It is made up of 100 pounds of rosinous wood pulp treated with animal gelatin, 100 pounds asphalt, and 10 pounds asphalt oil, all heated and molded.


The Greening process, which is English, is more elaborate than Allen's, but seems a bit laborious and costly. This process calls for the treatment of the cellulose by a mixture of sulphuric acid and nitrate of potash, and, after drying, a treatment to a bath of liquid carbonic acid. When dry again, it is mixed in a retort with refined rosin, gum benzoin, castor oil, and methylated alcohol. The distillate from this is dried by redistilling over anhydrous lime.


Another curious line of substitutes is that based upon the use of glue and glycerine. Some of these have uses, while others, that look very attractive, are of no use at all, for the simple reason that they will absorb water almost as readily as a dry sponge. The first of these is more than 30 years old and is said to be of French origin. The formula is:



Glue                                4 pounds

Glycerine                           8 ounces

Nutgall                             3 ounces

Acetic acid,                        1 pound in 5 pounds of water.


Ten years later this was approached by an English formula in which in place of






the nutgall and acetic acid, chromic and tannic acids were substituted, and a modicum of ground cork was added as a cheapener probably. Some four years later an ingenious Prussian gave out a formula in which to the glue and glycerine and tannic acid were added Marseilles soap and linseed oil. None of the above have ever had a commercial value, the nearest approach being the glue and glycerine compound used as a cover for gas tubing.


The substitutes that have really come into use generally are made either from linseed, cottonseed, or maize oil. Scores of these have been produced and thousands of dollars have been spent by promoters and owners in trying to make these gums do just what crude rubber will. A German formula which was partially successful is



Linseed oil, in solution            80 pounds

Limehardened rosin, in solution     50 pounds


Add to above


Sulphur                             8 pounds

Linseed oil                         42 pounds


Add 20 pounds sulphur and heat to 375º F.


Rubber and Rubber Articles. As regards the action of coal gas on rubber tubes, it has been observed that it is weakest on ordinary gray rubber which withstands it the longest, and gives off no odor. Red rubber is more readily affected, and the black kind still more so.


To prevent rubber tubes from drying up and becoming brittle, they should be coated with a 3 per cent aqueous solution of carbolic acid, which preserves them. If they have already turned stiff and brittle, they can be rendered soft and pliant again by being placed in ammonia which has been made liquid with double the amount of water.


In France rubber tubes are used as a core for casting pipes from cement and sand. In order to construct a connected pipe conduit in the ground, a groove is dug and a layer of cement mortar spread out. Upon this the rubber tube is laid, which is wrapped up in canvas and inflated. The remaining portion of the channel is then filled up with cement mortar, and as soon as it has set, the air is let out of the rubber hose and the latter is pulled out and used as before.


To cover cloth with rubber, there are chiefly employed for dissolving the rubber, naphtha, alcohol, and benzol. They are mixed with purified solid paraffine, and ground together.


Rubber boots and shoes are rendered waterproof by melting 4 parts of spermaceti and 1 part of rubber on a moderate fire, adding tallow or fat, 10 parts, and lastly 5 parts of copal varnish or amber varnish. This mixture is applied on the shoes with a brush. It should be stated that the rubber used for this purpose must be cut up very small and allowed 4 to 5 hours to dissolve.


To rid rubber articles of unpleasant odor, cover both sides with a layer of animal charcoal and heat to about 140º F.


To prevent gas from escaping through rubber hose, cover it with a mixture prepared as follows: Dissolve 5 parts of gum arabic and 3 parts of molasses in 15 parts of white wine and add, with constant stirring, 6 parts of alcohol in small quantities. Stirring is necessary to prevent the alcohol from precipitating the gum arabic.


Repairing Rubber Goods. First, clean off all adherent matter, and dry thoroughly. Varnish or lacquer, as for instance on rubber shoes, may be removed with sand or emery paper, or even with a file, in the absence of one of these. The surface thus produced is then rubbed with benzine. A solution of Para rubber in benzine is then painted over the surface around the break or tear, and a strip of natural rubber fitted over it. Then prepare a vulcanizing solution as follows:


Sulphur chloride                    18 parts

Benzine                             400 parts

Carbon disulphide                   300 parts


This is applied to the edges of the joint by means of a pledget of cotton wrapped on the end of a little stick, and press the jointed parts well together.


One may repair rubber bulbs by the following method: Put some pure gum in three times its bulk of benzine, and cork tightly. Let stand several days. Get some rubber in sheet form; it will be better if it is backed with cloth. To make a patch, dampen some little distance around the hole to be mended with benzine. After a moment, scrape with a knife; repeat the process several times till the site to be patched is thoroughly clean. Cut a patch from sheet of rubber a little larger than the hole to be mended, and apply to its surface several coats of the benzine solution. Then apply a good coat of the solution to both patch and about the hole, and press the patch firmly in place. Again apply the solution to make coating over the patch, and allow to dry till it will not stick to the finger. Do not use for several days.


Cracked rubber goods may be suc-






cessfully mended in the following manner: Before patching, the cracked surfaces to unite well must be dried, entirely freed from all dirt and dust and greased well, otherwise the surfaces will not combine. In case of a cover, waterproof coat, or rubber boots, etc., take a moderately thick piece of india rubber, suited to size of the object, cut off the edges obliquely with a sharp knife moistened in water, coat the defective places as well as the cut pieces of rubber with oil of turpentine, lay the coated parts together and subject them for 24 hours to a moderate pressure. The mended portions will be just as waterproof as the whole one. Rubber cushions or articles containing air are repaired in a very simple manner, after being cleaned as aforesaid. Then take colophony, dissolve it in alcohol (90 per cent) so that a thick paste forms, smear up the holes, allow all to harden well, and the rubber article, pillow, ball, knee caps, etc., may be used again.


Softening Rubber. The hardening of gum articles is generally referable to these having been kept for a long time in some warm, dry place, though keeping them in the cold will produce the same effect. Hardness and brittleness, under any reasonable care and conditions, are usually signs of an inferior article of goods. Articles of Para rubber, of good workmanship, usually maintain their elasticity for a very long time. Before attempting to soften hollow rubber ware, such as flasks, water bags, or bottles, etc., they should be well scrubbed with a wire brush (bottle cleaner) and warm water, so as to remove all dirt and dust. This scrubbing should be continued until the wash water comes away clean and bright. For softening, the best agent is dilute water of ammonia, prepared by mixing pharmacopaeial ammonia water, 1 part, and water, 2 parts. There should be enough of this to cover the articles, inside and out. Let them remain in the mixture until the ammonia has evaporated. Warm water works better than cold. From 1 to 2 hours will be long enough, as a usual thing. Thick and massive articles such as large rubber tubing, require more energetic treatment, and the journal recommends for the treatment of these that they be filled nearly full with the ammonia mixture, corked at both ends, and coiled up in a kettle, or other vessel, of sufficient size, warm water poured in sufficient to cover the coil completely, and lightly boiled for from 1 to 2 hours. The water lost by evaporation should be replaced from time to time, and the vessel should never be allowed to boil violently. When the proper time has arrived (and this must be learned, it appears, by experience, as the article quoted gives no directions save those translated), remove from the fire, and allow to cool gradually.


Glycerine has been also recommended, and it may be used with advantage in certain cases. The articles must first be cleaned with the brush and warm water, as above detailed. Heat them in water and rub them with a wad of cotton soaked in glycerine, drawing the wad over them, backwards and forwards. This wad should be wrapped with good stout wire, the ends of which are prolonged, to serve as a handle. Where possible the articles should be stricken with the glycerine inside and out, the article being, naturally, held out of the boiling water, sufficiently, at least, to make bare the part being rubbed at the time. Let rest for 24 hours, and repeat this process. With goods kept in stock, that show a tendency to grow brittle, this treatment should be repeated every 6 months or oftener. Never put away tubing, etc., treated in this manner until every particle of moisture has drained off or evaporated.


Another authority, Zeigler, has the following on this subject: Tubing, bands, and other articles of vulcanized caoutchouc that have become brittle and useless, may be restored to usefulness, indeed, to their pristine elasticity, by treating them as follows: First, put them in a hot aqueous solution of tannic acid and tartar emetic. Next, transfer them to a cold aqueous solution of tannic acid and calcium sulphate. Mix the two solutions and heat to about the boiling point, and transfer the articles to the hot solution. This treatment should be maintained from 1 day to 3 or 4, according to the nature and condition of the articles.


To restore rubber stoppers that have become too hard for usefulness, digest them in 5 per cent soda lye for about 10 days at 86º to 104º F., replacing the lye repeatedly. Next, wash the stoppers in water and scrape off the softened outer layer with a knife, until no more can be removed. The stoppers (which have become quite soft and elastic again) are next rinsed in warm water to remove the caustic soda. If it is desired to trim them it should be done with a knife moistened with soap spirit.


Treatment and Utilization of Rubber Scraps. The scraps, assorted according






to their composition, are first cleaned by boiling to remove the adhering dirt, absorbed and adhering acids, salts, etc., as well as to eliminate the free sulphur. Next, the waste is ground between rollers and reduced to powder in emery grinders with automatic feeding. In many cases the material obtained may be added at once dry to the mixture, but generally it first receives a chemical treatment. This is carried out by boiling in caustic soda solution, or sulphuric or hydrochloric acid respectively, and steaming for about 20 hours with 4 atmospheres pressure.


According to another method, the ground scraps are steamed with soda lye under pressure, washed twice thoroughly for the elimination of the lye, and dried in the vacuum. Subsequently mix between cold rollers with 5 to 10 per cent of benzol or mineral oil and steam for some hours under hydraulic pressure at 4 atmospheres. The product thus obtained is rolled in plates and added to the mixture. The finely ground dry waste must not be stored for a long time in large quantities, as it hardens very easily and takes fire.


Old articles of vulcanized rubber are first "devulcanized" by grinding, boiling with caustic soda, and washing thoroughly. After drying, the scraps are heated to 302º F. with linseed oil in a kettle provided with stirring mechanism which is kept in continual motion. When the rubber has dissolved, a quantity of natural or coal-tar asphalt is added, and as soon as the contents of the kettle have become well mixed, the temperature is raised so high that dense fumes begin to rise and air is forced through the mass until a cooled sample shows the desired consistence. This composition being very tough and flexible, forms an excellent covering for electric cables. It finds many other uses, the proportions of rubber, asphalt, and oil being varied in accordance with the purpose for which it is designed.


Vulcanization. Besides the Goodyear, Mason, and other patented processes, the process now usually followed in vulcanizing rubber stamps and similar small objects of rubber, is as follows:


Sulphur chloride is dissolved in carbon disulphide in various proportions, according to the degree of hardness the vulcanized object is to receive; the rubber cast is plunged in the solution and left there from 60 to 70 seconds. On removing, it is placed in a box or space warmed to 80º F., and left long enough for the carbon disulphide to evaporate, or about 90 to 100 seconds. It is then washed in a weakly alkaline bath of water, and dried.


Another method (recommended by Gerard) depends upon letting the rubber lie in a solution of potassium ter or penta sulphide, of 25º Bé., heated to about 280º F. for 3 hours.


Testing Rubber Gloves. In testing rubber gloves it is best to inflate them with air, and then put them under water. Thus one may discover many small holes in new ones which otherwise would have been impossible to find.


Dissolving Old Rubber. The material is shredded finely and then heated, under pressure, for several hours, with a strong solution of caustic soda. All cloth, paint, glue, fillers, etc., in the rubber are disintegrated, but the rubber is not affected. The mass is then washed repeatedly with water, to remove all alkali, and the resultant pure rubber may then be formed into sheets.


Rubber Stamps. Set up the desired name and address in common type, oil the type and place a guard about 1/2 inch high around the form. Mix plaster of Paris to the proper consistence, pour in and allow it to set. Have the vulcanized rubber all ready, as made in long strips 3 inches wide and 1/8 of an inch thick, cut off the size of the intended stamp, remove the plaster cast from the type, and place both the cast and the rubber in a screw press, applying sufficient heat to thoroughly soften the rubber. Then turn down the screw hard and let it remain until the rubber receives the exact impression of the cast and becomes cold, when it is removed, neatly trimmed with a sharp knife, and cemented to the handle ready for use.



See Adhesives.



See Antiseptics.



See Waterproofing.



See Varnishes.



See Watchmakers' Formulas.



See Alloys.



See Bay Rum.






Rust Preventives

(See also Enamels, Glazes, Paints, Varnishes, Waterproofing.)


In spite of the numerous endeavors to protect metal objects from oxidation, a thoroughly satisfactory process has not yet been found, and we still have to resort to coatings and embrocations.


By covering the metals with a pale, colorless linseed oil varnish, a fat or spirit lacquer, an unfailing protection against oxidation is obtained. This method, though frequently employed, however, is too laborious and expensive to admit of general use, and instead we frequently see employed ordinary or specially composed greases, especially for scythes, straw-knives, and many other bright iron goods. These greases are not suited to retard oxidation, for they are without exception acid-reacting bodies, which absorb oxygen in the air and under the action of light, thus rather assisting oxidation than retarding it. A covering of wax dissolved in oil of turpentine would be more recommendable, because wax is an impervious body, and a firm and rather hard layer remains after evaporation of the oil of turpentine, which excludes the air. If the treatment with the wax salve is carefully attended to no other objection can be urged against this preserving agent than that it is likewise comparatively expensive if used in large quantities. As regards the greases, and treatment with petroleum or vaseline, the easy attrition of these substances is another drawback, which makes a lasting protection impossible.


According to Shedlok, cast-iron articles are treated with acids, then exposed to the action of steam, hot or cold water, and dried. The receptacle is exhausted of air and a solution of pitch, rosin, rubber, or caoutchouc, applied under pressure. Objects prepared in this manner are said to be impervious even to weak acids.


The inoxidizing process of Ward is founded on the simultaneous employment of silicates and heat. The cast iron or wrought iron are coated with a siliceous mass by means of a brush or by immersion. This covering dries quickly, becomes liquid when the articles are exposed to a suitable heat, and soaks into trie pores of the metal, forming a dense and uniform coat of dull black color after cooling, which is not changed by long-continued influence of the atmosphere, and which neither scales nor peels from the object. By the admixture of glass coloring matters to the siliceous mass, decorated surfaces may be produced.


Another inoxidation process for cast iron is the following: The cast-iron objects, such as whole gas chandeliers, water pipes, ornaments, balcony railings, cooking vessels, etc., are laid upon an iron sliding carriage 3.5 meters long and are exposed in a flame furnace of special construction first 15 minutes to the influence of gas generators with oxidizing action, then 20 minutes to such with reducing action. After being drawn out and cooled off the inoxidized pieces take on a uniform slate-blue shade of color, but can be enameled and ornamented in any manner desired. In applying the enamel the corroding with acid is obviated, for which reason the enamel stands exceedingly well.


A bronze colored oxide coating which withstands outward influences fairly well, is produced as follows: The brightly polished and degreased objects are exposed from 2 to 5 minutes to the vapors of a heated mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and nitric acid (1:1) until the bronze color becomes visible on the articles. After these have been rubbed well with vaseline, heat once more until the vaseline commences to decompose. After cooling, the object is smeared well with vaseline. If vapors of a mixture of concentrated hydrochloric acid and nitric acid are allowed to act on the iron object, light reddishbrown shades are obtained, but if acetic acid is added to the above named two acids, oxide coatings of a bronze-yellow color can be obtained by the means of the vapors. By the use of different mixtures of acids any number of different colorings can be produced.


"Emaille de fer contre-oxide" is the name of an enamel which is said to protect iron pipes cheaply. The enamel is composed as follows: One hundred and thirty parts powdered crystal glass, 20.5 parts soda, 12 parts boracic acid. These substances mixed in the most careful manner are melted together in crucibles, the mass is chilled and transformed into a fine powder by crushing and grinding. The iron pipes and other objects of iron are. first cleaned in the usual manner by corroding, dried and then coated with a very dilute gum arabic solution or any other gluing agent, and the powdered mass is spread over them by means of a sieve. The objects thus powdered are put in a room which is heated to 160 C. to drive out all moisture and are heated






to dark redness, at which temperature the oxide coating melts.


Those processes, which produce a black protoxide layer on the iron by heating iron objects in supersaturated aqueous vapor, have not stood the test, as the layer formed will drop off or peel off after a short time, thus opening the way for rust after all.


The anti-rust composition called rubber oil is prepared as follows, according to the specification of the patent: The crude oil obtained by the dry distillation of brown oil, peat and other earthy substances are subjected to a further distillation. Thinly rolled India rubber, cut in narrow strips, is saturated with four times the bulk of the oil and left alone for a week or so. The mass thus composed is then subjected to the action of mineral sperm oil or a similar substance, until an entirely uniform clear substance has formed. This substance, which is applied on the metallic surfaces in as thin a layer as possible, forms a sort of film after slowly drying, which is perfectly proof against atmospheric influences.


The rust-preventive composition of Jones & Co., Sheffield, is a composition of wax, fat, turpentine, and small quantities of iron oxide.


According to a process patented by A. Buchner in Germany, the iron objects are first painted with a mixture of an alkaline glue solution and rosin soap. The alkaline mass enters all the pores and fissures and "prevents the rust from extending under the coating. After the first coat is dry a second one is applied of the following composition: Five parts linseed oil boiled with peroxide of manganese; 2.25 parts turpentine; 0.25 parts benzol; 20 parts zinc dust, carbonate of calcium, lead oxide, or peroxide of manganese. The mixing of the liquid with the powders must be done immediately before use, as the mass solidifies after 10 hours, and is then no longer of working consistency. The second coating, which should only be thin, hardens quickly. The paint is weatherproof, does not peel off or blister, and adheres so firmly that it can only be removed with mechanical means.


A patented process to prevent rusting of wrought or cast iron consists in applying with a brush a strong solution of potassium dichromate and drying in a stove or over an open fire. Drying at ordinary temperature is not sufficient. To ascertain if the heat is strong enough the iron is moistened with a little water. So long as this takes up any color the heat must be increased. When the proper degree of heat is reached a fine deep black layer results, which is not acted upon by water, and protects the surface from the action of the atmosphere. A permanent lustrous rust preventive is secured as follows: The well-cleaned iron parts are suspended for a few minutes in a blue vitriol solution, so that a delicate skin of copper forms on the surface; if the pieces rinsed off with water are then moved about for a few minutes in a solution of sodium hyposulphite faintly acidulated with hydrochloric acid, they assume a blue-black coating of copper sulphide, which is equally permanent in air and in water. The black surface may be immediately rinsed with water, dried with a rag or blotting paper, and polished at once. It possesses a steel-blue luster, adheres well to the iron, will stand treatment with the scratch brush, and protects against rust in a most satisfactory manner.


Black Sheet Rust Preventive. Before black plate is ready to receive a rust protective coating, it is necessary to render the surface free from grease and scales, for which purpose the sheet iron is placed for some time into a warmed solution of 10 parts of sulphuric acid in 100 parts of water, whereby the impurities become detached, a process which may be assisted and accelerated by scouring with sand. Then rinse in clean water and rub dry in sawdust. The sheets thus prepared are placed for a short while into a feeble solution of blue vitriol, where they assume a reddish coloring. Next, they are rinsed in water, and after that moved to and fro, for a short time, in a feeble solution of hyposulphite of soda acidulated with a little hydrochloric acid. The result is a dark-blue coating on the sheets, which prevents all oxidation.


To Keep Machinery Bright.


I.    In order to keep machinery from rusting take 1 ounce of camphor, dissolve it in 1 pound of melted lard; take off the scum, and mix as much fine black lead as will give it iron color. Clean the machinery and smear it with this mixture. After 24 hours, rub clean with soft linen cloth. It will keep clean for months under ordinary circumstances.



Mastic, transparent grains          10 parts

Camphor                             5 parts

Sandarac                            5 parts

Gum elemi                           5 parts

Alcohol, wood,                      quantity sufficient to dissolve.






Mix and cover the articles with the solution. The latter will take the lacquer better if warmed slightly, but may be easily covered in the cold, if necessary.


Magnetic Oxide. A layer of magnetic oxide is a good preservative from rust. To obtain it the objects are placed in the furnace at a temperature sufficient for decomposing steam. Steam superheated to 1,040º F. is then injected for from 4 to 6 hours. The thickness of the layer of oxide formed varies with the duration of the operation. This process can replace zincing, enameling, and tinning.


The deposit of magnetic oxide may also be obtained by electrolysis. The iron object is placed at the anode in a bath of distilled water heated to 176º F. The cathode is a copper plate, or the vessel itself, if it is of iron or copper. By electrolysis a layer of magnetic oxide is formed. Other peroxides may be deposited in the same manner. With an alkaline solution of litharge, a very adherent, brilliant, black deposit of peroxide of lead is secured. Too energetic a current must be avoided, as it would cause a pulverulent deposit. To obtain a good coating it is necessary, after putting the objects for a moment at the positive pole, to place them at the other pole until the oxide is completely reduced, and then bring them back to their first position.


Paper as Protection for Iron and Steel. That paraffine paper is a very good protector of iron and steel has been proven by tests conducted by Louis H. Barker for the Pennsylvania Railroad. The mode of applying the paraffine paper is as follows: After the rust is carefully cleaned off by means of stiff wire brushes, a tacky paint is applied. The paper is then covered over and tightly pressed upon the painted surface, the joints of the paper slightly lapping. As soon as the paper is in place it is ready for the outside coat of paint. Iron and steel girders and beams subjected to the action of smoke and gases may thus be admirably protected from decomposition.


Anti-Rust Paper for Needles. This is paper covered with logwood, and prepared from a material to which fine graphite powder has been added, and which has been sized with glue and alum. It is used for wrapping around steel goods, such as sewing needles, etc., and protecting them against rust. According to Lake, the paper is treated with sulphuric acid, like vegetable parchment, the graphite being sprinkled on before the paper is put into the water.


Rust Paper. Rust paper is produced by coating strong packing paper with linseed-oil varnish, size, or any other binder, and sprinkling on the powder given in previous formula. For use the paper must be moistened with petroleum.


Anti-Rust Pastes.


I.    This preparation serves for removing rust already present, as well as for preventing same, by greasing the article with it: Melt 5 parts of crude vaseline on the water bath, and mix with 5 parts of finely levigated powdered pumice stone into a uniform mass. To the half-way cooled mass add 1/2 part of crude acid oxalate of potassium (sorrel salt) in a finely powdered state and grind into complete homogeneity.


II.   Dry tallow, 25 parts; white wax, 23 parts; olive oil, 22 parts; oil of turpentine, 25 parts; mineral oil, 10 parts. Apply with a brush at the fusing temperature of the mixture.


Rust Prevention for Iron Pipes. The pieces of pipe are coated with tar and filled with light wood sawdust, which is set afire. This method will fully protect the iron from rust for an unlimited period, rendering a subsequent coat altogether superfluous.


Rust Preventive for Tools, etc.


I.    To preserve tools, dies, etc., from rust, they should be greased well with yellow vaseline. To use oil is not advisable, since all oils, except the dear ones, which are too expensive for this purpose, contain a certain percentage of acid that has an injurious effect upon the steel and iron articles. For greasing the cavities use a hard brush.


II.   Carefully heat benzine and add half its weight of white wax, which dissolves completely in this ratio. This solution is applied to the tools by means of a brush. It is also said to protect against the action of acidiferous fumes.


III.  Take a pound of vaseline and melt with it 2 ounces of blue ointment what druggists call one-third and add, to give it a pleasant odor, a few drops of oil of wintergreen, cinnamon, or sassafras. When thoroughly mixed pour into a tin can an old baking-powder can will do. Keep a rag saturated with the preventive to wipe tools that are liable to rust.


To Separate Rusty Pieces. By boiling the objects in petroleum, success is cer-


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