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Henley's Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes

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Henley's Twentieth Century Book of Formulas, Recipes and Processes - Pages 626-650






tain. It is necessary to treat them with alcohol or spirit to avoid subsequent oxidation, petroleum being in itself an oxidant.


To Protect Zinc Roofing from Rust. Zinc sheets for roofing can easily be protected against rust by the following simple process. Clean the plates by immersing them in water to which 5 per cent of sulphuric acid has been added, then wash with pure water, allow to dry and coat with asphalt varnish. Asphalt varnish is prepared by dissolving 1 to 2 parts asphalt in 10 parts benzine; the solution should be poured evenly over the plates, and the latter placed in an upright position to dry.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Food.



See Veterinary Formulas.



See Soap.



See Pyrotechnics.



See Dentifrices.



See Foods.



See Soap.


Salts, Effervescent


Granulated effervescent salts are produced by heating mixtures of powdered citric acid, tartaric acid, sodium bicarbonate, and sugar to a certain temperature, until they assume the consistency of a paste, which is then granulated and dried.


If effervescent caffeine citrate, antipyrin, lithium citrate, etc., are to be prepared, the powder need not be dried before effecting the mixture, but if sodium phosphate, sodium sulphate, or magnesium sulphate are to be granulated, the water of crystallization must first be removed by drying, otherwise a hard, insoluble and absolutely non-granulable mass will be obtained. Sodium phosphate must lose 60 per cent of its weight in drying, sodium sulphate 56 per cent, and magnesium sulphate 23 per cent.


Naturally, water and carbonic acid escape on heating, and the loss will increase with the rise of temperature. For the production of the granulation mass it must not exceed 158º F., and for drying the grains a temperature of 122º F. is sufficient.


The fineness of the mesh should vary according to the necessary admixture of sugar and the size of the grains.


If the ingredients should have a tendency to cling to the warm bottom, an effort should be made immediately upon the commencement of the reaction to cause a new portion of the surface to come in contact with the hot walls.


When the mass is of the consistency of paste it is pressed through a wire sieve, paper or a fabric being placed underneath. Afterwards dry at sufficient heat. For wholesale manufacture, surfaces of large size are employed, which are heated by steam.


In the production of substances containing alkaloids, antipyrin, etc., care must be taken that they do not become colored. It is well, therefore, not to use heat, but to allow the mixture to stand in a moist; condition for 12 hours, adding the medicinal substances afterwards and kneading the whole in a clay receptacle. After another 12 hours the mass will have become sufficiently paste-like, so that it can be granulated as above.


According to another much employed method, the mass is crushed with alcohol, then rubbed through a sieve, and dried rapidly. This process is somewhat dearer, owing to the great loss of alcohol, but presents the advantage of furnishing a better product than any other recipe.


Effervescent magnesium citrate cannot be very well made; for this reason the sulphate was used in lieu of the citrate. A part of the customary admixture of sulphate is replaced by sugar and aromatized with lemon or similar substances.


An excellent granulation mass is obtained from the following mixture by addition of alcohol:


Parts by weight

Sodium bicarbonate                  30

Tartaric acid                       15

Citric acid                         13

Sugar                               30


The total loss of this mass through granulation amounts to from 10 to 15 per cent.


To this mass, medicinal substances, such as antipyrin, caffeine citrate, lithium citrate, lithium salicylate, phenacetin, piperacin, ferric carbonate, and pepsin may be added, as desired,






In order to produce a quinine preparation, use tincture of quinine instead of alcohol for moistening; the quinine tincture is prepared with alcohol of 96 per cent.


Basis for Effervescent Salts.


Sodium bicarbonate,

  dried and powdered                53 parts

Tartaric acid, dried

  and powdered                      28 parts

Citric acid,

  uneffloresced crystals            18 parts


Powder the citric acid and add the tartaric acid and sodium bicarbonate. This basis may be mixed with many of the medicaments commonly used in the form of granular effervescent salts, in the proportion which will properly represent their doses and such substances as sodium phosphate, magnesium sulphate, citrated caffeine, potassium bromide, lithium citrate, potassium citrate, and others, will produce satisfactory products. A typical formula for effervescent sodium phosphate would be as follows:


Sodium phosphate,

  uneffloresced crystals            500 parts

Sodium bicarbonate,

  dried and powdered                477 parts

Tartaric acid,

  dried and powdered                252 parts

Citric acid,

uneffloresced crystals              162 parts


Dry the sodium phosphate on a water bath until it ceases to lose weight; after powdering the dried salt, mix it intimately with the citric acid and tartaric acid, then thoroughly incorporate the sodium bicarbonate. The mixed powders are now ready for granulation. The change in manipulation which is suggested to replace that usually followed, requires either a gas stove or a blue-flame coal-oil stove, and one of the small tin or sheet iron ovens which are so largely used with these stoves. The stove itself will be found in almost every drug store; the oven costs from $1 to $2.


The oven is heated to about 200º F. (the use of a thermometer is desirable at first, but one will quickly learn how to regulate the flame to produce the desired temperature), and the previously mixed powders are placed on, preferably, a glass plate, which has been heated with the oven, about 1/2 pound being taken at a time, dependent upon the size of the oven. The door of the oven is now closed for about one minute, and, when opened, the whole mass will be found to be uniformly moist and ready to pass through a suitable sieve, the best kind and size being a tinned iron, No. 6. This moist, granular powder may then be placed upon the top of the oven, where the heat is quite sufficient to thoroughly dry the granules, and the operator may proceed immediately with the next lot of mixed powder, easily granulating 10 or more pounds within an hour.


Sugar has often been proposed as an addition to these salts, but experience has shown that the slight improvement in taste, which is sometimes questioned, does not offset the likelihood of darkening, which is apt to occur when the salt is being heated, or the change in color after it has been made several months. It should be remembered that in making a granular effervescent salt by the method which depends upon the liberation of water of crystallization, a loss in weight, amounting to about 10 per cent, will be experienced. This is due, in part, to the loss of water which is driven off, and also to a trifling loss of carbon dioxide when the powder is moistened.




Magnesian Lemonade Powder.


Fine white sugar                    2 pounds

Magnesium carbonate                 6 ounces

Citric acid                         4 ounces

Essence of lemon                    2 drachms


Rub the essence into the dry ingredients, work well together, sift, and bottle.


Magnesian Orgeat Powder.


Fine sugar                          1 pound

Carbonate of magnesia               3 ounces

Citric acid                         1 ounce

Oil of bitter almonds               3 drops

Vanilla flavoring,                  quantity sufficient.


Thoroughly amalgamate the dry ingredients. Rub in the oil of almonds and sufficient essence of vanilla to give a slight flavor. Work all well together, sift, and bottle.


Raspberryade Powder.


Fine sugar                          2 pounds

Carbonate of soda                   2 ounces

Tartaric acid                       2 ounces

Essence of raspberry                4 drachms

Carmine coloring,                   quantity sufficient.


Rub the essence well into the sugar, and mix this with the soda and acid. Then work in sufficient liquid carmine to make the powder pale red, sift through a fine sieve, and pack in air tight bottles,






Ambrosia Powder.


Fine sugar                          2 pounds

Carbonate of soda                   12 drachms

Citric acid                         10 drachms

Essence of ambrosia                 20 drops


Amalgamate the whole of the above, and afterwards sift and bottle in the usual


Noyeau Powder.


Fine sugar                          2 pounds

Carbonate of soda                   12 drachms

Tartaric acid                       10 drachms

Essence of Noyeau                   6 drops


After the dry ingredients have been mixed, and the essence rubbed into them, sift and bottle the powder.


Lemon Sherbet.


Fine sugar                          9 pounds

Tartaric acid                       40 ounces

Carbonate of soda                   36 ounces

Oil of lemon                        2 drachms


Having thoroughly mixed the dry ingredients, add the lemon, rubbing it well in between the hands; then sift the whole thrice through a fine sieve, and cork down tight.


As oil of lemon is used in this recipe, the blending must be quite perfect, otherwise when the powder is put in water the oil of lemon will float.


Any other flavoring may be substituted for lemon, and the sherbet named accordingly.


Cream Soda Powder.


Fine sugar                          30 parts

Tartaric acid                       7 parts

Carbonate of soda                   6 parts

Finely powdered gum arable          1 part

Vanilla flavoring,                  quantity sufficient.


Proceed exactly as for lemon sherbet.


Kissingen Salt.


Potassium chloride                  17 parts

Sodium chloride                     367 parts

Magnesium sulphate (dry)            59 parts

Sodium bicarbonate                  107 parts


For the preparation of Kissingen water, dissolve 1.5 grams in 180 grams of water.


Vichy Salt.


Sodium bicarbonate                  846 parts

Potassium carbonate                 38 parts

Magnesium sulphate (dry)            38 parts

Sodium chloride                     77 parts


For making Vichy water dissolve 1 part in 200 parts of water.


Seidlitz Salt. This is one of the many old names for magnesium sulphate. It has at various times been known as Seidlitz salt, Egra salt, canal salt, bitter salt, cathartic salt, English salt, and Epsom salt. Its earliest source was from the salt springs of Epsom in England and from this fact it took its last two names. For a long time sea-salt makers supplied the markets of the world. They procured it as a byproduct in the making of salt. The bitter water that remained after the table salt had been crystallized out was found to contain it. Now it is chiefly procured from such minerals as dolomite, siliceous magnesium hydrate, and schistose rock containing the sulphide of magnesia. Many medical men deem it our best saline cathartic.




I.    Moisten coarsely powdered ammonium carbonate with a mixture of


Strong tincture of orris root       2 1/2 ounces

Extract of violet                   3 drachms

Spirit of ammonia                   1 drachm


II.   Fill suitable bottles with coarsely powdered ammonium carbonate, and add to the salt as much of the following solution as it will absorb:


Oil of orris                        5 minims

Oil of lavender flowers             10 minims

Extract of violet                   30 minims

Stronger water of ammonia           2 ounces



See Ointments.




Colored Sand. Sift fine white sand from the coarser particles and color it as follows:


I.    Blue. Boil 106 parts of sand and 4 of Berlin blue with a small quantity of water, stirring constantly, and dry as soon as the sand is thoroughly colored.


II.   Black Sand. Heat very fine quartz sand, previously freed from dust by sifting, and add to every 1/4 pound of it 6 to 8 spoonfuls of fat. Continue the heating as long as smoke or a flame is observed on stirring. The sand is finally washed and dried. This black sand will not rub off.


III.  Dark-Brown Sand. Boil white sand in a decoction of brazil wood and dry it over a fire.


IV.   Rose colored sand is obtained by mixing 100 parts of white sand with 4 parts of vermilion.






Lawn Sand. Lawn sand may be prepared by mixing crude ammonium sulphate, 65 parts, with fine sand, 35 parts. This mixture will kill daisies and plantains, but does not permanently injure the grass of lawns. A most effective method of killing plantains is to put, during dry weather, a full teaspoonful of common salt in the head of each.



See Castings.



See Soap.



See Adhesives.



See Acid-Proofing.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Castings.




Each fluidounce of Ayer's sarsaparilla represents


Sarsaparilla root                   10 parts

Yellow dock root                    8 parts

Licorice root                       8 parts

Buckthorn bark                      4 parts

Burdock root                        3 parts

Senna leaves                        2 parts

Black cohosh root                   2 parts

Stillingia root                     4 parts

Poke root                           1 part

Cinchona red bark                   2 parts

Potassium iodide                    4 parts


Solvent. - Alcohol, 10 1/2 minims to each fluidrachm; glycerin, syrup, water.


This is the formula as given by Dr. Charles H. Stowell, of the Ayer Company, to the daily papers, for advertising purposes.


Sarsaparilla Flavoring.


Oil wintergreen                     6 parts

Oil sassafras                       2 parts

Oil cassia                          1 1/2 parts

Oil clove                           l 1/2 parts

Oil anise                           1 1/2 parts

Alcohol                             60 parts


Sarsaparilla Syrup.


Simple syrup                        40 ounces

Sarsaparilla flavoring              1 drachm

Caramel                             to color.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Condiments.



See Wood.



See Foods.



See Bran.



See Watchmakers' Formulas.



See Soap.



See Cosmetics.



See Photography.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Boiler Compounds.



See Insecticides.



See Hair Preparations.



See Steel.



See Laundry Preparations.



See Plating, under Gilding.




To Prevent Screws from Rusting and Becoming Fast. Screws will sometimes rust in their seats, even when carefully oiled before driving them to their seats, but if they are anointed with a mixture of graphite and soft tallow they will remain unrusted and unaltered for years.


A screw rusted in may also be removed by placing the flat extremity of a red-hot rod of iron on it for 2 or 3 minutes. When the screw is heated, it will be found to turn quite easily.



See Steel.



See Watchmakers' Formulas.







See Pyrotechnics.



See Waxes.




I.    To prevent sea sickness, take 2 or 3 grams of potassium bromide dissolved in plain or carbonated water every evening either with supper or just before retiring for several weeks before going on the voyage. During the voyage, breathing should be deep and a tight bandage should be worn around the abdomen.



Menthol                             0.1 part

Cocaine hydrochloride               0.2 parts

Alcohol                             60.0 parts

Syrup                               30.0 parts


A dessertspoonful to be taken at intervals of half an hour.



See Condiments.



See Bird Foods.



See Foods.



See Salts (Effervescent).



See Water.




An old form consisted of pellets of a very poisonous mercurial compound which gave off dangerous fumes when heated. The "eggs" may be made of comparatively safe material by the following formula:


Potassium bichromate                2 parts

Potassium nitrate                   1 part

White sugar                         2 parts


Powder each ingredient separately, mix, and press into small paper cones. These must be kept from light and moisture.


Of course, neither this nor other chemical toys containing substances in the slightest degree harmful if swallowed should be placed in the hands of children not old enough fully to understand the danger of eating or even tasting unknown things.



See Polishes.



See Tool Setting.



See Lubricants.



See Hair Restorers and Soaps.



See Razor Pastes.



See Whetstones.




An emulsion of paraffine wax, melting at 131º F., should be used. This is prepared with 25 per cent of wax and 2 per cent of tragacanth, the wax being melted and mixed with the tragacanth previously made into a mucilage with some of the water. The addition of a little stearine or lard renders the emulsification of the wax easier, while about 10 per cent of alcohol makes the preparation more agreeable to use. The fatty odor of the preparation may be covered by the addition of 1/2 to 1 per cent of lavender oil, and the finished product then appears as a thick white cream. In use a small quantity is rubbed over the area to be shaved and the razor immediately applied. As the water in the emulsion evaporates, the particles of wax previously distributed in the emulsion become coherent and fill up the depressions in the surface of the skin from which the hairs arise, thus forming a mechanical support during the passage of the razor. The quantity required is very small, 1 ounce being sufficient for shaving the face about 6 times.



See Soap.



See Disinfectants.



See Veterinary Formulas.




If shell cameos and corals have become too hot in cementing and cracks have appeared in consequence, olive oil is applied and allowed to soak in by heating. The same process is employed for shell cameos which have developed white fissures, owing to being filed smaller.



See Casein Compounds.



See Lubricants.







See Polishes.



See Varnishes.




In bleaching, shellac is brought into contact with an acidified solution of chloride of lime for some time, then washed, kneaded in hot water, placed back into the chloride of lime solution, and brushed. Through this treatment with the chloride of lime solution the bleached shellac sometimes loses its solubility in alcohol, which, however, can be restored if the shellac is melted in boiling water, or if it is moistened with a little ether in a well-closed vessel. A quantity of ether in the proportion of 1 part to 20 parts shellac is sufficient. Great caution is recommended in the handling of ether. The ether vapors easily ignite when in proximity to a burning light and a mixture of ether vapor and atmospheric air may cause most vehement explosions. After an action of the ether upon the shellac for several hours, the alcohol necessary to dissolve it may either be added directly or the shellac moistened with ether is placed in the open air for half an hour in a dish, after which time the ether will have evaporated and the shellac can then be dissolved by the use of alcohol.


Bleached shellac is known to lose its solubility in alcohol, especially if treated with chlorine in bleaching. This solubility can be readily restored, however, by first moistening the rosin with 1/20 its weight of ether, placing it in a closed vessel and allowing it to swell there. Shellac thus treated becomes perfectly soluble again.




In taking up the wear of engine brasses on wrist pin or crosshead pin when the key is driven clear down, back out the key and instead of putting in sheet iron shims, put in a small piece of pine wood of just the right thickness to allow the key to come even with the under side of the strap, then pour in melted babbitt. A hole must be drilled through the flange of the brasses to allow for pouring the babbitt.


Every engineer knows the trouble it is to put several shims between the brass box and the end of the strap, especially if the box is a round-end one, as many are. By using the method described, brasses may be worn up much closer, even if worn through; the babbitt will form part of the bearing.


Shoe Dressings

(See also Leather.)


Acid-Free Blacking.


Lampblack                           27-36 parts

Bone black                          3 parts

Syrup                               60-70 parts


Put in a kettle and under gentle heat stir together until a smooth, homogeneous mass has been attained. In another kettle put 3 parts of finely shredded gutta percha and warm over an open fire until it begins to run, then add, with constant stirring, 5 parts of olive oil, continuing the heat until the gum is completely dissolved. When this occurs dissolve in 1 part of stearine, and add the whole while still hot in a slow stream, and under diligent and constant stirring, to the mixture of syrup and blacks. Continue the agitation of the mass until it is completely homogeneous. Now dissolve 4 parts of Senegal gum in 12 parts of water, and add the solution to the foregoing mass. Stir well in and finally add sufficient mirbane (about 1/5 part) to perfume.


Blacking Pastes. While shellac is not soluble in water alone, it is soluble in water carrying borax, the alkaline carbonates, etc. In paste blacking the object of the sulphuric acid is to remove from the bone black the residual calcium phosphate. The ordinary bone black of commerce consists of only about 10 per cent of carbon, the residue being chiefly calcium phosphate. This is the reason that we cannot obtain a pure black color from it, but a dirty brown. To make a good blacking, one that is of a black in color, either use purified bone black, or a mineral acid (sulphuric or hydrochloric acid) with crude bone black. The residual acid is entirely neutralized by the sodium carbonate and has no bad effect on the leather. The following formula contains no acid and makes a good paste:



Marseilles soap                     122 parts

Potassium carbonate                 6l parts

Beeswax                             500 parts

Water                               2,000 parts


Mix and boil together with occasional stirring until a smooth, homogeneous paste is obtained, then add, a little at a time, and under constant stirring, the following:






Rock candy, powdered                153 parts

Gum arable, powdered                61 parts

Ivory black                         1,000 parts


Stir until homogeneous, then pour, while still hot, into boxes.


The following makes a very brilliant and durable black polish for shoes:



Bone black                          40 parts

Sulphuric acid                      10 parts

Fish oil                            10 parts

Sodium carbonate crystal            18 parts

Sugar, common brown, or molasses    20 parts

Liquid glue, prepared as below      20 parts

Water,                              sufficient.


Soak 10 parts of good white glue in 40 parts of cold water for 4 hours, then dissolve by the application of gentle heat, and add 1.8 parts of glycerine (commercial). Set aside. Dissolve the sodium carbonate in sufficient water to make a cold saturated solution (about 3 parts of water at 60º F.), and set aside. In an earthenware vessel moisten the bone black with a very little water, and stirring it about with a stick, add the sulphuric acid, slowly. Agitate until a thick dough-like mass is obtained, then add and incorporate the fish oil. Any sort of animal oil, or even colza will answer, but it is best to avoid high-smelling oils. Add a little at a time, and under vigorous stirring, sufficient of the saturated sodium carbonate solution to cause effervescence. Be careful not to add so freely as to liquefy the mass. Stir until effervescence ceases, then add the molasses or sugar, the first, if a soft, damp paste is desired, and the latter if a dryer one is wanted. Finally, add, a little at a time, and under constant stirring, sufficient of the solution of glue to make a paste of the desired consistency. The exact amount of this last ingredient that is necessary must be learned by experience. It is a very important factor, as it gives the finished product a depth and brilliancy that it could not otherwise have, as well as a certain durability, in which most of the blackings now on the market are deficient.



Soap                                122 parts

Potassium carbonate                 61 parts

Beeswax                             500 parts

Water                               2,000 parts


Mix and boil together until a smooth, homogeneous paste is obtained, then add


Bone black                         1,000 parts

Powdered sugar                      153 parts

Powdered gum arabic                 61 parts


Mix thoroughly, remove from the fire, and pour while still hot into boxes.


Boot-Top Liquid.


Solution of muriate of tin          3 drachms

French chalk (in powder)            1 ounce

Salt of sorrel                      1/2 ounce

Flake white                         1 ounce

Burnt alum                          1/2 ounce

Cuttlefish bones (powdered)         1 ounce

White arsenic                       1 ounce

Boiling water                       1 quart


Brown Dressing for Untanned Shoes.


Yellow wax                          30 parts

Soap                                12 parts

Nankin yellow                       15 parts

Oil of turpentine                   100 parts

Alcohol                             12 parts

Water                               100 parts


Dissolve in the water bath the wax in the oil of turpentine; dissolve, also by the aid of heat, the soap in the water, and the Nankin yellow (or in place of that any of the yellow coal-tar colors) in the alcohol. Mix the solutions while hot, and stir constantly until cold. The preparation is smeared over the shoes in the usual way, rubbed with a brush until evenly distributed, and finally polished with an old silk or linen cloth.


Heel Polish.



Carnauba wax                        5 parts

Japanese wax                        5 parts

Paraffine                           5 parts

Oil of turpentine                   50 parts

Lampblack                           1 part

Wine black                          2 parts


Melt the wax and the paraffine, and when this has become lukewarm, add the turpentine oil, and finally the lampblack and the wine black. When the black color has become evenly distributed, pour, while still lukewarm, into tin cans.


II.   Melt together Japanese wax, 100 parts; carnauba wax, 100 parts; paraffine, 100 parts; and mix with turpentine oil, 500 parts, as well as a trituration of lampblack, 10 parts; wine black, 20 parts; turpentine oil, 70 parts.








The following formulas make a product of excellent quality:



Ivory black                         120 parts

Brown sugar                         90 parts

Olive oil                           15 parts

Stale beer                          500 parts


Mix the black, sugar and olive oil into a smooth paste, adding the beer, a little at a time, under constant stirring. Let stand for 24 hours, then put into flasks, lightly stoppered.



Ivory black                         200 parts

Molasses                            200 parts

Gallnuts, bruised                   12 parts

Iron sulphate                       12 parts

Sulphuric acid                      40 parts

Boiling water                       700 parts


Mix the molasses and ivory black in an earthen vessel. In an iron vessel let the gallnuts infuse in 100 parts of boiling water for 1 hour, then strain and set aside. In another vessel dissolve the iron sulphate; in another, 100 parts of the boiling water. One-half of this solution is added at once to the molasses mixture. To the remaining half add the sulphuric acid, and pour the mixture, a little at a time, under constant stirring, into the earthen vessel containing the molasses mixture. The mass will swell up and thicken, but as soon as it commences to subside, add the infusion of gallnuts, also under vigorous stirring. If a paste blacking is desired the preparation is now complete. For a liquid black add the remaining portion of the boiling water (500 parts), stir thoroughly and bottle.


Patent-Leather Polish.


Yellow wax or ceresine              3 ounces

Spermaceti                          1 ounce

Oil of turpentine                   11 ounces

Asphaltum varnish                   1 ounce

Borax                               80 grains

Frankfort black                     1 ounce

Prussian blue                       150 grains


Melt the wax, add the borax, and stir until an emulsion has been formed. In another pan melt the spermaceti; add the varnish, previously mixed with the turpentine; stir well and add to the wax; lastly add the colors.


Preservatives for Shoe Soles.


I.    This preparation, destined for impregnating leather shoe soles, is produced as follows: Grind 50 parts of linseed oil with 1 part of litharge; next heat for 2 hours to the boiling point with 1/4 part of zinc vitriol, which is previously calcined (dehydrated). The composition obtained in this manner, when perfectly cold, is mixed with 8 parts of benzine and filled in bottles or other receptacles. To render this preservative effective, the soles must be coated with it until the leather absorbs it.


II.   Dissolve ordinary household soap in water; on the other hand, dissolve an aluminum salt the cheapest is the commercial aluminum sulphate in water and allow both solutions to cool. Now pour the aluminum salt solution, with constant stirring, into the soap solution, thereby obtaining a very fine precipitate of aluminum oleate. The washed out residue is dried with moderate heat. By adding 10 to 30 per cent to petroleum with slight heating, a solid petroleum of vaseline-like consistency is received, which may be still further solidified by additional admixture. A 10 per cent solution of aluminum oleate in petroleum is a very excellent agent for preserving the soles, a single saturation of the soles sufficing forever. The sole will last about 1 year.


III.  The following mixture is prepared by melting together over the fire in an enameled iron vessel: Vaseline, 400 parts; ceresine, 100 parts. The melted mass, which is used as a grease, is filled in wooden boxes or tin cans.


IV.   The oleic acid of the stearine factories is heated with strong alcohol and sulphuric acid. Take 16 parts of oleic acid, 2 parts of alcohol (90 per cent), and 1 part of concentrated sulphuric acid. The oleic-acid ether formed separates as a thin brownish oil. It is liberated from free sulphuric acid and the alcohol in excess by agitation with warm water and allowing to settle. This oleic-acid ether is mixed with the same weight of fish oil, and 4 to 8 parts of nitro-benzol are added per 1,000 parts to disguise the odor.




To Renovate and Brighten Russet and Yellow Shoes. First, clean off all dirt and dust with a good stiff brush, then with a sponge dipped in benzine go over the leather, repeating the process as soon as the benzine evaporates. A few wipings will bring back the original color. Then use a light-yellow dressing and brush well.


The liquid application consists usually of a solution of yellow wax and soap in oil of turpentine, and it should be a matter of no difficulty whatever to compound a mixture of this character at least equal






to the preparations on the market. As a type of the mixture occasionally recommended we may quote the following:



Yellow wax                          4 ounces

Pearl ash                           4 drachms

Yellow soap                         1 drachm

Spirit of turpentine                7 ounces

Phosphine (aniline)                 4 grains

Alcohol                             4 drachms

Water,                              a sufficient quantity.


Scrape the wax fine and add it, together with the ash and soap, to 12 ounces of water. Boil all together until a smooth, creamy mass is obtained; remove the heat and add the turpentine and the aniline (previously dissolved in the alcohol). Mix thoroughly, and add sufficient water to bring the finished product up to 1 1/2 pints.



Water                               18 parts

Rosin oil                           4 1/2 parts

Spirit of sal ammoniac,

  concentrated                      l 1/5 parts

White grain soap                    1.93 parts

Russian glue                        1.59 parts

Brown rock candy                    0.57 parts

Bismarck brown                      0.07 parts


Boil all the ingredients together, excepting the pigment; after all has been dissolved, add the Bismarck brown and filter. The dressing is applied with a sponge.



Beeswax, yellow                     2 ounces

Linseed oil                         3 ounces

Oil turpentine                      10 ounces


Dissolve by heat of a water bath, and add 1 1/4 ounces soap shavings, hard yellow. Dissolve this in 14 ounces of hot water.


IV.   A simpler form of liquid mixture consists of equal parts of yellow wax and palm oil dissolved with the aid of heat in 3 parts of oil of turpentine.



Soft or green soap                  1 ounce

Linseed oil, raw                    2 ounces

Annatto solution (in oil)           7 ounces

Yellow wax                          2 ounces

Gum turpentine                      7 ounces

Water                               7 ounces


Dissolve the soap in the water and add the solution of annatto; melt the wax in the oil of turpentine, and gradually stir in the soap solution, stirring until cold.


The paste to accompany the foregoing mixtures is composed of yellow wax and rosin thinned with petrolatum, say 4 parts of wax, 1 part of rosin, and 12 parts of petrolatum.


Paste Dressings for Russet Shoes. The paste dressings used on russet


leather consist of mixtures of wax with oil and other vehicles which give a mixture of proper working quality. A simple formula is:



Yellow wax                          9 parts

Oil of turpentine                   20 parts

Soap                                1 part

Boiling water                       20 parts


Dissolve the wax in the turpentine on a water bath and the soap in the water and stir the two liquids together until the mixture becomes sufficiently cold to remain homogeneous.


Another formula in which stearine is used is appended:



Wax                                 1 part

Stearine                            2 parts

Linseed oil                         1 part

Oil of turpentine                   6 parts

Soap                                1 part

Water                               10 parts


Proceed as above.


Carnauba wax is often used by manufacturers of such dressings instead of beeswax, as it is harder and takes a higher polish. These dressings are sometimes colored with finely ground yellow ocher or burnt umber. If the leather be badly worn, however, it is best to apply a stain first, and afterwards the waxy dressing.


Suitable stains are made by boiling safflower in water, and annatto is also used in the same way, the two being sometimes mixed together. Oxalic acid darkens the color of the safflower. Aniline colors would also doubtless yield good results with less trouble and expense. By adding finely ground lampblack to the waxy mixture instead of ocher, it would answer as a dressing for black leather.





Caoutchouc                          10 parts

Petroleum                           10 parts

Carbon disulphide                   10 parts

Shellac                             40 parts

Lampblack                           20 parts

Oil lavender                        1 part

Alcohol                             200 parts


Upon the caoutchouc in a bottle pour the carbon disulphide, cork well, and let stand a few days, or until the caoutchouc has become thoroughly gelatinized or partly dissolved. Then add the petroleum, oil of lavender, and alcohol, next the shellac in fine powder, and heat it to about 120º F., taking care that as little as possible is lost by evaporation. When the substances are all dissolved and the liquid is tolerably clear, add the lamp






black, mix thoroughly, and fill at once into small bottles.


II.   A waterproof blacking which will give a fine polish without rubbing, and will not injure the leather:


Beeswax                             18 parts

Spermaceti                          6 parts

Turpentine oil                      66 parts

Asphalt varnish                     5 parts

Powdered borax                      1 part

Frankfort black                     5 parts

Prussian blue                       2 parts

Nitro-benzol                        1 part


Melt the wax, add the powdered borax and stir till a kind of jelly has formed. In another pan melt the spermaceti, add the asphalt varnish, previously mixed with the oil of turpentine, stir well, and add to the wax.      Lastly add the color previously rubbed smooth with a little of the mass. The nitro-benzol gives fragrance.


Waterproof Varnish for Beach Shoes.




Water                               150 parts

Borax                               5 parts

Glycerine                           3 parts

Spirit of ammonia                   1 part

White shellac                       25 parts

Yellow pigment, water soluble       1 part

Formalin,                           a few drops.




Water                               150 parts

Borax                               5 parts

Glycerine                           2 parts

Spirit of ammonia                   1 part

Ruby shellac                        22 parts

Orange, water soluble               1 part

Brown                               0.3 parts

Formalin                            0.1 part


Pale Brown.


Water                               150 parts

Borax                               5 parts

Glycerine                           2 parts

Spirit of ammonia                   0.25 parts

White shellac                       25 parts

Yellow, water soluble               8 parts

Orange                              0.3 parts

Formalin                            0.1 part


Stir the glycerine and the spirit of ammonia together in a special vessel before putting both into the kettle. It is also advisable, before the water boils, to pour a little of the nearly boiling water into a clean vessel and to dissolve the colors therein with good stirring, adding this solution to the kettle after the shellac has been dissolved.


 White Shoe Dressing.



Cream of tartar                     3 ounces

Oxalic acid                         1 ounce

Alum                                1 ounce

Milk                                3 pints


Mix and rub on the shoes. When they are thoroughly dry, rub them with a mixture of prepared chalk and magnesium carbonate.



Water                               136 parts

Fine pipe clay                      454 parts

Shellac, bleached                   136 parts

Borax, powdered                     68 parts

Soft soap                           8 parts

Ultramarine blue                    5 parts


Boil the shellac in the water, adding the borax, and keeping up the boiling until a perfect solution is obtained, then stir in the soap (5 or 6 parts of "ivory" soap, shaved up, and melted with 2 or 3 parts of water, is better than common soft soap), pipe clay, and ultramarine. Finally strain through a hair-cloth sieve. This preparation, it is said, leaves absolutely nothing to be desired. A good deal of stiffness may be imparted to the leather by it. The addition of a little glycerine would remedy this. The old application should be wiped away before a new one is put on. This preparation is suitable for military shoes, gloves, belts, and uniforms requiring a white dressing.



See Waterproofing.



See Adhesives, under Cements.



See Paints.



See Bottles.




Dents in show cases and counters, and, indeed, almost all forms of "bruises" on shop and other furniture, may be removed by the exercise of a little patience, and proceeding as follows: Sponge the place with water as warm as can be borne by the hand. Take a piece of filtering or other bibulous paper large enough to fold 6 or 8 times and yet cover the bruise, wet in warm water and place over the spot. Take a warm (not hot) smoothing iron and hold it on the paper until the moisture is evaporated (renewing its heat, if necessary). If the bruise does not yield to the first trial, repeat the process, A dent as large as a






dollar and 1/4 inch deep in the center, in black walnut of tolerably close texture, was brought up smooth and level with the surrounding surface by two applications of the paper and iron as described. If the bruise be small, a sponge dipped in warm water placed upon it, renewing the warmth from time to time, will be all-sufficient. When the dent is removed and the wood dry, the polish can be restored by any of the usual processes. If the wood was originally finished in oil, rub with a little boiled linseed cut with acetic acid (oil, 8 parts; acid, 1 part). If it was "French polished," apply an alcoholic solution of shellac, and let dry; repeat if necessary, and when completely dry proceed as follows: Rub the part covered with shellac, first with crocus cloth and a few drops of olive oil, until the ridges, where the new and old polish come together, disappear; wipe with a slightly greased but otherwise clean rag and finish with putz pomade.



See Lettering.



See Glass.




The oldest drier is probably litharge, a reddish yellow powder, consisting of lead and oxygen. Formerly it was ground finely in oil, either pure or with admixture of white vitriol and added to the dark oil paints. Litharge and sugar of lead are used today only rarely as drying agents, having been displaced by the liquid manganese siccatives, which are easy to handle. E. Ebelin, however, is of the opinion that the neglect of the lead compounds has not been beneficial to decorative painting. Where these mediums were used in suitable quantities hard-drying coatings were almost always obtained. Ebelin believes that formerly there used to be less lamentation on account of tacky floors, pews, etc., than at the present time.


Doubtless a proposition to grind litharge into the oil again will not be favorably received, although some old master painters have by no means discarded this method.


Sugar of lead (lead acetate) is likewise used as a drier for oil paint. While we may presume in general that a siccative acts by imparting its oxygen to the linseed oil or else prepares the linseed oil in such a manner as to render it capable of readily absorbing the oxygen of the air, it is especially sugar of lead which strengthens us in this belief. If, according to Leuchs, a piece of charcoal is saturated with lead acetate, the charcoal can be ignited even with a burning sponge, and burns entirely to ashes. (Whoever desires to make the experiment should take 2 to 3 parts, by weight, of sugar of lead per 100 parts of charcoal.) This demonstrates that the sugar of lead readily parts with its oxygen, which though not burning itself, supports the combustion. Hence, it may be assumed that it will also as a siccative freely give off its oxygen.


Tormin reports on a siccative, of which he says that it has been found valuable for floor coatings. Its production is as follows: Pour 1 part of white lead and 1 1/2 parts each of litharge, sugar of lead and red lead to 12 1/2 parts of linseed oil, and allow this mixture to boil for 8 to 10 hours. Then remove the kettle from the fire and add to the mixture 20 parts of oil of turpentine. During the boiling, as well as during and after the pouring in of the oil turpentine, diligent stirring is necessary, partly to prevent anything from sticking to the kettle (which would render the drier impure) and partly to cause the liquid mass to cool off sooner. After that, it is allowed to stand for a few days, whereby the whole will clarify. The upper layer is then poured off and added to the light tints, while the sediment may be used for the darker shades.


If white vitriol (zinc sulphate or zinc vitriol) has been introduced among the drying agents, this is done in the endeavor to create a non-coloring admixture for the white pigments and also not to be compelled to add lead compounds, which, as experience has shown, cause a yellowing of white coatings to zinc white. For ordinary purposes, Dr. Roller recommends to add to the linseed oil 2 per cent (by weight) of litharge and 1/2 per cent of zinc vitriol, whereupon the mixture is freely boiled. If the white vitriol is to be added in powder form, it must be deprived of its constitutional water. This is done in the simplest manner by calcining. The powder, which feels moist, is subjected to the action of fire on a sheet iron plate, whereby the white vitriol is transformed into a vesicular, crumbly mass. At one time it was ground in oil for pure zinc white coatings only, while for the other pigments litharge is added besides, as stated above.


As regards the manganese preparations which are employed for siccatives, it must be stated that they do not possess






certain disadvantages of the lead preparations as, for instance, that of being acted upon by hydrogen sulphide gas. The ordinary brown manganese driers, however, are very liable to render the paint yellowish, which, of course, is not desirable for pure white coatings. In case of too large an addition of the said siccative, a strong subsequent yellowing is perceptible, even if, for instance, zinc white has been considerably "broken" by blue or black. But there are also manganese siccatives or drying preparations offered for sale which are colorless or white, and therefore may unhesitatingly be used in comparatively large quantities for white coatings. A pulverulent drying material of this kind consists, for example, of equal parts of calcined (i.e, anhydrous) manganese vitriol, manganous acetate, and calcined zinc vitriol.


Of this mixture 3 per cent is added to the zinc white. Of the other manganese compounds, especially that containing most oxygen, viz., manganic peroxide, is extensively employed. This body is treated as follows: It is first coarsely powdered, feebly calcined, and sifted. Next, the substance is put into wire gauze and suspended in linseed oil, which should be boiled slightly. The weight of the linseed oil should be 10 times that of the manganese peroxide.


According to another recipe a pure pulverous preparation may be produced by treating the manganic peroxide with hydrochloric acid, next filtering, precipitating with hot borax solution, allowing to deposit, washing out and finally drying. Further recipes will probably be unnecessary, since the painter will hardly prepare his own driers.


Unless for special cases driers should be used but sparingly. As a rule 3 to 5 per cent of siccative suffices; in other words, 3 to 5 pounds of siccative should be added to 100 pounds of ground oil paint ready, for use. As a standard it may be proposed to endeavor to have the coating dry in 24 hours. For lead colors a slight addition of drier is advisable; for red lead, it may be omitted altogether. Where non-tacky coatings are desired, as for floors, chairs, etc., as well as a priming for wood imitations, lead color should always be employed as foundation, and as a drier also a lead preparation. On the other hand, no lead compounds should be used for pure zinc-white coats and white lacquering.


Testing Siccatives. Since it was discovered that the lead and manganese compounds of rosin acids had a better  and more rapid action on linseed oil than the older form of driers, such as red lead, litharge, manganese dioxide, etc., the number of preparations of the former class has increased enormously. Manufacturers are continually at work endeavoring to improve the quality of these compounds, and to obtain a preparation which will be peculiarly their own. Consequently, with such a large variety of substances to deal with, it becomes a matter of some difficulty to distinguish the good from the bad. In addition to the general appearance, color, hardness, and a few other such physical properties, there is no means of ascertaining the quality of these substances except practical testing of their drying properties, that is, one must mix the driers with oil and prove their value for oneself. Even the discovery of an apparently satisfactory variety does not end the matter, for experience has shown that such preparations, even when they appear the same, do not give similar results. A great deal depends upon their preparation; for example, manganese resinate obtained from successive consignments, and containing the same percentage of manganese, does not always give identical results with oil. In fact, variation is the greatest drawback to these compounds. With one preparation the oil darkens, with another it remains pale, or sometimes decomposition of the oil takes place in part. The addition of a small proportion of drier has been known to cause the separation of 50 per cent of the oil as a dark viscous mass. One drier will act well, ard the oil will remain thin, while with another, the same oil will in the course of a few months thicken to the consistency of stand oil. These various actions may all be obtained from the same compound of rosin with a metal, the source only of the drier varying.


The liquid siccatives derived from these compounds by solution in turpentine or benzine also give widely divergent results. Sometimes a slight foot will separate, or as much as 50 per cent may go to the bottom of the pan, and at times the whole contents of the pan will settle to a thick, jelly-like mass. By increasing the temperature, this mass will become thin and clear once more, and distillation will drive over pure unaltered turpentine or benzine, leaving behind the metallic compound of rosin in its original state.


The compounds of metals with fatty acids which, in solution in turpentine, have been used for many years by var-






nish-makers, show even greater variation. At the same time, a greater drying power is obtained from them than from rosin acids, quantities being equal. As these compounds leave the factory, they are often in solution in linseed oil or turpentine, and undoubtedly many of the products of this nature on the market are of very inferior quality.


The examination of these bodies may be set about in two ways:


A. By dissolving in linseed oil with or without heat.


B. By first dissolving the drier in turpentine and mixing the cooled solution (liquid siccatives) with linseed oil.


Before proceeding to describe the method of carrying out the foregoing tests, it is necessary to emphasize the important part which the linseed oil plays in the examination of the driers. As part of the information to be gained by these tests depends upon the amount of solid matter which separates out, it is essential that the linseed oil should be uniform. To attain this end, the oil used must always be freed from mucilage before being used for the test. If this cannot readily be obtained, ordinary linseed oil should be heated to a temperature of from 518º to 572º F., so that it breaks, and should then be cooled and filtered. With the ordinary market linseed oil, the amount of solid matter which separates varies within wide limits, so that if this were not removed, no idea of the separation of foot caused by the driers would be obtained. It is not to be understood from this that unbroken linseed oil is never to be used for ordinary paint or varnish, the warning being only given for the sake of arriving at reliable values for the quality of the driers to be tested.


A. Solution of Drier in Linseed Oil. The precipitated metallic compounds of rosin (lead resinate, manganese resin ate and lead manganese resinate) dissolve readily in linseed oil of ordinary temperature (60 to 70º F.). The oil is mixed with 1 per cent of the drier and subjected to stirring or shaking for 24 hours, the agitation being applied at intervals of an hour. Fused metallic resinates are not soluble in linseed oil at ordinary temperatures, so different treatment is required for them. The oil is heated in an enameled pan together with the finely powdered drier, until the latter is completely in solution, care being taken not to allow the temperature to rise above 390º F. The pan is then removed from the fire and its contents allowed to settle. The quantity of drier used should not exceed 1 1/2 to 3 per cent. In the case of metallic linoleates (lead linoleate, manganese linoleate and leadmanganese linoleate), the temperature must be raised above 290º F. before they will go into solution. In their case also the addition should not be greater than 3 per cent. Note, after all the tests have settled, the amount of undissolved matter which is left at the bottom, as this is one of the data upon which an idea of the value of the drier must be formed.


B. Solution of Drier in Turpentine or Benzine. For the preparation of these liquid siccatives 1 to 1.4 parts of the metallic resinate or linoleate are added to the benzine or turpentine and dissolved at a gentle heat, or the drier may first be melted over a fire and added to the solvent while in the liquid state. The proportion of matter which does not go into solution must be carefully noted as a factor in the valuation of the drier. From 5 to 10 per cent of the liquid siccative is now added to the linseed oil, and the mixture shaken well, at intervals during 24 hours.


Samples of all the oils prepared as above should be placed in small clear bottles, which are very narrow inside, so that a thin layer of the oil may be observed. The bottles are allowed to stand for 3 or 4 days in a temperate room, without being touched. When sufficient time has been allowed for thorough settling, the color, transparency, and consistency of the samples are carefully observed, and also the quantity and nature of any precipitate which may have settled out. A note should also be made of the date for future reference. Naturally the drier which has colored the oil least and left it most clean and thin, and which shows the smallest precipitate, is the most suitable for general use. The next important test is that of drying power, and is carried out as follows: A few drops of the sample are placed on a clear, clean glass plate, 4 x 6 inches, and rubbed evenly over with the fingers. The plate is then placed, clean side up, in a sloping position with the upper edge resting against a wall. In this way any excess of oil is run off and a very thin equal layer is obtained. It is best to start the test early in the morning as it can then be watched throughout the day. It should be remarked that the time from the "tacky" stage to complete dryness is usually very short, so that the observer must be constantly on the watch. If a good drier has been used, the time may be from 4 to 5 hours, and should not be more than 12 or at the very highest






15. The bleaching of the layer should also be noted. Many of the layers, even after they have become as dry as they seem capable of becoming, show a slight stickiness. These tests should be set aside in a dust-free place for about 8 days, and then tested with the finger.




To Remove Black Letters from White Enameled Signs. It frequently happens that a change has to be made on such signs, one name having to be taken off and another substituted. Priming with white lead followed by dull and glossy zinc white paint always looks like a daub and stands out like a pad. Lye, glass paper or steel chips will not attack the burned in metallic enamel. The quickest plan is to grind down carefully with a good grindstone.



See Adhesives, under Cements.



See Enamels.




Artificial "Rubbered" Silk. A solution of caoutchouc or similar gum in acetone is added, in any desired proportion, to a solution of nitrocellulose in acetone, and the mixture is made into threads by passing it into water or other suitable liquid. The resulting threads are stated to be very brilliant in appearance, extremely elastic, and very resistant to the atmosphere and to water. The product is not more inflammable than natural silk.


Artificial Ageing of Silk Fabrics. To give silk goods the appearance of age, exposure to the sun is the simplest way, but as this requires time it cannot always be employed. A quicker method consists in preparing a dirty-greenish liquor of weak soap water, with addition of a little blacking and gamboge solution. Wash the silk fabric in this liquor and dry as usual, without rinsing in clean water, and calender.


Bleaching Silk. The Lyons process of bleaching skeins of silk is to draw them rapidly through a sort of aqua regia bath. This bath is prepared by mixing 5 parts of hydrochloric acid with 1 of nitric, leaving the mixture for 4 or 5 days at a gentle heat of about 77º F., and then diluting with about 15 times its volume of water. This dilution is effected in large tanks cut from stone. The temperature of the bath should be from 68º to 85º F., and the skeins should not be in it over 15 minutes, and frequently not so long as that; they must be kept in motion during all that time. When taken out, the silk is immediately immersed successively in 2 troughs of water, to remove every trace of the acid, after which they are dried.


Hydrogen peroxide is used as a silk bleach, the silk being first thoroughly washed with an alkaline soap and ammonium carbonate to free it of its gummy matter. After repeated washings in the peroxide (preferably rendered alkaline with ammonia and soda), the silk is "blued" with a solution of blue aniline in alcohol.


Washing of Light Silk Goods. The best soap may change delicate tints. The following method is therefore preferable: First wash the silk tissue in warm milk. Prepare a light bran infusion, which is to be decanted, and after resting for a time, passed over the fabric. It is then rinsed in this water, almost cold. It is moved about in all directions, and afterwards dried on a napkin.



See Photography, under Paper-Sensitizing Processes.




Antique Silver (see also Plating). Coat the polished silver articles with a thin paste of powdered graphite, 6 parts; powdered bloodstone, 1 part; and oil of turpentine. After the drying take off the superfluous powder with a soft brush and rub the raised portions bright with a linen rag dipped in spirit. By treatment with various sulphides an old appearance is likewise imparted to silver. If, for example, a solution of 5 parts of liver of sulphur and 10 parts of ammonium carbonate are heated in 1 quart of distilled water to 180º F., placing the silver articles therein, the latter first turn pale gray, then dark gray, and finally assume a deep black-blue. In the case of plated ware, the silvering must not be too thin; in the case of thick silver plating or solid silver 1 quart of water is sufficient. The colors will then appear more quickly. If the coloring is spotted or otherwise imperfect dip the objects into a warm potassium cyanide solution, whereby the silver sulphide formed is immediately






dissolved. The bath must be renewed after a while. Silver containing much copper is subjected, previous to the coloring, to a blanching process, which is accomplished in a boiling solution of 15 parts of powdered tartar and 30 parts of cooking salt in 2 pints of water. Objects which are to be mat are coated with a paste of potash and water after the blanching, then dry, anneal, cool in water, and boil again.


Imitation of Antique Silver. Plated articles may be colored to resemble old objects of art made of solid silver. For this purpose the deep-lying parts, those not exposed to friction, are provided with a blackish, earthy coating, the prominent parts retaining a leaden but bright color. The process is simple. A thin paste is made of finely powdered graphite and oil of turpentine (a little bloodstone or red ocher may be added, to imitate the copper tinge in articles of old silver) and spread over the whole of the previously plated article. It is then allowed to dry, and the particles not adhering to the surface removed with a soft brush. The black coating should then be carefully wiped off the exposed parts by means of a linen rag dipped in alcohol. This process is very effective in making imitations of objects of antique art, such as goblets, candlesticks, vessels of every description, statues, etc. If it is desired to restore the original brightness to the object, this can be done by washing with caustic soda or a solution of cyanide of potassium. Benzine can also be used for this purpose.


Blanching Silver.


I.    Mix powdered charcoal, 3 parts, and calcined borax, 1 part, and stir with water so as to make a homogeneous paste. Apply this paste on the pieces to be blanched. Put the pieces on a charcoal fire, taking care to cover them up well; when they have acquired a cherry red, withdraw them from the fire and leave to cool off. Next place them in a hot bath composed of 9 parts of water and 1 part of sulphuric acid, without causing the bath to oil. Leave the articles in for about 1 hour. Remove them, .rinse in clean water, and dry.


II.   If the coat of tarnish on the surface of the silver is but light and superficial, it suffices to rub the piece well with green soap to wash it thoroughly in hot water; then dry it in hot sawdust and pass it through alcohol, finally rubbing with a fine cloth or brush. Should the coat resist this treatment, brush with Spanish white, then wash, dry, and pass through alcohol. The employment of Spanish white has the drawback of shining the silver if the application is strong and prolonged. If the oxidation has withstood these means and if it is desired to impart to the chain the handsome mat appearance of new goods, it should be annealed in charcoal dust and passed through vitriol, but this operation, for those unused to it, is very dangerous to the soldering and consequently may spoil the piece.


Coloring Silver. A rich gold tint may be imparted to silver articles by plunging them into dilute sulphuric acid, saturated with iron rust.


Frosting Polished Silver. Articles of polished silver may be frosted by putting them into a bath of nitric acid diluted with an equal volume of distilled water and letting them remain a few minutes. A better effect may be given by dipping the article frequently into the bath until the requisite degree of frosting has been attained. Then rinse and place for a few moments in a strong bath of potassium cyanide; remove and rinse. The fingers must not be allowed to touch the article during either process. It should be held with wooden forceps or clamps.


Fulminating Silver. Dissolve 1 part of fine silver in 10 parts of nitric acid of 1.36 specific gravity at a moderate heat; pour the solution into 20 parts of spirit of wine (85 to 90 per cent) and heat the liquid. As soon as the mixture begins to boil, it is removed from the fire and left alone until cooled off. The fulminic silver crystallizes on cooling in very fine needles of dazzling whiteness, which are edulcorated with water and dried carefully in the air.


Hollow Silverware. A good process for making hollow figures consists in covering models of the figures, made of a base or easily soluble metal, with a thin and uniform coating of a nobler metal, by means of the electric current in such a way that this coating takes approximately the shape of the model, the latter being then removed by dissolving it with acid. The model is cast from zinc in one or more pieces, a well-chased brass mold being used for this purpose, and the separate parts are then soldered together with an easily fusible solder. The figure is then covered with a galvanized coating of silver, copper, or other metal. Before receiving the coating of silver, the figure is first covered with a thin deposit of copper, the silver being added afterwards in the required thickness. But in order






that the deposit of silver may be of the same thickness throughout (this is essential if the figure is to keep the right shape), silver anodes, so constructed and arranged as to correspond as closely as possible to the outlines of the figure, should be suspended in the solution of silver and cyanide of potassium on both sides of the figure, and at equal distances from it. As soon as the deposit is sufficiently thick, the figure is removed from the bath, washed, and put into a bath of dilute sulphuric or hydrochloric acid, where it is allowed to remain till the zinc core is dissolved. The decomposition of the zinc can be accelerated by adding a pin of copper. The figure now requires only boiling in soda and potassic tartrate to acquire a white color. If the figure is to be made of copper, the zinc model must be covered first with a thin layer of silver, then with the copper coating, and then once more with a thin layer of silver, so that while the zinc is being dissolved, the copper may be protected on either side by the silver. Similar precautions must be taken with other metals, regard being paid to their peculiar properties. Another method is to cast the figures, entire or in separate parts, out of some easily fusible alloy in chased metal molds. The separate portions are soldered with the same solder, and the figure is then provided with a coating of copper, silver, etc., by means of the galvanic current. It is then placed in boiling water or steam, and the inner alloys melted by the introduction of the water or steam through holes bored for this purpose.


Lustrous Oxide on Silver (see also Plating and Silver, under Polishes). Some experience is necessary to reproduce a handsome black luster. Into a cup filled with water throw a little liver of sulphur and mix well. Scratch the silver article as bright as possible with the scratch brush and dip into the warm liquid. Remove the object after 2 minutes and rinse off in water. Then scratch it up again and return it into the liquid. The process should be repeated 2 or 3 times, whereby a wonderful glossy black is obtained.


Ornamental Designs on Silver. Select a smooth part of the silver, and sketch on it a monogram or any other design with a sharp lead pencil. Place the article in a gold solution, with the battery in good working order, and in a short time all the parts not sketched with the lead pencil will be covered with a coat of gold. After cleaning the article the black lead is easily removed with the finger, whereupon the silver ornament is disclosed. A gold ornament may be produced by reversing the process.


Separating Silver from Platinum Waste. Cut the waste into small pieces, make red hot to destroy grease and organic substances, and dissolve in aqua regia (hydrochloric acid, 3 parts, and nitric acid, 1 part). Platinum and all other metals combined with it are thus dissolved, while silver settles on the bottom as chloride in the shape of a gray, spongy powder. The solution is then drawn off and tested by oxalic acid for gold, which is precipitated as a fine yellowish powder. The other metals remain untouched thereby. The platinum still present in the solution is now obtained by a gradual addition of sal ammoniac as a yellowish-gray powder. These different precipitates are washed with warm water, dried, and transformed into the metallic state by suitable fluxes. Platinum filings, however, have to be previously refined. They are also first annealed. All steel or iron filings are removed with a magnet and the rest is dipped into concentrated sulphuric acid and heated with this to the boiling point. This process is continued as long as an action of the acid is noticeable. The remaining powder is pure platinum. Hot sulphuric acid dissolves silver without touching the platinum. The liquid used for the separation of the platinum is now diluted with an equal quantity of water and the silver expelled from it by means of a saturated cooking salt solution. The latter is added gradually until no more action, i.e., separation, is perceptible. The liquid is carefully drawn off, the residue washed in warm water, dried and melted with a little soda ashes as flux, which yields pure metallic silver.


The old process for separating silver from waste was as follows: The refuse was mixed with an equal quantity of charcoal, placed in a crucible, and subjected to a bright-red heat, and in a short time a silver button formed at the bottom. Carbonate of soda is another good flux.     


Silvering Glass Globes. Take 1/3 ounce of clean lead, and melt it with an equal weight of pure tin; then immediately add 1/2 ounce of bismuth, and carefully skim off the dross; remove the alloy from the fire and before it grows cold add 5 ounces of mercury, and stir the whole well together; then put the fluid amalgam into a clean glass, and it is fit for use. When this amalgam is used for silvering






let it be first strained through a linen rag; then gently pour some ounces thereof into the globe intended to be silvered; the alloy should be poured into the globe by means of a paper or glass funnel reaching almost to the bottom of the globe, to prevent it splashing the sides; the globe should be turned every way very slowly, to fasten the silvering.


Silvering Powder for Metals. Copper, brass, and some other metals may be silvered by rubbing well with the following powder: Potassium cyanide, 12 parts; silver nitrate, 6 parts; calcium carbonate, 30 parts. Mix and keep in a well-closed bottle. It must be applied with hard rubbing, the bright surface being afterwards rinsed with water, dried, and polished. Great care must be exercised in the use of the powder on account of its poisonous nature. It should not be allowed to come in contact with the hands.


Silver Testing. For this purpose a cold saturated solution of potassium bichromate in pure nitric acid of 1.2 specific gravity is employed. After the article to be tested has been treated with spirit of wine for the removal of any varnish coating which might be present, a drop of the above test liquor is applied by means of a glass rod and the resultant spot rubbed off with a little water.


A testing solution of potassium bichromate, 1 ounce, pure nitric acid, 6 ounces, and water, 2 ounces, gives the following results on surfaces of the metals named:



Color in one minute.

Color of mark left.

Pure silver

.925 silver

.800 silver

.500 silver

German silver










9-carat gold

Bright blood-red

Dark red



Dark blue

Turquoise blue

Very dark blue

Dark brown

Nut brown

Reddish brown

Light chocolate


Vandyke brown



Grayish white

Dark brown

Dark brown

Dark brown

Light gray

Scarcely any

Cleaned copper

Light brown



Steel gray

No stain

No stain


No stain


The second column in the table shows such change of color as the liquid not the metal undergoes during its action for the period of 1 minute. The test liquid being then washed off with cold water, the third column shows the nature of the stain that is left.


In the case of faintly silvered goods, such as buttons, this test fails, since the slight quantity of resulting silver chromate does not become visible or dissolves in the nitric acid present. But even such a thin coat of silver can be recognized with the above test liquor, if the bichromate solution is used, diluted with the equal volume of water, or if a small drop of water is first put on the article and afterwards a little drop of the undiluted solution is applied by means of a capillary tube. In this manner a distinct red spot was obtained in the case of very slight silvering.


A simpler method is as follows: Rub the piece to be tested on the touchstone and moisten the mark with nitric acid, whereupon it disappears. Add a little hydrochloric acid with a glass rod. If a white turbidness (silver chloride) appears which does not vanish upon addition of water, or, in case of faint silvering or an alloy poor in silver, a weak opalescence, the presence of silver is certain. Even alloys containing very little silver give this reaction quite distinctly.


Pink Color on Silver. To produce a beautiful pink color upon silver, dip the clean article for a few seconds into a hot and strong solution of cupric chloride, swill it in water and then ary it or dip it into spirit of wine and ignite the spirit.



See Alloys.



See Plating.



See Mirrors.



See Plating.



See Metal Foil.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Plating.



See Photography.



See Solders.







See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Gold.



See Polishes.



See Alloys.



See Adhesives.



See Raspberry.



See Essences and Extracts.



See Adhesives.



See Kalsomine.



See Cleaning Preparations and Methods.



See Ointments.



See Cosmetics.



See Soap.




Artificial Slate. The artificial slate coating on tin consists of a mixture of finely ground slate, lampblack, and a water-glass solution of equal parts of potash and soda water glass (1.25 specific gravity). The process is as follows:


I.    First prepare the water-glass solution by finely crushing equal parts of solid potash and soda water glass and pouring over this 6 to 8 times the quantity of soft river water, which is kept boiling about 1 1/2 hours, whereby the water glass is completely dissolved. Add 7 parts finely crushed slate finely ground with a little water into impalpable dust, 1 part lampblack, which is ground with it, and grind enough of this mass with the previously prepared water-glass solution as is necessary for a thick or thin coating. With this compound the roughened tin plates are painted as uniformly as possible. For roofing, zinc plate may be colored in the same manner. The coating protects the zinc from oxidation and consequently from destruction. For painting zinc plate, however, only pure potash water glass must be added to mixture, as the paint would loosen or peel off from the zinc if soda water glass were used.


II.   Good heavy paper or other substance is saturated with linseed-oil varnish and then painted, several coats, one after another with the following mixture:


Copal varnish                       1 part

Oil of turpentine                   2 parts

Fine, dry sand, powdered            1 part

Powdered glass                      1 part

Ground slate                        2 parts

Lampblack                           1 part



See Photography.



See Insecticides.



See Alcohol (Solid).



See Grain.




About 25 years ago, Dr. S. Weir Mitchell and Dr. Reichert published results of their investigations of snake venom which indicated that permanganate of potassium may prove of material value as an antidote to this lethal substance. Since that time permanganate has been largely used all over the world as a remedy when men and animals were bitten by poisonous snakes, and Sir Lauder Brunton devised an instrument by means of which the permanganate may be readily carried in the pocket, and immediately injected into, or into the neighborhood of, the wound. Captain Rodgers, of the Indian Medical Service, recently reported several cases treated by this method, the wounds being due to the bites of the cobra. After making free crucial incisions of the bitten part, the wound was thoroughly flushed with a hot solution of permanganate of potassium, and then bandaged. Recovery occurred in each instance, although the cauterant action of the hot solution of permanganate of potassium delayed healing so long that the part was not well for about 3 weeks. About 12 or 13 years ago, Dr. Amos Barber, of Cheyenne, Wyoming, reported cases in which excellent results had followed this method of treatment. 







(See also Cleaning Compounds and Polishes.)




I.    Various attempts have been made to incorporate antiseptics and cosmetics with soap, but for the most part unsuccessfully, owing to the unfavorable action of the added components, a good instance of this kind being sodium peroxide, which, though a powerful antiseptic, soon decomposes in the soap and loses its properties, while the caustic character of the oxide renders its use precarious, even when the soap is fresh, unless great care is taken. However, according to a German patent, zinc peroxide is free from these defects, since it retains its stability and has no corrosive action on the skin, while possessing powerful antiseptic and cosmetic properties, and has a direct curative influence when supplied to cuts or wounds.


II.   The soap is prepared by melting 80 parts of household soap in a jacketed pan, and gradually adding 20 parts of moist zinc peroxide (50 per cent strength), the whole being kept well stirred all the time. The finished mixture will be about as stiff as dough, and is easily shaped into tablets of convenient size.


III.  Take 50 parts, by weight, of caustic soda of 70 per cent, and free from carbonic acid, if possible; 200 parts, by weight, of sweet almond oil; 160 parts, by weight, of glycerine of 30º Bé.; and sufficient distilled water to make up 1,000 parts by weight. First, dissolve the alkali in double its weight of water, then add the glycerine and oil and stir together. Afterwards, add the remainder of the water and keep the whole on the water bath at a temperature of 140º to 158º F., for 24 to 36 hours; remove the oil not saponified, which gives a gelatinous mass. Mix 900 parts, by weight, of it with 70 parts, by weight, of 90 per cent alcohol and 10 parts, by weight, of lemon oil, and as much of the oil of bergamot and the oil of vervain. Heat for some hours at 140º F., then allow to cool and filter on wadding to eliminate the needles of stearate of potash. The liquid after filtering remains clear.


Carpet Soap.


Fuller's earth                      4 ounces

Spirits of turpentine               1 ounce

Pearlash                            8 ounces


Rub smooth and make into a stiff paste with a sufficiency of soft soap.


To Cut Castile Soap. A thin spatula must be used. To cut straight, a trough with open ends made with 1/2 inch boards should be taken, the inside dimensions being 2 7/8 inches wide, 3 3/4 inches deep, and about 14 inches long. Near the end a perpendicular slit is sawed through the side pieces. Passing the spatula down through this slit the bar is cut neatly and straight. For trimming off the corners a carpenter's small iron plane works well.




The first point to be observed is to select the proper shade of flower corresponding with the perfume used, for instance, an almond soap is left white; rose soap is colored pink or red; mignonette, green, etc.


The colors from which the soapmaker may select are numerous; not only are most of the coal tar colors adapted for his purpose, but also a very great number of mineral colors. Until recently, the latter were almost exclusively employed, but the great advance in the tar color industry has brought about a change. A prominent advantage of the mineral colors is their stability; they are not changed or in any way affected by exposure to light. This advantage, however, is offset in many cases by the more difficult method of application, the difficulty of getting uniform shades. The coal-tar colors give brilliant shades and tints, are easy to use, and produce uniform' tints. The specific gravity of mineral colors being rather high, in most cases they will naturally tend to settle toward the bottom of soap, and their use necessitates crutching of the soap until it is too thick to allow the color to settle. For mottled soap, however, vermilion, red oxide, and ultramarine are still largely employed.


For transparent soap mineral colors are not applicable, as they would detract from their transparency; for milled toilet soap, on the other hand, they are very well adapted, as also for cold-made soaps which require crutching anyway until a sufficient consistency is obtained to keep the coloring material suspended.


A notable disadvantage in the use of aniline colors, besides their sensitiveness to the action of light, is the fact that many of them are affected and partly destroyed by the action of alkalI. A few of them are proof against a small excess of lye, and these may be used with good effect. Certain firms have made a specialty of manufacturing colors answering the peculiar requirements of soap, being very easy of






application, as they are simply dissolved in boiling water and the solution stirred into the soap. To some colors a little weak lye is added; others are mixed with a little oil before they are added to the soap.


For a soluble red color there were formerly used alkanet and cochineal; at present these have been displaced to a great extent, on account of their high cost, by magenta, which is very cheap and of remarkable beauty. A very small amount suffices for an intense color, nor is a large proportion desirable, as the soap would then stain. Delicate tints are also produced by the eosine colors, of which rose bengal, phloxine, rhodamine, and eosine are most commonly used. These colors, when dissolved, have a brilliant fluorescence which heightens their beautiful effect.


The following minerals, after being ground and washed several times in boiling water, will produce the colors stated:


Hematite produces deep red.

Purple oxide iron produces purple.

Oxide of manganese produces brown.

Yellow ocher produces yellow.

Yellow ocher calcined produces orange.

Umber produces fawn.

Cinnabar produces medium red.


There are also a number of the azo dyes, which are suitable for soaps, and these, as well as the eosine colors, are used principally for transparent soaps. For opaque soaps both aniline and mineral reds are used, among the latter being vermilion, chrome red, and iron oxide. Chrome red is a basic chromate of lead, which is now much used in place of vermilion, but, as it becomes black on exposure to an atmosphere containing even traces only of sulphureted hydrogen, it is not essentially adapted for soap. Vermilion gives a bright color, but its price is high. Iron oxide, known in the trade as colcothar, rouge, etc., is used for cheap soaps only.


Among the natural colors for yellow are saffron, gamboge, turmeric, and caramel (sugar color); the first named of these is now hardly used, owing to its high cost. Of the yellow aniline colors special mention must be made of picric acid (trinitrophenol), martius yellow, naphthol yellow, acid yellow, and auramine. If an orange tint is wanted, a trace of magenta or safranine may be added to the yellow colors named. The use of some unbleached palm oil with the stock answers a similar purpose, but the color fades on exposure. A mineral yellow is chrome yellow (chromate of  lead), which has the same advantages and disadvantages as chrome red.


Of the blue aniline colors, there may be used alkali blue, patent blue, and indigo extract. Alkali or aniline blue is soluble only in alkaline liquids; while patent blue is soluble in water and in alcohol. Both blues can be had in different brands, producing from green blues to violet blues. Indigo extract, which should be classed among the natural colors rather than among the tar colors, is added to the soap in aqueous solution.


Of ultramarine there are two modifications, the sulphate and the soda. Both of these are proof against the action of alkali, but are decomposed by acids or salts having an acid reaction. The former is much paler than the latter; the soda ultramarine is best adapted for coloring soda soaps blue. The ultramarine is added to the soap in the form of a fine powder. Smalt is unsuitable, although it gives soap a color of wonderful beauty because a considerable quantity of it is required to produce a deep color, and, furthermore, it makes the soap rough, owing to the gritty nature which smalt has even when in the finest powder. By mixing the blue and yellow colors named, a great variety of greens are obtained. Both component colors must be entirely free from any reddish tint, for the latter would cause the mixture to form a dirty-green color.


Of the colors producing green directly the two tar colors, Victoria and brilliant green, are to be noted; these give a bright color, but fade rapidly; thereby the soap acquires an unsightly appearance. For opaque soap of the better grades, green ultramarine or chrome green are used. Gray and black are produced by lampblack. For brown, there is Bismarck brown among the aniline colors and umber among the earthy pigments.


Garment -Cleaning Soap. The following is excellent:



White soap, rasped or shaved        12 parts

Ammonia water                       3 parts

Boiling water                       18 parts


Dissolve the soap in the water and when it cools down somewhat, add to the solution the ammonia water. Pour the solution into a flask of sufficient capacity (or holding about three times as much as the mixture) and add enough water to fill it about three-quarters full. Shake and add, a little at a time, under active agitation, enough benzine to make 100 parts. This constitutes the stock






bottle. To make up the mass or paste put a teaspoonful in an 8 ounce bottle and add, a little at a time, with constant agitation, benzine to about fill the bottle. This preparation is a rapid cleaner and does not injure the most delicate colors.



Good bar soap, shaved up            165 parts

Ammonia water                       45 parts

Benzine                             190 parts

Water                               sufficient to make 1,000 parts


Dissolve the soap in 600 parts of water by heating on the water bath, remove, and add the ammonia under constant stirring. Finally add the benzine, and stir until homogeneous, and quite cold. The directions to go with this paste are: Rub the soap well into the spot and lay the garment aside for a half hour. Then using a stiff brush, rub with warm water and rinse. This is especially useful in spots made by rosins, oils, grease, etc. Should the spot be only partially removed by the first application, repeat.


Glycerine Soaps. Dr. Sarg's liquid glycerine soap consists of 334 parts of potash soda soap, and 666 parts of glycerine free from lime, the mixture being scented with Turkish rose oil and orange blossom oil in equal proportions, the actual amount used being varied according to taste. The soap should be perfectly free from alkali; but as this is a condition difficult of attainment in the case of ordinary potash soaps, it is presupposed that the soap used has been salted out with potassium chloride, this being the only way to obtain a soap free from alkalI.    


Another variety of liquid glycerine soap is prepared from purified medicinal soft soap, 300 parts; glycerine free from lime, 300 parts; white sugar syrup, 300 parts; doubly rectified spirit (96 per cent), 300 parts. The mixture is scented with oil of cinnamon, 1 part; oil of sassafras, 2 parts; oil of citronella, 1/2 part; oil of wintergreen, 1 part; African geranium oil, 1 part; clove oil, part; oil of bergamot, 3 parts; pure tincture of musk, part. These oils are dissolved in spirit, and shaken up with the other ingredients; then left for 8 days with frequent shaking, and 3 days in absolute quiet, after which the whole is filtered, and is then ready for packing.


Iodine Soaps. In British hospitals, preference is given to oleic acid over alcoholic preparations for iodine soaps, as the former do not stain and can be washed  off with soap and water. The following formula is given:



Iodine                              1 av. ounce

Oleic acid                          1 fluidounce

Alcohol                             6 fluidrachms

Stronger water of ammonia           2 fluidrachms


This makes a soapy paste soluble in all liquids, except fixed oils.



Iodine                              1 av. ounce

Oleic acid                          2 fluidounces

Stronger water of ammonia           3 fluidrachms

Paraffine oil, colorless,           to make 20 fluidounces



Iodine                              1 av. ounce

Alcohol                             5 fluidounces

Solution of ammonium oleate         1 fluidounce

Glycerine                           to make 20 fluidounces


The solution of ammonium oleate is made from oleic acid and spirit of ammonia.


Liquid Soaps. Liquid soaps, or, as they are sometimes called, soap essences, are made from pure olive oil soap by dissolving it in alcohol and adding some potassium carbonate. Tallow or lard soaps cannot be used, as they will not make a transparent preparation. The soap is finely shaved and placed with the alcohol and potassium carbonate in a vessel over a water bath, the temperature slowly and gradually raised, while the mixture is kept in constant agitation by stirring. The soap should be of a pure white color and the alcohol gives the best product when it is about 80 per cent strength. After about three-quarters of an hour to one hour, solution will be complete and a perfectly transparent article obtained. This can be scented as desired by adding the proper essential oil as soon as the mixture is removed from the water bath.


If an antiseptic soap is wanted the addition of a small amount of benzoic acid, formaldehyde, or corrosive sublimate will give the desired product. Liquid soaps should contain from 20 to 40 per cent of genuine white castile soap and about 2 to 2 1/4 per cent of potassium carbonate.


This is a common formula:


By weight


Olive or cottonseed oil             60 parts

Caustic potash, U.S.P               15 parts

Alcohol and water,                  sufficient of each.






Dissolve the potash in 1 ounce of water, heat the oil on a water bath, add the solution of potash previously warmed, and stir briskly. Continue the heat until saponification is complete. If oil globules separate out and refuse to saponify, the potash is not of proper strength, and more must be added 1 or 2 parts dissolved in water. If desired transparent add a little alcohol, and continue the heat without stirring until a drop placed in cold water first solidifies and then dissolves.


Commercial potash may be used, but the strength must be ascertained and adjusted by experiment. The soap thus made will be like jelly; it is dissolved in alcohol, 4 to 6 ounces of soap to 2 of alcohol, and after standing a day or two is filtered and perfumed as desired. A rancid oil would be easier to saponify, but the soap would likely be rancid or not as good.


II.   Ammonium sulphoichthyolate, 10 parts; distilled water, 15 parts; hebra's soap spirit (a solution of potash soap, 120 parts, in 90 per cent spirit, 60 parts; and spirit of lavender, 5 parts), 75 parts.




First make up a suitable soap body and afterwards add the medicament. For instance, carbolic soaps may be made as follows:



Cocoanut oil                        20 pounds

Tallow                              4 pounds

Soda lye (38º to 40º B.)            12 pounds

Phenol                              1 pound


Prepare the body soap by stirring the liquefied fat into the lye at 113º F., and when combination has set in, incorporate the phenol and quickly pour into molds. Cover the latter well. Instead of the phenol 2 pounds of sulphur may be used, and a sulphur soap made.


Parts by weight


Cotton oil                         200

Alcohol, 91 per cent                300

Water                               325

Caustic soda                        45

Potassium carbonate                 10

Ether                               15

Carbolic acid                       25


The oil is mixed in a large bottle with water, 100 parts; alcohol, 200 parts; and caustic soda, 45 parts, and after saponification the remaining alcohol and the potassium carbonate dissolved in the rest of the water, and finally the carbolic acid and the ether are added and the whole well shaken. The mixture is filled in tightly closed bottles and stored at medium temperature. The preparation may be scented as desired, and the carbolic acid replaced with other antiseptics.


Liquid Tar Soap. Mix 200 parts of tar with 400 parts of oleic acid, warm lightly and filter. In this way the aqueous content produces no trouble. Now warm the filtrate on the water bath, neutralize by stirring in an alcoholic potash solution. To the soap thus produced, add 100 parts of alcohol, and further a little olive oil, in order to avoid a separation of any overplus of alkaline matter. Finally, bring up to 1,000 parts with glycerine. This soap, containing 22 per cent of tar, answers all possible demands that may be made upon it. Mixed with 2 parts of distilled water it leaves no deposit on the walls of the container.


Liquid Styrax Soap. The process is identical with the foregoing. For digestion with oleic acid, the crude balsam will answer, since filtration deprives the product of all contaminating substances. While this soap will separate, it is easily again rendered homogeneous with a vigorous shake. Preparations made with it should be accompanied with a "shake" label.


Superfatted Liquid Lanolin-Glycerine Soap. Dissolve about 10 per cent of lanolin in oleic acid, saponify as in the tar soap, and perfume (for which a solution of coumarin in geranium oil is probably the most suitable agent). The prepared soap is improved by the addition of a little tincture of benzoin.


Massage Soaps.


I.    An excellent recipe for a massage soap is: Special cocoanut oil ground soap, 2,500 pounds; lanolin, 50 pounds; pine-needle oil, 20 pounds; spike oil, 3 pounds. Other massage soaps are made from olive oil ground soap, to which in special cases, as in the treatment of certain rheumatic affections, ichthyol is added. Massage soaps are always wanted white, so that Cochin cocoanut oil should be preferred to other kinds.


II.   Cocoanut oil, 1,000 pounds; caustic soda lye, 37º B., 500 pounds; pine needle oil, 4 pounds; artificial bitter almond oil, 2 pounds. There is also a "massage cream," which differs from the ordinary massage soaps in being made with a soft potash soap as a ground soap. The oils, etc., incorporated with the ground mass are exactly the same in the "cream" as in the soap.






Metallic Soaps. Metallic soaps are obtained by means of double decomposition. First a soap solution is produced which is brought to a boil. On the other hand, an equally strong solution of the metallic salt of which the combination is to be made (chlorides and sulphides are employed with preference) is prepared, the boiling solutions are mixed together, and the metallic soap obtained is gathered on a linen cloth. This is then put on enameled plates and dried, first at 104º F., later at 140º F.


Aluminum soap is the most important. Dissolved in benzine or oil of turpentine, it furnishes an excellent varnish. It has been proposed to use these solutions for the varnishing of leather; they furthermore serve for the production of waterproof linen and cloths, paper, etc. arry recommended this compound for impregnating railroad ties to render them weatherproof.


Manganese soap is used as a siccative in the preparation of linseed oil varnish, as well as for a drier to be added to paints. Zinc soap is used in the same manner.


Copper soap enters into the composition of gilding wax, and is also employed for bronzing plaster of Paris articles. For the same purpose, a mixture is made use of consisting of copper soap and iron soap melted in white lead varnish and wax.   Iron soap is used with aluminum soap for waterproofing purposes and for the production of a waterproof varnish. By using wax instead of a soap, insoluble metallic soaps are obtained, which, melted in oils or wax, impart brilliant colorings to them; but colored waterproof and weather-resisting varnishes may also be produced with them. Metallic rosin soaps may be produced by double decomposition of potash rosin soaps and a soluble metal salt. From these, good varnishes are obtained to render paper carriage covers, etc., waterproof; they may also be employed for floor wax or lacquers.


Petroleum Soap.



Beeswax, refined                    4 parts

Alcohol                             5 parts

Castile soap, finely grated         10 parts

Petroleum                           5 parts


Put the petroleum into a suitable vessel along with the wax and alcohol and cautiously heat on the water bath, with an occasional agitation, until complete solution is effected. Add the soap and continue the heat until it is dissolved. When this occurs remove from the bath and stir until the soap begins to set, then pour into molds.


II.   The hydrocarbons (as petroleum, vaseline, etc.) are boiled with a sufficient quantity of alkali to form a soap, during which process they absorb oxygen and unite with the alkali to form fatty acid salts. The resulting soap is dissolved in water containing alkali, and the solution is heated along with alkali and salt. The mass of soap separates out in three layers, the central one being the purest; and from this product the fatty acids may be recovered by treatment with sulphuric acid.


Perfumes for Soap. From 1 to 2 ounces of the following mixtures are to be used to 10 pounds of soap:



Oil of rose geranium                2 ounces

Oil of patchouli                    1/2 ounce

Oil of cloves                       1/2 ounce

Oil of lavender flowers             1 ounce

Oil of bergamot                     1 ounce

Oil of sandalwood                   1 ounce



Oil of bergamot                     2 ounces

Oil of orange flowers               2 ounces

Oil of sassafras                    2 ounces

Oil of white thyme                  3 ounces

Oil of cassia                       3 ounces

Oil of cloves                       3 ounces



Oil of citronella                   1 ounce

Oil of cloves                       1 ounce

Oil of bitter almonds               2 ounces


Pumice Stone Soaps. These soaps are always produced by the cold process, either from cocoanut oil alone or in conjunction with tallow, cotton oil, bleached palm oil, etc. The oil is melted and the lye stirred in at about 90º F.; next, the powdered pumice stone is sifted into the soap and the latter is scented. Following are some recipes:



Cocoanut oil                        40,000 parts

Cotton oil                          10,000 parts

Caustic soda lye, 38º Bé.           24,000 parts

Caustic potash lye, 30º Bé.         1,000 parts

Powdered pumice stone               25,000 parts

Cassia oil                          150 parts

Rosemary oil                        100 parts

Lavender oil                        50 parts

Safrol                              50 parts

Clove oil                           10 parts



Cocoanut oil                        50,000 parts

Caustic soda lye, 40º Bé.           25,000 parts






Powdered pumice stone               50,000 parts

Lavender oil                        250 parts

Caraway oil                         80 parts


Shaving Soaps.



Palm oil soap                       5 pounds

Oil of cinnamon                     10 drachms

Oil of caraway                      2 drachms

Oil of lavender                     2 drachms

Oil of thyme                        1 drachm

Oil of peppermint                   45 minims

Oil of bergamot                     2 1/2 drachms


Melt the soap, color if desired, and incorporate the oils.



Soap                                10 pounds

Alcohol                             1 ounce

Oil of bitter almonds               1 1/4 ounces

Oil of bergamot                     3/4 ounce

Oil of mace                         3 drachms

Oil of cloves                       1/2 ounce


Melt the soap with just enough water to convert it into a soft paste when cold; dissolve the oils in the alcohol, mix with the paste, and rub up in a mortar, or pass several times through a kneading machine.



White castile soap                  5 parts

Alcohol                             15 parts

Rose water                          15 parts




The raw materials of which soap powder is made are soap and soda, to which ingredients an addition of talcum or water glass can be made, if desired, these materials proving very useful as a filling. An excellent soap powder has been made of 20 parts of crystallized soda, 5 parts of dark-yellow soap (rosin curd), and 1 part of ordinary soft soap. At first the two last mentioned are placed in a pan, then half the required quantity of soda is added, and the whole is treated. Here it must be mentioned that the dark yellow curd soap, which is very rosinous, has to be cut in small pieces before placing the quantity into the pan. The heating process must continue very slowly, and the material has to be crutched continually until the whole of the substance has been thoroughly melted. Care must be taken that the heating process does not reach the boiling point. The fire underneath the pan must now be extinguished, and then the remaining half of the crystallized soda is added to be crutched with the molten ingredients, until the whole substance has become liquid. The liquefaction is assisted by the residual heat of the first heated material and the pan. The slow cooling facilitates the productive process by thickening the mass, and when the soda has been absorbed, the whole has become fairly thick. With occasional stirring of the thickened liquid the mass is left for a little while longer, and when the proper moment has arrived the material contained in the pan is spread on sheets of thin iron, and these are removed to a cool room, where, after the first cooling, they must be turned over by means of a shovel, and the turning process has to be repeated at short intervals until the material has quite cooled down and the mixture is thoroughly broken. The soap is now in a very friable condition, and the time has now come to make it into powder, for which purpose it is rubbed through the wire netting or the perforated sieves. Generally the soap is first rubbed through a coarse sieve, and then through finer ones, until it has reached the required conditions of the powder. Some of the best soap powders are coarse, but other manufacturers making an equally good article prefer the finer powder, which requires a little more work, since it has to go through three sieves, whereas the coarse powder can do with one or at most two treatments. But this is, after all, a matter of local requirements or personal taste.


The powder obtained from the abovementioned ingredients is fine and yellow colored, and it has all the qualities needed for a good sale. Instead of the dark yellow soap, white stock soap can also be used, and this makes only a little difference in the coloring. But again white stock soap can be used, and the same color obtained by the use of palm oil, or other coloring ingredients, as these materials are used for giving the toilet soaps their manifold different hues. Many makers state that this process is too expensive, and not only swallows up all the profit, but some of the color materials influence the soap and not to its advantage.


Soft soap is used only to make the powder softer and easier soluble, and for this reason the quantity to be used varies a little and different manufacturers believe to have a secret by adding different quantities of this material. As a general statement it may be given that the quantity of soft soap for the making of soap powder should not overstep the proportion of one to three, compared with the quantity of hard soap; any excess in this direction would frustrate the desires of the maker, and land him with a product which has become smeary and moist, forming into balls and lumping together






in bags or cases, to become discolored and useless. It is best to stick to the proportion as given, 5 parts of hard and 1 part of soft soap, when the produced powder will be reliable and stable and not form into balls even if the material is kept for a long while.


This point is of special importance, since soap powder is sold mostly in weighed out packages of one and a half pounds. Most manufacturers will admit that loose soap powder forms only a small part of the quantities produced, as only big laundries and institutions purchase same in bags or cases. The retail trade requires the soap powder wrapped up in paper, and if this has to be done the powder must not be too moist, as the paper otherwise will fall to pieces. This spoils the appearance of the package, and likely a part of the quantity may be lost. When the powder is too moist or absorbs easily external moisture, the paper packages swell very easily and burst open.


The best filling material to be employed when it is desired to produce a cheaper article is talcum, and in most cases this is preferred to water glass. The superiority of the former over the latter is that water glass hardens the powder, and this is sometimes done to such an extent, when a large quantity of filling material is needed, that it becomes very difficult to rub the soap through the sieves. In case this difficulty arises, only one thing can be done to lighten the task, and that is to powderize the soap when the mixed materials are still warm, and this facilitates the work very much. It is self-evident that friction under these conditions leaves a quantity of the soap powder material on the sieves, and this cannot be lost. Generally it is scraped together and returned to the pan to be included in the next batch, when it is worked up, and so becomes useful, a need which does not arise when talcum has been used as a filling material. Again, the soap powder made with the addition of water glass is not so soluble, and at the same time much denser than when the preparation has been made without this material. It is thus that the purchaser receives by equal weight a smaller looking quantity, and as the eye has generally a great influence when the consumer determines a purchase, the small sized parcels will impress him unfavorably. This second quality of soap powder is made of the same ingredients as the other, except that an addition of about 6 parts of talcum is made, and this is stirred up with the other material after all the soda has been dissolved. Some makers cheapen the products also by reducing the quantity of hard soap from 5 to 3 parts and they avoid the filling; the same quantity of soda is used in all cases. On the same principle a better quality is made by altering the proportions of soda and soap the other way. Experiments will soon show which proportions are most suitable for the purpose.


So called ammonia turpentine soap powder has been made by crutching oil of turpentine and ammonia with the materials just about the time before the whole is taken out of the heating pan. Some of the powder is also scented, and the perfume is added at the same time and not before. In most of the latter cases mirbane oil is used for the purpose.


These powders are adaptable to hard water, as their excess of alkali neutralizes the lime that they contain:



Curd (hard) soap, powdered          4 parts

Sal soda                            3 parts

Silicate of soda                    2 parts


Make as dry as possible, and mix intimately.


Borax Soap Powder.



Curd (hard) soap, in powder         5 parts

Soda ash                            3 parts

Silicate of soda                    2 parts

Borax (crude)                       1 part


Each ingredient is thoroughly dried, and all mixed together by sieving.


London Soap Powder.



Yellow soap                         6 parts

Soda crystals                       3 parts

Pearl ash                           1 1/2 parts

Sulphate of soda                    1 1/2 parts

Palm oil                            1 part




The question as to the qualities of toilet soaps has a high therapeutical significance. Impurity of complexion and morbid anomalies of the skin are produced by the use of poor and unsuitable soaps. The latter, chemically regarded, are salts of fatty acids, and are prepared from fats and a lye, the two substances being mixed in a vessel and brought to a boil, soda lye being used in the preparation of toilet soaps. In boiling together a fat and a lye, the former is resolved into its component parts, a fatty acid and glycerine. The


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