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  Lionel Chem-Lab - Chapter 10

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NOTE:  This book was published in 1942 as a manual to accompany several Lionel Chemistry sets of the time.  While some of the experiments and activities here may be safely done as written, a number of them use chemicals and methods no longer considered safe.  In addition, much of the information contained in this book about chemistry and other subjects is outdated and some of it is inaccurate.  Therefore, this book is probably best appreciated for its historical value rather than as a source for current information and good experiments.  If you try anything here, please understand that you do so at your own risk.  See our Terms of Use.
Pages 141 - 148

CHAPTER X

PHOSPHORUS AND THE PHOSPHATES

The two principal forms of phosphorus are white (or yellow) phosphorus and red phosphorus. The first is a yellowish, waxy solid which is very poisonous and ignites so readily that it must be handled under water. The red variety, on the other hand, is neither poisonous nor easily ignitable. At ordinary temperatures, white phosphorus slowly changes to red.

The chief use of phosphorus, both red and white, is in the manufacture of matches. Safety matches, which require a special surface in order to be ignited, are made of red phosphorus. Regular matches are made of white phosphorus and sulfur. White phosphorus is also used as a rat poison and in making phosphoric acid. For military purposes, it is used to make a smoke screen.

THE PHOSPHATES

The salts of phosphorus, known as phosphates, are important. The most useful is calcium phosphate, a mineral, which goes into the manufacture of fertilizer.

EXPERIMENT No. 285 Manganese Phosphate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Manganese sulfate, trisodium phosphate, two test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of trisodium phosphate in a test tube half full of water. Dissolve in a second test tube one quarter full of water one half measure of manganese sulfate. Pour this solution into the test tube containing the trisodium phosphate. Note the flesh-colored precipitate of manganese phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 286 Preparation Or Magnesium Phosphate

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Magnesium sulfate, trisodium phosphate and two test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of trisodium phosphate in a test tube half full of water. Dissolve one measure of magnesium sulphate

141


142 PHOSPHORUS

in another test tube containing the same amount of water. Mix the above solutions together. The white precipitate is magnesium phosphate.

In most cases, whenever a dilute acid is added to a phosphate, the phosphate dissolves completely, and a clear solution remains.

EXPERIMENT N0. 287 Preparation Of Nickel Phosphate

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, trisodium phosphate, two test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of trisodium phosphate in a test tube half full of water. Dissolve one measure of nickel chloride in a second test tube containing an equal amount of water. The pale blue precipitate is nickel phosphate.

EXPERIMENT N0. 288 Testing For The Solubility Of Nickel Phosphate

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, trisodium phosphate, hydrochloric acid and two test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Prepare nickel phosphate as explained in the preceding experiment. Add four drops of hydrochloric acid.

SUMMARY: Note how the precipitate dissolves. The solution now consists of nickel chloride and phosphoric acid.

EXPERIMENT No. 289 Preparation Of Manganese Phosphate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Manganese sulfate, trisodium phosphate and two test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place one measure of trisodium phosphate in a test tube half full of water and shake to dissolve. Put two measures of manganese sulfate in a second test tube half full of water and shake to dissolve. Use heat if necessary. Allow solution to cool. When cool, add a few drops of the trisodium phosphate solution and note the pinkish-white precipitate of manganese phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 290 Precipitating Strontium Phosphate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 289 substituting strontium chloride for manganese sulfate. The precipitate will be strontium phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 291 Preparing Ferrous Phosphate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 289 substituting ferrous ammonium sulfate for manganese sulfate. The greenish-white precipitate will be ferrous phosphate.

LIONEL CHEM-LAB 143

manufacture of sodium-lithium phosphate

This photograph shows one of the large vats at the American Potash and Chemical Company plant in which sodium-lithium phosphate is prepared.

EXPERIMENT No. 292 Preparation Of Ferric Phosphate

(CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 289 substituting ferric chloride for manganese sulfate. The yellowish-white precipitate will be ferric phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 293 Precipitating Chromium Phosphate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 289 substituting chrome alum for manganese sulfate. The precipitate will be chromium phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 294 Another Way To Make Ferric Phosphate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 289 substituting ferric ammonium sulfate for manganese sulfate. The precipitate will be ferric phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 295 Precipitating Copper Phosphate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 289 substituting copper sulfate for manganese sulfate. The precipitate will be copper phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 296 Copper Phosphate Soluble In Acid

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Copper sulfate, trisodium phosphate, dilute hydrochloric acid and two test tubes.

144 PH0SPHORUS

Repeat Experiment No. 295 and add a few drops of hydrochloric acid to the precipitate.  Note how readily it dissolves.

EXPERIMENT No. 297 Preparation of Sodium Cobalt Phosphate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Cobalt chloride, trisodium phosphate, charcoal bloch, pen knife, alcohol lamp, blowpipe.

PROCEDURE: Make a dent in the charcoal block and place one quarter measure of trisodium phosphate in it. Moisten the trisodium with a drop or so of cobalt chloride solution.  Direct the flame from the blowpipe directly on the mixture. Note the blue mass formed when the cobalt reacts to form cobalt phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 298 Precipitating Cobalt Phosphate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 289 substituting cobalt chloride for manganese sulfate. The blue precipitate will be cobalt phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 299 Precipitating Calcium Phosphate

( CL-55, CL-66, CL77)

Repeat Experiment No. 289 substituting calcium chloride for manganese sulfate. The precipitate will be calcium phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 300 A Test for a Phosphate in Solution

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Trisodium phosphate, ammonium molybdate, hydrochloric acid, two test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve two measures of trisodium phosphate in a test tube half full of water. Add two drops of hydrochloric acid. Dissolve one measure of ammonium molybdate in another test tube. Mix the two solutions. Note the yellow precipitate of ammonium phosphomolybdate.

EXPERIMENT No. 301 Chromium Phosphate Soluble in Acid

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Chrome alum, trisodium phosphate, dilute hydrochloric acid and two test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place one measure of trisodium phosphate in a test tube half full of water and shake to dissolve.  Put two measures of chrome alum into another test tube half full of water and shake to dissolve.  Pour into this a few drops of trisodium phosphate solution.  Note the faint blue precipitate which dissolves completely when the hydrochloric acid is added.


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 145

EXPERIMENT No, 302 Precipitating Aluminum Phosphate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 289 substituting aluminum sulfate for manganese sulfate. The white precipitate will be aluminum phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 303 Preparation of Complex Salt

(C-L66, CL-47)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, trisodium phosphate, ammonium hydroxide, two test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Prepare a precipitate of nickel phosphate as explained in Experiment No. 287. Add ammonium hydroxide until the precipitate dissolves.

SUMMARY: Note color of the solution. This solution contains a complex salt, that is, a compound of nickel, ammonia and phosphorus. The chemical name is nickel ammonium phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 304- Strontium Phosphate is Suluble in Acids

(CL-55, CL-66, CL47)

APPARATUS: Strontium chloride, trisodium phosphate, hydrochloric acid and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Prepare a precipitate of strontium phosphate as explained in Experiment No. 290. Add some hydrochloric acid. Note how an acid reacts with strontium phosphate forming a weaker acid called phosphoric acid.

EXPERIMENT No. 305 Testing for Phosphates with Magnesium

(CL-47)

APPARATUS: Trisodium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, ammonium hydroxide, ammonium chloride and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Prepare some magnesium mixture as described in Experiment No. 389. Dissolve one measure of trisodium phosphate in a test tube half full of water. Add some magnesium mixture to this solution. Note the crystalline precipitate. Magnesium mixture is used to test for the presence of phosphates in a solution.

EXPERIMENT No. 306 Another Way to Make Strontium Phosphate

( CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 289 substituting strontium nitrate for manganese sulfate. The precipitate will be strontium phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 307 Testing for a Base Reaction

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)
APPARATUS: Trisodium phosphate, phenolphthalein, test tubes.


146 PHOSPHORUS

PROCEDURE: Dissolve a measure of trisodium phosphate in a test tube half full of water. Add two drops of phenolphthalein solution. Note the reaction.

SUMMARY: Since trisodium phosphate is composed of a weak acid (phosphoric acid) and a strong base (sodium hydroxide) the solution will be basic to the phenolphthalein solution (or form a pink color).

EXPERIMENT No. 308 Preparation Of Manganese Ammonium Phosphate

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Ammonium hydroxide, trisodium phosphate, manganese sulfate and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Prepare a precipitate of manganese phosphate as explained in Experiment No. 285. Add some ammonium hydroxide. When ammonium hydroxide is added to a precipitate of manganese phosphate, a complex salt (manganese ammonium phosphate hydrated) is formed.

EXPERIMENT No. 309 Cobalt Phosphate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 289 substituting cobalt chloride for manganese sulfate. The lavender blue precipitate will be cobalt phosphate.

EXPERIMENT No. 310 Solubility Of Magnesium Phosphate

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Trisodium phosphate, magnesium sulfate, hydrochloric acid and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Prepare a precipitate of magnesium phosphate as explained in Experiment No. 286. Add a few drops of hydrochloric acid and note that the precipitate dissolves.

ANTIMONY

Antimony is really a member of the nitrogen family along with phosphorus, arsenic and bismuth. These elements are so classified because of the similarity in their chemical behavior to nitrogen.

Antimony is a silvery, brittle solid having certain properties common to metals and yet, in some respects it is like a non-metal.

Stibnite, supplied in Lionel Chem-Lab, is a widely-distributed sulfide mineral which serves as the source for antimony. Commercially, antimony is primarily valuable as an alloying metal. Because it expands when it solidifies, it is used with lead and tin to make type metal. Thus it gives printed letters a distinct and sharp appearance. Antimony is also used in making Babbitt's metal, a non-friction alloy.


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 147

EXPERIMENT No. 311 Preparation Of Antimony

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Stibnite, hydrochloric acid, zinc, test tube.

PROCEDURE: Mix in a test tube half a measure of zinc, one measure of stibnite and six drops of hydrochloric acid. The black precipitate is antimony.

EXPERIMENT No. 312 Preparation Or Antimonyl Chloride

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Stibnite, hydrochloric acid, test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place one measure of stibnite and five drops of hydrochloric acid in a test tube. Shake test tube well for a few minutes then pour the liquid into a test tube three quarters full of water. Note the white precipitate.

SUMMARY: A solution of antimony in water forms a white precipitate, antimonyl chloride.

EXPERIMENT No. 313 Testing Stibnite For Antimony

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Stibnite, test tube and hydrochloric acid.

PROCEDURE: Place a measure of stibnite in a test tube one quarter full of water. Add four drops of hydrochloric acid. Shake test tube and note color of solution.

SUMMARY: If the solution forms an orange precipitate, antimony is present.

EXPERIMENT No. 314 Testing For Sulfide In Stibnite

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Stibnite, hydrochloric acid, test tube.

PROCEDURE: Place one measure of stibnite and five drops of hydrochloric acid in a test tube. Shake test tube well for about one minute. Cautiously smell the odor in the test tube.

SUMMARY: If the gas smells like rotten eggs, a sulfide is present in stibnite. (Hydrochloric acid and stibnite made hydrogen sulfide gas).

EXPERIMENT No. 315 Staining Silver With Stibnite

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Stibnite, hydrochloric acid, silver coin and test tube.

PROCEDURE: Place one measure of stibnite and six drops of hydrochloric acid in a test tube. Place the silver coin at the mouth of the test tube for a few minutes then remove it and note that a black coating is formed on the coin.

148 PHOSPHORUS

SUMMARY: Stibnite is a mineral consisting of antimony and sulfide, therefore, upon the addition of hydrochloric acid the stibnite decomposes forming antimony chloride and hydrogen sulfide. The hydrogen sulfide reacts with the silver coin to form a black stain of silver sulfide.

EXPERIMENT No. 316 Staining Copper With Stibnite

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Stibnite, hydrochloric acid, copper coin and test tube.

PROCEDURE: Place one measure of stibnite and six drops of hydrochloric acid in a test tube. Place the copper coin at the mouth of the test tube for a few minutes then remove it and note that a black coating is formed on the coin.

EXPERIMENT No. 317 Making An Iron Nail Black

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Iron nail, stibnite, hydrochloric acid and test tube.

PROCEDURE: Place one measure of stibnite, six drops of hydrochloric acid and a clean iron nail in a test tube. Shake test tube for a minute then remove nail and note the color. Stibnite and hydrochloric acid stain iron black.
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