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  Lionel Chem-Lab - Chapter 24

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NOTE:  This book was published in 1942 as a manual to accompany several Lionel Chemistry sets of the time.  While some of the experiments and activities here may be safely done as written, a number of them use chemicals and methods no longer considered safe.  In addition, much of the information contained in this book about chemistry and other subjects is outdated and some of it is inaccurate.  Therefore, this book is probably best appreciated for its historical value rather than as a source for current information and good experiments.  If you try anything here, please understand that you do so at your own risk.  See our Terms of Use.
Pages 244 - 255

CHAPTER XXIV

OTHER INDUSTRIES

GLUE, CEMENT AND MUCILAGE

An adhesive is a sticky substance, such as glue or mucilage, which can be applied to a surface and cause it to adhere to another surface. Dextrin (obtained from starch) and gum arabic are used to manufacture the gum used on envelopes and stamps.

There are several types of glue all of which are derivatives of vegetable and animal matter. Fish glue is made from refuse fish stock. Animal and bone glues come from bones, hoofs and horns. The process of manufacture consists of boiling the matter after it has been chemically softened by an alkali, then drying the resulting solution.

Billboard posters are applied with a starch paste.

EXPERIMENT No. 631 Preparation Of Starch Paste

(CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Calcium chloride, powdered starch, test tube, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Place twelve measures of powdered starch in a test tube one quarter filled with water and shake thoroughly. Put two measures of calcium chloride in another test tube half full of boiling water. Add the starch solution and let it boil for a few more minutes, then cool it. This will make a very good starch paste which you can preserve, if you wish, by adding a few drops of carbolic acid.

EXPERIMENT No. 632 Preparation Of Flour Paste

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Calcium chloride and white flour.

PROCEDURE: Mix ten measures of white flour and three measures of calcium chloride in a test tube. Fill the tube half full of water and boil for a few minutes. Discontinue heating as soon as the mixture forms a paste. Preserve by adding a few drops of carbolic acid.  This is the kind of paste that paper hangers use.

EXPERIMENT No. 633 A Cement For Blue China

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium silicate solution, copper sulfate, mortar and pestle, pieces of blue china.

244 


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 245

PROCEDURE: Put two measures of copper sulfate in your mortar. Mix in a few drops of sodium silicate solution to make a paste. Apply an even coat to both surfaces of the china pieces. Set aside to harden.

EXPERIMENT No. 634 A Cement For White China And Porcelain

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Calcium carbonate, sodium silicate solution, mortar and pestle, pieces of white china or porcelain.

PROCEDURE: Place two measures of calcium carbonate in your mortar. Add a few drops of sodium silicate solution and mix well to make a paste. Apply a line coat of cement to both surfaces of the china or porcelain pieces and press them together tightly. Clean off any excess cement and allow to harden for a day or two.

EXPERIMENT No. 635 A Cement to Mend Metal Vessels

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Powdered iron, ammonium chloride, sulfur, mortar and pestle, a leaky metal container.

PROCEDURE: Put two measures of sulfur, ten measures of powdered iron and two measures of ammonium chloride in your mortar. Add several drops of water, enough to form a thick paste. Press the paste firmly over the opening or crack in the vessel. Allow to stand for a day. Heat the vessel over a stove for a few moments.

EXPERIMENT No. 636 How “Rubber Cement” Is Made

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Carbon tetrachloride, rubber scraps, test tube and cork or cotton.

PROCEDURE: Put into a dry test tube a few small pieces of scrap photo engravers to cement paper and cardboard together because it Close the test tube with your thumb and shake vigorously. Stopper the tube with a cork or wad of cotton and set aside, occasionally shaking the tube. Note in due time the resulting thick substance.

SUMMARY: Rubber cement is used by artists, photographers and photo-engravers to cement paper and cardboard together because it does not wrinkle or leave any stains. Using a dry lump of the material like an eraser, you can completely clean any surplus cement from around the edges of the job.

EXPERIMENT No. 637 Sodium Silicate Cement

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium silicate solution, two small pieces of broken glass, a small brush and a small piece of cloth.

PROCEDURE: Apply a thin film of sodium silicate solution to the edges of the glass. Allow to dry for a few seconds, then press the,


246 OTHER INDUSTRIES 

pieces tightly together. Clean off the excess with a damp cloth and allow to harden for at least one day. In addition to cementing broken glass, sodium silicate can also be used to cement paper and cardboard.

EXPERIMENT No. 638 Making Glue From Lime And Egg-white

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Two pieces of broken crockery, egg, mortar and pestle, and calcium oxide.

PROCEDURE: Place a small amount of egg-white in your mortar. Add a sufficient quantity of calcium oxide to make a substantial paste. Apply quickly to the edges of the broken crockery and press tightly together. Note how quickly the cement hardens.

EXPERIMENT No. 639 How To Make Mucilage From Gum Arabic 

(CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Gum arabic, test tube, alcohol lamp or candle. 

PROCEDURE: Place six measures of gum arabic in a test tube half full of water and allow to stand overnight. Heat contents carefully until the gum arabic dissolves completely. Note the adhesive properties of gum arabic. Preserve if necessary by adding a few drops of carbolic acid.

EXPERIMENT No. 640 Preparation Of Postage Stamp Mucilage

(CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Gum arabic, sugar, starch, test tube, piece of paper, brush, candle or alcohol lamp.

PROCEDURE: Place two measures of gum arabic, eight measures of sugar and two measures of starch in a test tube half full of water. Allow the mixture to stand for several hours. Boil for a few minutes and then allow to cool. Apply with a brush to a piece of paper and allow to dry. Moisten mucilage as you would a postage stamp when ready to attach to some surface. This mucilage is similar to that used by our government in making postage stamps.

TANNING AND THE LEATHER INDUSTRY

Leather is made from the skins of various animals by the process known as tanning. This process consists of first removing the hair by the use of lime, then washing with a weak acid. Tannic acid, or tannin, obtained from the bark of the hemlock tree and other woods is then applied to change the skin slowly into leather.

EXPERIMENT No. 641 How To Make Nickel Tannate

(CL-66, CL-77)


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 247


APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, tannic acid and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of tannic acid in a test tube one quarter full of water. Dissolve one measure of nickel chloride in another test tube containing the same amount of water. Add tannic acid solution and note the pale green precipitate. This precipitate is nickel tannate.

EXPERIMENT No. 642 How To Make Molybdenum Tannate

(CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 641 substituting ammonium molybdate for nickel chloride. Ammonium molybdate in the presence of tannic acid forms a rust colored solution.

EXPERIMENT No. 643 How To Make Tungsten Tannate

(CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 641 substituting one half measure of sodium tungstate for nickel chloride. The yellow precipitate will be tungsten tannate.

EXPERIMENT No. 644 How Copper Tannate Is Formed

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 641 substituting copper sulfate for nickel chloride. The precipitate will be copper tannate.

EXPERIMENT No. 645 How Ferric Tannate Is Formed

(CL-11, CL•22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 641 substituting ferric ammonium sulfate for nickel chloride. The ferric breaks away from the ammonium sulfate and unites with the tannic acid to form the black precipitate of ferric tannate.

EXPERIMENT No. 646 How To Make Ferrous Tannate

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 641 substituting ferrous ammonium sulfate for nickel chloride. The greenish black precipitate will be ferrous tannate.

EXPERIMENT No. 647 Formation Or Chromium Tannate

(CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 641 substituting chrome alum for nickel chloride. The green precipitate will be chromium tannate.

248 OTHER INDUSTRIES 

EXPERIMENT No. 648 Formation Of Cobalt Tannate

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 641 substituting cobalt chloride for nickel chloride. The pink precipitate will be cobalt tannate.

EXPERIMENT No. 649 How Hemlock Bark Is Tested For Tannic Acid

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Hemlock bark, ferric ammonium sulfate, two test tubes, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Boil two small pieces of hemlock bark for five minutes in a test tube half full of water. Pour off the clear liquid into another test tube. Add a quarter measure of ferric ammonium sulfate. Note the black color.

SUMMARY: The black precipitate indicates the presence of tannic acid in the bark.

EXPERIMENT No. 650 Tannic Acid In Tea

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Tea leaves, two test tubes, ferric ammonium sulfate, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Boil two measures of tea leaves in a test tube one quarter full of water. Pour off the clear liquid into another test tube. Add a quarter measure of ferric ammonium sulfate and note the reaction.

EXPERIMENT No. 651 How To Test Chestnut Bark For Tannic Acid

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Ferric ammonium sulfate, two test tubes, candle or alcohol lamp, chestnut bark.

PROCEDURE: Boil two measures of chestnut bark in a test tube half full of water. Pour the liquid into another test tube. Add a quarter measure of ferric ammonium sulfate and note that the same reaction occurs as in the preceding experiment.

EXPERIMENT No. 652 How To Test Sumac Wood For Tannic Acid

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 651 substituting a small piece of sumac wood for chestnut bark. Inasmuch as sumac wood also contains tannic acid, the reaction will be a black precipitate.

EXPERIMENT No. 653 How To Test Oak For Tannic Acid

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 651 substituting oak bark for chestnut bark. This bark also contains tannic acid, the reaction will be a black precipitate.


LIONEL CHEM-LAB  249

EXPERIMENT No. 654 How Persimmon Is Tested For Tannic Acid

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 651 substituting green persimmon for chestnut bark. Persimmon contains tannic acid, the reaction will be a black precipitate.

EXPERIMENT No. 655 Tannic Acid And Albumen

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Tannic acid, albumen (white of egg), and two test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Add a few drops of albumen to a test tube half full of water. Dissolve one measure of tannic acid in another test tube half full of water. Slowly add this solution to the albumen solution and note the precipitate. Skins contain albumen which reacts with tannic acid to make a durable leather.

BLUEPRINTING

Blueprinting is the process by which an original pen or pencil drawing made on translucent paper can be reproduced merely by exposing the original over a specially sensitized paper to a strong light.

After exposure, the print is developed by dipping it into water and the portion of the blueprint paper exposed to the light becomes dark blue, while the unexposed portion (the part directly under the black lines on the original) becomes white due to the action of the water on the chemical. This gives a copy, consisting of a white line on a blue background, exactly corresponding to the original.

EXPERIMENT No. 656 Making A Blueprint

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Blueprint paper (store), tracing paper or small flat key, paper clip.

PROCEDURE: Place a key (or a piece of tracing paper on which something has been drawn with black ink) against the sheet of blueprint paper. Hold tightly against the blueprint paper with a paper clip. Expose this paper to bright sunlight for several minutes. Remove the original and dip the blueprint into water. Allow to dry and note the result.

SUMMARY: The silhouette of the key or the drawing is printed on the blueprint paper. The light has not been able to penetrate through the key or the lines on the drawing but has affected the blueprint paper not covered by them. The exposed portion of the print paper becomes blue while the unaffected portion remains white because the water washes away the chemical on the unexposed areas.


250 OTHER INDUSTRIES

PHOTOGRAPHY

There are two main steps in making a photograph: (1) making the negative and (2) making the print.

To make a negative, you must first expose a sensitized film (or glass plate) to light, then develop it in a dark room, and finally "fix" the resulting negative so that additional light rays do not affect it.

Photographic film is coated with silver bromide. Exposing a film to the light, therefore, starts the reduction of the silver bromide. A mild reducing agent as a developer continues the reduction process begun by the action of the light.

Sodium thiosulfate, or "hypo" used as a fixer, dissolves the unchanged silver salt so the film does not darken again when exposed to the light.

A print is made from a negative film simply by exposing some sensitized paper so that the light rays must first pass through the film to reach the paper which is then developed and fixed in the same way as the film.

EXPERIMENT No. 657 How A Photographic Print Is Made

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Proof paper (photographic supply store), negative, glass, a green light bulb.

PROCEDURE: Perform the following experiment in a room illuminated only by a dim green light. Place the dull surface of the negative, against the sensitized surface of the proof paper which should be a little larger than the negative. Place on a smooth surface with the negative uppermost and cover with a sheet of clean glass. Expose to strong sunlight until the paper projecting beyond the edge of the negative turns dark brown. Remove the glass and separate the negative from the proof paper. Examine the print.

SUMMARY: The photographic print on the paper was produced by the decomposition of silver halide which reacts and becomes black when exposed to light. However, the paper will become completely black after a time unless it is "fixed" in a bath of sodium thiosulfate.

EXPERIMENT No. 658 “Fixing” A Photographic Print With “Hypo”

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium thiosulfate, beaker or glass, stirring rod, a shallow pan.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve fifteen measures of sodium thiosulfate in a glass or beaker with a half inch of water. This solution is commonly called "hypo". Dip the photographic print made in the preceding experiment into the hypo solution for five minutes. Wash the print for several minutes in a steady stream of running water. Dry the print thoroughly by pressing it between blotters for an hour or more. Light has no effect on a print after a “hypo" bath.

LIONEL CHEM-LAB 251

uses of plastic

The upper photos show three of the many thousands of articles made today of molded plastics. That box car is not a real freight car at all, but a very accurate Lionel scale model, the body of which is entirely molded of Bakelite. The two other molded articles are a telephone index and an electric razor. The lower photo shows a scene in the General Electric plastics department where ring boxes are being molded by the injection process.


252 OTHER INDUSTRIES

EXPERIMENT No. 659 How A Photograph Is Made

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sulfur, calcium oxide, test tube, candle or alcohol lamp, saucer, photographic print.

PROCEDURE: Put one measure of sulfur and one measure of calcium oxide into a test tube half full of water. Boil for a few minutes, then pour the solution into a saucer or pan. Dip a photographic print into the pan and allow it to stand for about thirty minutes. Remove the print and wash thoroughly under running water.

SUMMARY: This process converts the silver to silver sulfide which imparts a reddish-brown color to the print.

PLASTICS

In the ordinary sense "plastic" means “capable of being molded or modeled, as clay," and, no doubt, the earliest plastic material was the primitive potter’s clay. Broadly speaking, rubber, clay, glass, Portland cement, and other materials may be classified as plastics. However, the term "modern plastics" is generally applied to a group of synthetic organic materials which are made plastic by the use of heat and are capable of being molded or pressed into finished parts and products.

RUBBER

One of the most important materials supplied to us by nature is rubber, sometimes called "black gold" because of its commercial value. First brought to the attention of the civilized world by Columbus, who found the natives of Haiti playing with a rubber ball, this material is now used for literally thousands of purposes and is the basis of an industry which does a billion-dollar business annually.

While hundreds of different trees, weeds and vines contain rubber, none equals in quality and quantity that obtained from the milky juice of the Hevea tree, native to the equatorial jungles of Brazil. However, 96% of our supplies of crude rubber come from the East Indies where the British and Dutch have transplanted and cultivated the seed of the wild Brazilian trees.

Rubber trees are tapped to obtain the “milk", or latex, which flows from the trees and is collected in cups and buckets much as maple syrup is collected. The rubber particles in the latex can then be separated from the liquid by the use of acetic acid. This causes the rubber to coagulate. Another method, sometimes used, is to separate the rubber by evaporating off the water. Chemicals such as zinc oxide, sulfur and carbon are next compounded to this raw rubber, to make it suitable for ordinary purposes. Adding the sulfur was the invention of Goodyear who found that this


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 253

treatment prevented the rubber from being sticky and easily affected by the temperature. The name given to this process is vulcanization.

NEOPRENE

Chemists throughout the world during the past fifty years have spent many millions of dollars trying to make synthetic rubber. Although they have not succeeded in the commercial manufacture of a product identical with "real" rubber, in many respects they have done better. Using four of nature’s own raw materials, limestone, coal, salt and water, chemists are 1ow making a product known as neoprene which looks like rubber, acts like rubber, and can be used in the manufacture of practically all articles for which rubber is now used.

254 OTHER INDUSTRIES

how rubber is obtained

Goodyear Rubber Company - These photos show how rubber is obtained beginning with the tapping of the tree to obtain latex, subsequent processing operations on the rubber plantation and Finally loading the crude rubber at a deep seas harbor for transportation to foreign ports.


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 255


uses of rubber

Two of the reasons why Uncle Sam’s military machine needs vast quantities of rubber are shown in the top and bottom photographs. The upper photo shows one of the new style "trackless" tanks undergoing tests while the lower photo is of a bullet-sealing airplane gasoline tank. Photo left center shows a new type of rubber mold used making costume jewelry. On right is a picture of the mill used for washing Neoprene, synthetic rubber.


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