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  Lionel Chem-Lab - Chapter 16

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NOTE:  This book was published in 1942 as a manual to accompany several Lionel Chemistry sets of the time.  While some of the experiments and activities here may be safely done as written, a number of them use chemicals and methods no longer considered safe.  In addition, much of the information contained in this book about chemistry and other subjects is outdated and some of it is inaccurate.  Therefore, this book is probably best appreciated for its historical value rather than as a source for current information and good experiments.  If you try anything here, please understand that you do so at your own risk.  See our Terms of Use.
Pages 190 - 197

OK, there is a bit of a mystery here...

The book from which these pages was reproduced jumped from Chapter 15 to Chapter 17, and omitted Chapter 16. However, the Table of Contents lists "The Copper Group" as a separate chapter, "The Copper Group" which is material actually included at the end of Chapter 15 as printed, is presumably the material that was supposed to be the missing Chapter 16.   The Science Notebook staff has noted, however, that many of the science set manuals of days gone by seemed to leave out pages or chapters, depending on which set the manual was supposed to accompany, and in some cases, you can see where some experiments were dropped from later manuals or manuals intended for use with smaller sets.

So who knows why there is a gap here, but anyway, we have chosen to call this...

CHAPTER XVI

THE COPPER GROUP

COPPER

Copper and its alloys are manís useful metals. Most of the modern inventions, that have made this the greatest age of all time, would not have been possible had it not been for copper and its many alloys. The discovery of copper, thousands of years ago, and the use of these metals through the 


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 191

flight of centuries is a most interesting story of manís progress and achievement.

EXPERIMENT No. 454 Preparation Of Copper Oxide

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, GL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Copper metal, test tube, candle or alcohol lamp.

PROCEDURE: Place one measure of copper metal in a dry test tube. Heat slowly until the metal becomes red hot. Cool and examine contents. Heat and air have oxidized the copper metal to black copper oxide.

EXPERIMENT No. 455 Copper Hydroxide

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium carbonate, calcium oxide, copper sulfate, alcohol lamp or candle, test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Prepare some sodium hydroxide solution as explained in Experiment No. 344. Dissolve two measures of copper sulfate in another test tube half full of water. Pour into this a few drops of sodium hydroxide solution and note the blue precipitate of copper hydroxide.

EXPERIMENT No. 456 Reducing Copper

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Copper sulfate, charcoal block, blowpipe and lamp.

PROCEDURE: Place a half measure of copper sulfate on the charcoal block and add two drops of water. Direct the reducing flame at the copper sulfate by means of your blowpipe. Allow the material to cool. [Carefully remove from charcoal block and place on a sheet of paper. Crush the material with the stirring rod (use mortar and pestle, if available).

SUMMARY: Copper sulfate when heated in the reducing flame forms cuprous sulfate, a white solid material.

EXPERIMENT No. 457 Detecting Copper In Brass

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: A small piece of brass, test tube holder, eye-dropper and alcohol lamp.

PROCEDURE: Hold a piece of brass in the top portion of the flame. (Use test tube holder). Heat until the metal is red hot. Note the green color of the flame. Remove brass from flame and place a few drops of water on it. Note the formation of a dark coating.

SUMMARY: The green flame is characteristic of copper, proving that brass contains copper. Additional proof is that the brass becomes coated with black copper oxide. The water aids in the process of oxidation.


192 IRON AND STEEL

EXPERIMENT No. 458 Copper In A Penny

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Copper penny, test tube holder, gas flame and an eye dropper.

PROCEDURE: Hold a bright copper penny over a gas flame until it becomes red hot. (Use your test tube holder). Note the colors in the flame. Remove penny from flame and place one or two drops of water on it. Note the black copper oxide which indicates that the coin contains copper.

EXPERIMENT No. 459 Detecting Copper In A Nickel

(CL-55. CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel coin, test tube holder, gas flame and eye dropper.

PROCEDURE: Heat a nickel coin over a gas flame until red hot. (Use test tube holder). Remove from flame and drop a few drops of water on it. Note the black formation of copper oxide which indicates that the nickel coin contains copper.

EXPERIMENT No. 460 Copper Present In A Silver Coin

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Silver coin, gas flame, eye dropper, test tube holder.

PROCEDURE: Heat a silver coin red hot in the gas flame test tube holder. Remove coin from flame and place one or two drops of water on it. Note the black coating indicating the presence of copper.

EXPERIMENT No. 461 Copper Plating By Displacement

(CL-55, CL-66. CL-77)

APPARATUS: Copper sulfate, small piece of steel, alcohol lamp or candle, test tube.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve two measures of copper sulfate in a test tube half full of water. If necessary, warm solution over flame. Drop the steel piece into the test tube and note the red coating which forms. Remove steel and rinse well.

SUMMARY: Copper is less active than iron. Therefore, iron displaces the copper from the sulfate solution.

EXPERIMENT No. 462 How To Oxidize Copper

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Potassium nitrate, test tube, candle or alcohol lamp, piece of copper wire.

PROCEDURE: Place three measures of potassium nitrate and a small piece of copper in the test tube. Heat until the crystals melt. Cool test tube. Take wire out and note its color.


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 193

SUMMARY: The red copper has been attacked by free oxygen liberated from the potassium nitrate. The black substance, therefore, is copper oxide.

NICKEL

One of the characteristics of nickel is that it does not readily oxidize in the air, and for this reason is very useful as a plated finish to protect other metals. The principal alloys of nickel are Monel metal and nichrome.

EXPERIMENT No. 463 How To Make Nickel Oxide

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66. CL-77)

APPARATUS: Potassium nitrate, test tube, candle or alcohol lamp, nickel wire.

PROCEDURE: Place three measures of potassium nitrate into a test tube and heat until the crystals begin to melt. Drop the nickel wire into the test tube, Note the oxidation. The residue is nickel oxide.

EXPERIMENT No. 464 Preparation Of Nickel Hydroxide

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, sodium carbonate, calcium oxide, test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of sodium carbonate in a test tube one half full of water. Dissolve one measure of calcium oxide. in another test tube half full of water. Pour the calcium oxide solution into the sodium carbonate and shake thoroughly. Decant the solution into a clean test tube. Dissolve one measure of nickel chloride in another test tube half full of water. Add some of the clear solution to the nickel chloride solution.

SUMMARY: In the first reaction, sodium carbonate reacts with calcium oxide to form sodium hydroxide (clear solution). This, in turn, reacts with nickel chloride to form the green precipitate, nickel
hydroxide.

EXPERIMENT No. 465 Nickel Carbonate

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, sodium carbonate and two test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve two measures of sodium carbonate in a test tube half full of water. Dissolve one measure of nickel chloride in another test tube half full of water. Pour in a few drops of the sodium carbonate solution and note the formation of a thick bright green precipitate of nickel carbonate.

EXPERIMENT No. 466 Nickel Tannate

(CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 465 substituting tannic acid for sodium car-


194 IRON AND STEEL

bonate. The light brown precipitate will be nickel tannate. 

EXPERIMENT No. 467 How To Make Nickel Sulfide

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, sodium carbonate, paraffin, sulfur, test tube, delivery tube, stopper, candle or alcohol lamp.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one half measure of nickel chloride in a test tube half full of warm water. Add one half measure of sodium carbonate and note the color of the resulting precipitate. Put a small, piece of paraffin and five measures of sulfur in a second test tube. Insert the stopper and delivery tube so that the long stem runs into the test tube containing the nickel carbonate. Heat the other test tube. Note any changes in color in the test tube collecting the gas.

SUMMARY: Sodium carbonate reacts with nickel chloride to form a green precipitate of nickel carbonate. This precipitate reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form a black precipitate of nickel sulfide.

EXPERIMENT No. 468 How To Make Nickel Ferrocyanide

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, sodium ferrocyanide and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve two measures of sodium ferrocyanide in a test tube half full of water. Dissolve one measure of nickel chloride in a test tube half full of water. Pour in a few drops of the sodium ferrocyanide solution and note the light green precipitate of nickel ferrocyanide.

EXPERIMENT No. 469. Testing Nickel Compounds

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nichrome wire, sodium borate, alcohol lamp, nickel chloride.

PROCEDURE: Make a small loop in the end of your nichrome wire and moisten it with water. Place two measures of sodium borate on a clean sheet of paper. Dip the wet wire into the sodium borate, then heat the chemical over a flame. Place one half measure of nickel chloride on a sheet of paper. Dip the hot wire containing the borate into the nickel chloride. Reheat using the blowpipe if necessary. Remove wire from flame and note that nickel forms a brown colored borate bead.

EXPERIMENT No. 470 Nickel Phosphate In Acids

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, trisodium phosphate, hydrochloric acid, test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of trisodium phosphate in a test tube half full of water. Dissolve a half measure of nickel chloride in another test tube containing one inch of water. Pour the nickel


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 195

chloride solution into the trisodium phosphate. Note the precipitate of nickel phosphate. Add four drops of hydrochloric acid and note that the precipitate dissolves.

EXPERIMENT No. 471 Preparation Of Nickel Phosphate

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, trisodium phosphate and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of nickel chloride in a test tube half full of Water. Dissolve one measure of trisodium phosphate in another test tube half full of water. Add some trisodium phosphate to the nickel chloride and note that a thick green precipitate forms.

EXPERIMENT No. 472 Preparation Of Nickel Borate

(GL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, sodium borate and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve two measures of nickel chloride in a test tube half full of water. Dissolve one measure of sodium borate in another test tube half full of water. Add the sodium borate solution to the nickel chloride. The thick green precipitate is nickel borate.

EXPERIMENT No. 473 Nickel Tungstate

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, test tube, sodium tungstate.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of nickel chloride in a test tube one quarter full of water. Dissolve one measure of sodium tungstate in another test tube one quarter full of water. Add a few drops of this solution to the nickel chloride to form a pale green precipitate of nickel tungstate.

EXPERIMENT No. 474 Nickel Phosphate In Ammonia

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, trisodium phosphate, ammonium chloride, test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of trisodium phosphate in a test tube half full of water. Dissolve one half measure of nickel chloride in another test tube one quarter full of water. Add six drops of trisodium phosphate to the nickel chloride solution. Note the thick green precipitate formed. Dissolve one measure of ammonium chloride in another test tube half full of water. Add the ammonium chloride to the precipitate and note that the precipitate dissolves.

EXPERIMENT No. 475 Testing The Solubility Of Nickel

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Nickel chloride, test tube, candle or alcohol lamp.


196 IRON AND STEEL 

PROCEDURE: Dissolve six measures of nickel chloride in a test tube one quarter full of water. Shake vigorously holding your thumb over the mouth of the test tube and note whether the solid dissolves entirely. Heat carefully for a short while and again note whether the chemical has dissolved. Solubility of certain solids increases with an increase in temperature.

COBALT 

Cobalt and nickel are usually found together in the same ore. Both metals are silvery-white and are used principally in making alloys. Cobalt and chromium, for example, when alloyed together are used in cutlery and machine tools. Cobalt chloride, supplied in Lionel Chem-Lab, is used in making sympathetic ink, barometers, paint used on glass and porcelain, as an absorbent for poison gas, and ammonia.

EXPERIMENT No. 476 Cobalt Hydroxide

(CL-83, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Cobalt chloride, sodium carbonate, calcium oxide, test tube, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Prepare sodium hydroxide solution as explained in Experiment No. 344. Dissolve two measures of cobalt chloride in a test tube half full of water. Pour into this a few drops of the sodium hydroxide solution and note that the blue precipitate which forms and later changes to red. The blue precipitate is cobalt hydroxide.

EXPERIMENT No. 477 Efflorescent Cobalt Chloride

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Cobalt chloride, heating spoon, candle or alcohol lamp, stirring rod.

PROCEDURE: Place two measures of cobalt chloride in the heating spoon. Note the normal color of the material. Heat gently until it becomes blue. Add a drop of water and again note color.

SUMMARY: Cobalt chloride when heated, dehydrates and turns blue. Adding a drop of water causes the original pinkish color to return. Thus the water of crystallization has been taken up again.

EXPERIMENT No. 478 Converting Cobaltous Hydroxide

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Cobalt chloride, ammonium hydroxide, test tube and alcohol lamp. 

PROCEDURE: Place one measure of cobalt chloride in a test tube half full of water. Add four drops of ammonium hydroxide. Note the blue precipitate. Heat the precipitate and note the color of the precipitate formed. The blue cobaltous hydroxide was converted by heat to brown-black cobaltic hydroxide.
 

LIONEL CHEM-LAB 197

EXPERIMENT No. 479 Cobalt Color Reactions

(CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium carbonate, calcium oxide, cobalt chloride, filter paper, funnel and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of sodium carbonate in a test tube half full of water. Dissolve one half measure of calcium oxide in another test tube one quarter full of water. Mix the two solutions and filter into a clean test tube. Place one measure of cobalt chloride in another test tube half full of water. Add some filtrate to this solution. Note the color transformations which are produced by the reaction of cobalt chloride with sodium hydroxide.
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