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  Lionel Chem-Lab - Chapter 19

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NOTE:  This book was published in 1942 as a manual to accompany several Lionel Chemistry sets of the time.  While some of the experiments and activities here may be safely done as written, a number of them use chemicals and methods no longer considered safe.  In addition, much of the information contained in this book about chemistry and other subjects is outdated and some of it is inaccurate.  Therefore, this book is probably best appreciated for its historical value rather than as a source for current information and good experiments.  If you try anything here, please understand that you do so at your own risk.  See our Terms of Use.
Pages 205 - 210


CHAPTER XIX

PAINTS, LACQUERS AND VARNISHES

Paint is generally defined as a mixture of a pigment, in the form of a very fine powder, with a liquid element called a vehicle, or binder, of such a nature that the mixture can be spread out in a thin coating that will dry hard. Excluding the special paints known as enamels, paint is usually considered to require a "drying oil" as the liquid part or vehicle. This is an oil which does not become dry by evaporation, but by chemical combination with the oxygen of the air.

Very few liquids are known which are suitable as a vehicle. Linseed oil is by far the most important drying oil known, although two or three similar vegetable oils give some promise. Linseed oil binds the paint particles together. For this reason, it is important that a high quality vehicle be used.

The armor of the painted surface is the pigment, or powder particles, which the binder holds together. Many pigments are in use today, such as carbon for black paint, earth pigments for certain yellows and browns, and various chemical compounds for other yellows, blues, reds, etc. Also, we have white pigments, for service not only where white paint is desired, but as a base for the delicate tints. The most popular white pigments are white lead (basic lead carbonate or basic lead sulfate), zinc oxide, zinc sulfide, litopone (a combination of zinc sulfide and barium sulfate), and titanium.

EXPERIMENT No. 498 Vehicle For Water-colors

(CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Gum arabic, stirring rod and tumbler.

PROCEDURE: Place four or five measures of gum arabic in a tumbler one quarter full of water. Set this mixture aside for several hours and then stir it thoroughly. Note that the gum arabic dissolves forming a gummy liquid. Preserve this by adding a few drops of carbolic acid.


EXPERIMENT No. 499 Making Brown Water-Color Paint
(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Ferric ammonium sulfate, sodium carbonate, gum arabic solution, test tube, filter paper, funnel, mortar and pestle.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of ferric ammonium sulfate in a test tube one third full of water. Dissolve two measures of sodium carbonate into another test tube one third full of water. Mix the two

205


206 PAINTS AND VARNISHES 

solutions. Filter and remove the precipitate from the filter paper. Place the precipitate in the mortar and grind together with a few drops of gum arabic solution.

SUMMARY: When sodium carbonate is mixed with ferric ammonium sulfate in the presence of water, a brown precipitate of ferric hydroxide forms. This can be used as a pigment and when mixed with gum
arabic solution forms a brown water color paint.

EXPERIMENT No. 500 Making Black Water-color Paint

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Logwood, ferrous ammonium sulfate, sodium carbonate, gum arabic solution and mortar and pestle. 

PROCEDURE: Boil two measures of logwood in a test tube half full of water. Add one measure of ferrous ammonium sulfate and shake well. Carefully pour off the clear solution into another test tube and add two measures of sodium carbonate. Shake well and note the formation of a black precipitate. Filter and remove the precipitate from the filter paper. Place the precipitate in the mortar and mix it with some gum arabic solution.

SUMMARY: The black precipitate is a lake. When this lake is mixed with gum arabic solution, a fine, black, water-color paint is formed.

EXPERIMENT No. 501 PRUSSIAN BLUE PAINT

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Ferric ammonium sulfate, sodium ferrocyanide, funnel, filter paper, gum arabic, stirring rod, tumbler, mortar and pestle, test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place six measures of gum arabic in a tumbler about one-quarter full of water. Set aside for several hours, then stir thoroughly. Dissolve three measures of sodium ferrocyanide in a test tube one quarter full of water. Dissolve three measures of ferric ammonium sulfate in another test tube one quarter full of water. Add sodium ferrocyanide solution to the ferric ammonium sulfate until a precipitate forms. Filter the solution. Remove the precipitate from the filter paper and place it in the mortar, then add a few drops of gum arabic solution. Grind this mixture well.

SUMMARY: The precipitate which results from mixing ferric ammonium sulfate and sodium ferrocyanide is known as Prussian blue. When this pigment is mixed with the gum arabic vehicle, Prussian
blue paint is formed.

EXPERIMENT No. 502 Making Purple Water-Color Paint

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Logwood, aluminum sulfate, sodium carbonate, test tube, gum arabic solution, mortar and pestle.


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 207

PROCEDURE: Boil two measures of logwood in a test tube half full of water. Add one measure of aluminum sulfate and shake well. Pour off the clear solution into another test tube. Add two measures of sodium carbonate and shake well. Note the purple precipitate. Filter the solution and remove the precipitate from the filter paper. Place the precipitate in the mortar and mix with some gum arabic solution prepared in a previous experiment.

SUMMARY: The purple precipitate is the lake and when mixed as a pigment with the gum arabic vehicle, a purple water color paint results.

EXPERIMENT No. 503 Making Blue Water-color Paint

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Copper sulfate, gum arabic, stirring rod, tumbler, mortar and pestle.

PROCEDURE: Place six measures of gum arabic in a tumbler one quarter full of water. Set aside for several hours, then stir thoroughly. Mix several drops of this solution and five measures of copper sulfate in the mortar.

SUMMARY: When a pigment such as copper sulfate is mixed with a vehicle, a blue water-color paint is formed.

EXPERIMENT No. 504 Making Carmine Water-color Paint

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium carbonate, aluminum sulfate, cochineal, gum arabic solution.

PROCEDURE: Heat two measures of cochineal in a test tube half full of water. Add one measure of aluminum sulfate and shake well. Filter the red solution into a clean test tube. Add one measure of sodium carbonate to the red solution and shake thoroughly. Note the red precipitate, then filter the solution. Remove precipitate from filter paper and place it in the tumbler mixing with it a few drops of gum arabic solution prepared in a previous experiment.

SUMMARY: The product is a carmine-red water-color paint.

EXPERIMENT No. 505 Black Water-color Paint

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Charcoal, gum arabic solution, mortar and pestle.

PROCEDURE: Place five or six measures of charcoal in your mortar and add four or five drops of gum arabic solution. Grind contents well and note the black colored paint.

EXPERIMENT No. 506 Making Black Water-Color

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Tannic acid, ferric ammonium sulfate, gum arabic solution, mortar and pestle.


208  PAINTS AND VARNISHES

PROCEDURE: Mix three measures of tannic acid and an equal amount of ferric ammonium sulfate in the mortar. Pour in three or four drops of gum arabic solution and grind for several minutes. 

SUMMARY: Tannic acid reacts with ferric ammonium sulfate to form iron tannate and when this pigment is mixed with gum arabic solution, a black water-color paint is obtained.

EXPERIMENT No. 507 Making White Terra Alba Water-color

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Calcium sulfate, gum arabic solution, mortar and pestle.

PROCEDURE: Grind a few drops of gum arabic solution and five measures of calcium sulfate in your mortar. When calcium sulfate is mixed with gum arabic solution, a white paint, often referred to as a terra alba water-color, results.

EXPERIMENT No. 508 Paris White

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Calcium carbonate, gum arabic solution, mortar and pestle.

PROCEDURE: Place five measures of calcium carbonate in the mortar. Add two or three drops of gum arabic solution. Grind well and note the chalky precipitate.

SUMMARY: Calcium carbonate is referred to as Paris white when used as a pigment for paints. The chalky precipitate results from mixing Paris white with gum arabic solution.

EXPERIMENT No. 509 Preparing Whitewash

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Calcium oxide, gum arabic solution, mortar and pestle.

PROCEDURE: Pour three or four drops of water into the mortar containing three measures of calcium oxide. Grind well to form a thin paste. Add a few drops of gum arabic solution. The thin paste can be used as a whitewash but in order to provide a more adhesive quality a little gum arabic solution is added.

EXPERIMENT No. 510 Testing Water-colors For Carbonates

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Water color paints, vinegar, heating spoon, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Place six drops of water and four drops of water-color paint in the heating spoon. Heat carefully, removing from flame when the substance starts to turn white. Allow to cool, then add three drops of vinegar and note if bubbles appear in the solution. If a 


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 209

bubbling reaction takes place, a carbonate is present because we have, already proved that when an acid is added to a carbonate, carbon dioxide gas is liberated.

EXPERIMENT No. 511 Testing Paints For Lead

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Paint, paraffin, sulfur, small piece of board, test tube, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Paint a small board white. Prepare some hydrogen sulfide gas as explained in Experiment No. 233. Allow the gas to come in contact with the paint on the board. Note whether a black spot occurs.

SUMMARY: Hydrogen sulfide gas reacts with any substance containing lead to form lead sulfide.

EXPERIMENT No. 512 A Green Paint

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Tannic acid, sodium chromate, copper sulfate, ammonium hydroxide and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place one measure of tannic acid, one measure of copper sulfate, one half measure of sodium chromate and three drops of ammonium hydroxide in a test tube one quarter full of water. Shake the test tube thoroughly to dissolve the chemicals. Tannic acid, sodium chromate and copper sulfate form a yellowish-green paint. When ammonium hydroxide is added, the color is converted to a beautiful green.

EXPERIMENT No. 513 A Chocolate-brown Paint

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium chromate, tannic acid, magnesium sulfate and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place one measure of tannic acid, one measure of magnesium sulfate and a half measure of sodium chromate in a test tube one quarter full of water. Shake test tube to dissolve all chemicals. Note the chocolate brown color.

EXPERIMENT No. 514 Chrome-yellow Paint

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium chromate, tannic acid, test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve two measures of tannic acid in a test tube one quarter full of water. Add one half measure of sodium chromate, Shake until the chromate dissolves. Chromate imparts a yellow color to the paint. Color some pictures and note the body and brilliancy of this paint.


210 PAINTS AND VARNISHES

EXPERIMENT No. 515 Yellowish-Green Paint

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Tannic acid, copper sulfate, sodium chromate and test tube.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of tannic acid, one measure of copper sulfate and one half measure of sodium chromate in a test tube one quarter full of water. Shake test tube thoroughly to dissolve the materials.

EXPERIMENT No. 516 A Two-Color Paint

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Ammonium hydroxide, sodium chromate, tannic acid, phenolphthalein solution and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of tannic acid and one quarter measure of sodium chromate in a test tube one quarter full of water. Add three drops of ammonium hydroxide and one drop of phenolphthalein solution. Shake test tube well until a uniform color appears. Apply some of this paint to a sheet of paper. If the paint has been properly prepared, you have made an unusual two-color paint.
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