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  Lionel Chem-Lab - Chapter 21

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NOTE:  This book was published in 1942 as a manual to accompany several Lionel Chemistry sets of the time.  While some of the experiments and activities here may be safely done as written, a number of them use chemicals and methods no longer considered safe.  In addition, much of the information contained in this book about chemistry and other subjects is outdated and some of it is inaccurate.  Therefore, this book is probably best appreciated for its historical value rather than as a source for current information and good experiments.  If you try anything here, please understand that you do so at your own risk.  See our Terms of Use.
Pages 221 - 228

CHAPTER XXI

DYES AND DYEING PROCESSES

Aniline dyes, or dyes obtained from coal tar, have largely replaced those obtained from animal and plant sources. Some dyes are water soluble and will dye cloth when it is simply dipped into the solution. This is known as direct dyeing. Congo red is an example of such a dye.

Numerous other dyes require an assisting material known as a mordant before they will dye fabrics. Aluminum hydroxide is frequently used for this purpose.

EXPERIMENT No. 554 Dark Blue Dye For Fabrics

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium ferrocyanide, ferric ammonium sulfate, tumbler, test tube and piece of cloth.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve three measures of sodium ferrocyanide in a test tube half full of water. Soak the cloth well in this solution and then remove and dry. Dissolve two measures of ferric ammonium sulfate in a test tube half full of water. Dampen the cloth with this solution and note the dark blue dye.

SUMMARY: Sodium ferrocyanide and ferric ammonium sulfate form the dark blue dye (Prussian Blue).

EXPERIMENT No. 555 Preparation Of A Chrome-yellow Dye

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium chromate, tannic acid, test tubes, piece of white cloth.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve two measures of tannic acid in a test tube one quartet full of water. Add one quarter measure of sodium chromate and shake well. Soak the cloth in the solution, then remove and dry thoroughly. Chromic salts impart a beautiful yellow color to fabrics. These colors are usually "fast" colors, that is, they do not fade easily.

EXPERIMENT No. 556 Brown Dye For Fabrics

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium carbonate, ferric ammonium sulfate, piece of cloth and test tubes.

221


222 DYES AND DYEING PROCESSES

 
PROCEDURE: Dissolve three measures of sodium carbonate in a test tube half full of water. Pour a little of this solution on the cloth and allow to dry. Dissolve three measures of ferric ammonium sulfate in a test tube half full of water. Dampen cloth with this solution and note the brown dye. Sodium carbonate reacts with ferric ammonium sulfate to form a brown dye.

EXPERIMENT No. 557 Black Dye For Fabrics

CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Tannic acid, ferric ammonium sulfate, piece of cloth and test tube.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve three measures of tannic acid in a test tube half full of water. Pour a little of this solution on the cloth and allow to dry. Dissolve three measures of ferric ammonium sulfate in another test tube half full of water. Dampen the cloth with this solution. A black dye results from the reaction between tannic acid and ferric ammonium sulfate.

EXPERIMENT No. 558 Red Dye For Fabrics

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium salicylate, ferric ammonium sulfate, a piece of cloth and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve a measure of sodium salicylate in a test tube half full of water. Pour a little of this solution on the cloth and allow to dry. Dissolve two measures of ferric ammonium sulfate in another test tube half full of water. Soak the cloth and note the red dye color.

SUMMARY: Sodium salicylate reacts with ferric ammonium sulfate to form a red dye.

EXPERIMENT No. 559 Sulfur Brown

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sulfur, glycerine, sodium carbonate, alcohol lamp or candle, test tube.

PROCEDURE: Mix in a test tube one measure of sulfur, one measure of sodium carbonate, and four drops of glycerine. Heat carefully for several minutes, keeping your face away from the mouth of the test tube. Allow the test tube to cool, then add some water. Shake vigorously, then pour the solution into a glass half full of water. This is a sulfur brown dye.

EXPERIMENT No. 560 Sulfur Black

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Tannic acid, sulfur, sodium carbonate, test tube, a


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 223


glass, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Mix one measure of tannic acid, one measure of sodium carbonate and one measure of sulfur in a test tube. Heat carefully for several minutes keeping your face away from the test tube. Allow test tube to cool, then fill it half full of water. Shake vigorously, then pour the solution into a drinking glass. Repeat adding more water if some dye remains in the test tube. Note the deep black dye.

EXPERIMENT No. 561 Green Sulfur Dye

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sulfur, sodium carbonate and a piece of fat.

PROCEDURE: Mix three measures of sulfur, three measures of sodium carbonate and a small piece of fat in a test tube. Heat carefully. Discontinue heating when the ingredients in the test tube assume a solid dark color. Fill the test tube half full of water and shake vigorously.

SUMMARY: When sulfur is heated in the presence of an alkali, such as sodium carbonate, and an organic substance, such as fat, a green sulfur dye results.

EXPERIMENT No. 562 Logwood Extract In Acids And Bases

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Logwood, sodium bisulfate, sodium carbonate, test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place a small portion of logwood in a test tube one quarter full of water. Heat until the solution is well colored. Dissolve two measures of sodium bisulfate in another test tube half full of water. Add a few drops of logwood solution and note the yellow color. Dissolve two measures of sodium carbonate in a third test tube half full of water. Pour into this a few drops of logwood solution and note the purple color.

SUMMARY: In the presence of an acid, red logwood solution is yellow and in the presence of a base, it is purple.

EXPERIMENT No. 563 Ferric Ammonium Sulfate And Logwood

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Logwood, ferric ammonium sulfate and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place a small portion of logwood in a test tube one quarter full of water and boil solution to get a good color. Dissolve one measure of ferric ammonium sulfate in another test tube one quarter filled with water. Mix the two solutions and note the resulting color. The red logwood solution reacts with ferric ammonium sulfate to form a deep brown.

224 DYES AND DYEING PROCESSES 

EXPERIMENT No. 564 Gray Dye For Silk 

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Logwood, sodium bisulfate, silk and tumbler.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve three measures of sodium bisulfate in a test tube half full of Water. Place two measures of logwood in another test tube one quarter filled with water and heat until a deep color sets in. Place the contents of both tubes in a tumbler together with a piece of silk. Let stand for several minutes. Remove silk and wash it and note the gray color.

EXPERIMENT No. 565 Green Logwood Dye

(CL-55, CL-66, GL-77)

APPARATUS: Logwood, copper sulfate and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place a small portion of logwood in a test tube one quarter filled with water. Heat. Dissolve two measures of copper sulfate in another test tube one quarter full of water. Mix the two solutions and an olive-green logwood color will result.

EXPERIMENT No. 566 Dark Red Logwood Dye 

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55. CL-66, CL-77) 

APPARATUS: Logwood, cobalt chloride, test tube, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE
: Boil a small piece of logwood in a test tube one quarter filled with water. Dissolve two measures of cobalt chloride in another test tube one third filled with water. Mix the two solutions, and note the dark red color.

EXPERIMENT No. 567 Mordant Dyeing 

(CL-83, GL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Logwood, aluminum sulfate, sodium carbonate, two pieces of white cloth, test tube, glass.

PROCEDURE: Boil a few pieces of logwood in a test tube nearly filled with water and allow to stand a half hour. Dissolve three measures of aluminum sulfate in another test tube half full of water. Pour this over one piece of cloth and set it aside to dry. Add three measures of sodium carbonate to the logwood solution and pour the contents into a glass. Stir well. Place the plain white cloth and the cloth containing the aluminum sulfate in this solution for fifteen minutes. Remove both pieces and note the two different shades of dye.

SUMMARY: Aluminum sulfate when used as a mordant, reacts first with the cloth fibers and then with the dye. In this manner, cloth is dyed "fast".


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 225

EXPERIMENT No. 568 Copper-Green Dye

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Tannic acid, copper sulfate, ammonium hydroxide, sodium chromate and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of tannic acid in a test tube one quarter full of water. Add one measure of copper sulfate and one quarter measure of sodium chromate. Shake to dissolve the crystals, then add two drops of ammonium hydroxide and the result will be a green dye.

EXPERIMENT No. 569 Magnesium Dye

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Magnesium sulfate, sodium chromate, tannic acid and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of tannic acid in a test tube one quarter full of water. Add one measure of magnesium sulfate and half a measure of sodium chromate. Shake test tube until all the solid dissolves.

SUMMARY: Magnesium in the presence of chromic salt and tannic acid forms an olive-green dye.

EXPERIMENT No. 570 Emerald-green Dye

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Logwood, copper sulfate and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place a small portion of logwood and one measure of copper sulfate in a test tube one quarter full of water. Heat until a deep color sets in.

SUMMARY: Logwood and copper sulfate form an emerald-green dye.

EXPERIMENT No. 571 Light Blue Dye For Fabrics

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium ferrocyanide, ferrous ammonium sulfate, tumblers and cloth.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve Five measures of sodium ferrocyanide in a test tube half full of water. Soak the cloth in this solution and allow to dry. Dissolve three measures of ferrous ammonium sulfate in a test tube half full of water. Immerse the same cloth in this solution and soak well. Remove the cloth from the test tube and note that the cloth is dyed light blue.

EXPERIMENT No. 572 A Dye From A Tree Bark

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Barberry twigs, test tube, alcohol lamp or candle.


226 DYES AND DYEING PROCESSES 

PROCEDURE: Place a few pieces of the bark in a test tube half full of water. Boil solution until a good yellow color is obtained.

EXPERIMENT No. 573 Dye From Horse Chestnut Bark 

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Horse chestnut bark, ammonium hydroxide and test tube.

PROCEDURE: Place a small piece of bark and six drops of ammonium hydroxide in a test tube one quarter full of water. Allow solution to stand for a few minutes. Note the streamers of blue dye coming from the bark chips.

EXPERIMENT No. 574 How To Dye Cotton Cloth Beige 

(CL-L1, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Ferric ammonium sulfate, sodium carbonate, tumbler, test tubes and soap.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve two measures of ferric ammonium sulfate in a test tube full of water. Place the cloth in a tumbler and pour the ferric ammonium sulfate solution over it. Set aside for ten minutes and then wring the cloth dry and place it in the bottom of a glass. Dissolve two measures of sodium carbonate in a test tube half full of water. Add this solution to the glass and soak the cloth for five minutes. Remove and wring the cloth dry. Prepare a soap solution by boiling a little soap in a test tube half full of water. Dip the cloth in the soap solution and note the resulting color.

EXPERIMENT No. 575 Dyeing With Paint

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77) `

APPARATUS: Colored oil paint, gasoline and test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place a little colored paint in a test tube. Dilute with half a test tube of gasoline. Immerse a piece of silk several times in the paint dye, then set aside to dry. This is a simple way to dye silk.

EXPERIMENT No. 576 Extracting Color From A Dye

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Mixed dyes, powdered charcoal, test tubes, stirring rod.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of mixed dyes in a test tube half full of water. Add three measures of powdered charcoal. Stir the contents thoroughly. Filter solution and note that the filtrate is colorless. Charcoal absorbs the color. 

LIONEL CHEM-LAB 227

EXPERIMENT No. 577 Making A Fugitive Dye

(CL-77)
APPARATUS: Ammonium hydroxide, Benedictís solution, "soda-pop", phenolphthalein solution, piece of cloth, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Place ten drops of ďsoda-pop" in a test tube. Add two drops of Benedictís solution. Heat solution until the blue color turns to orange. Allow to cool, then add three drops of ammonium hydroxide. Shake well, add two drops of phenolphthalein solution and note the pink color. Drop a piece of clean white cloth into the test tube and heat the solution for a few minutes. Remove the cloth and let it stand for twenty-four hours. Examine the material and note that the pink color has disappeared.

EXPERIMENT No. 578 Making A Fugitive Dye Reappear

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Ammonium hydroxide, Benedictís solution, "soda-pop," phenolphthalein solution, piece of white cloth, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Place ten drops of soda in a test tube. Add two drops of Benedictís solution. Heat solution until the blue color turns orange. Let solution cool, then add three drops of ammonium hydroxide. Shake well, then add two drops of phenolphthalein solution and note the pink color. Drop a piece of clean white cloth into the test tube. Heat the solution for a few minutes. Remove the dyed cloth from the solution and let it stand for twenty-four hours. Note how the color of the material has disappeared. Now add one drop of ammonium hydroxide. Note that the pink color mysteriously reappears.

EXPERIMENT No. 579 How Precipitate Absorbs Color

(CL-77)

APPARATUS: Aluminum sulfate, ammonium molybdate, ammonium hydroxide or household ammonia, test tubes, table knife, funnel, filter paper and eye dropper.

PROCEDURE: Mix four measures of cane sugar, two measures of ammonium molybdate, two measures of sodium bisulfate in a test tube and heat gently. Remove test tube from flame when heavy fumes appear. Fill the tube half full of water to make molybdenum blue. Dissolve three measures of aluminum sulfate in another test tube half full of water; add a few drops of ammonium hydroxide and note the precipitate. Filter and remove the precipitate from the filter paper. Place the precipitate in a glass, adding one test tube full of water and several drops of molybdenum blue. Mix thoroughly. Note how the precipitate absorbs the blue color.


228 DYES AND DYEING PROCESSES 

EXPERIMENT No. 580 Bleaching Newspaper

(CL-44, CL-55, CL-G6, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Ferric ammonium sulfate, sodium bisulfate, sodium iodide, test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve one measure of ferric ammonium sulfate in a test tube one quarter full of water. Dissolve one measure of sodium bisulfate in another test tube containing the same amount of water. Mix the two solutions. Dip a piece of newspaper into this solution and set aside to dry. When dry, paint over the paper with some sodium iodide solution and note that the paper becomes bleached.

EXPERIMENT No. 581 Bleaching With Hydrogen Peroxide

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Wool, hydrogen peroxide (drug store), test tube.

PROCEDURE: Fill a test tube half full of hydrogen peroxide. Drop a piece of colored wool into the test tube. Let it soak for a minute, then remove and examine. Note how the hydrogen peroxide, an oxidizing agent, has bleached the wool.

EXPERIMENT No. 582 Bleaching Wool

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Wool, glycerine, sodium carbonate, calcium oxide, test tubes, Hlter paper and funnel.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve two measures of sodium carbonate in a test tube. Dissolve one measure of calcium oxide in another test tube. Mix the two solutions. Filter and collect the filtrate in a clean test tube. Immerse the wool in the filtrate and note how it is bleached.

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