The Science Notebook
  Lionel Chem-Lab - Chapter 23

  Home   Terms of Use   Safety  Contact Us   Experiment Pages   Downloads   Supplies   Useful Links!


NOTE:  This book was published in 1942 as a manual to accompany several Lionel Chemistry sets of the time.  While some of the experiments and activities here may be safely done as written, a number of them use chemicals and methods no longer considered safe.  In addition, much of the information contained in this book about chemistry and other subjects is outdated and some of it is inaccurate.  Therefore, this book is probably best appreciated for its historical value rather than as a source for current information and good experiments.  If you try anything here, please understand that you do so at your own risk.  See our Terms of Use.
Pages 235 - 243

CHAPTER XXIII

COSMETICS: PERFUMES AND SOAP

Perfumes are, for the most part, based on "essential oils" from flowers, leaves, stems, barks, fruit, seeds, and roots of plants, together with aromatic compounds made by the chemist. The essential oils in plants are recovered in several different ways. In the process known as enfleurage, glass trays coated with lard are covered with fresh flowers and allowed to stand until the odorous materials have been absorbed by the fat. The lard is then treated with alcohol to separate the essential oil. This process, known to the ancient Egyptians, is used in France today to recover the perfume from certain flowers.

Essential oils are also recovered by blowing steam through a closed vessel filled with flowers or other odorous plant material, the insoluble oil being skimmed from the watery distillate collected. In this way, attar of roses is obtained, worth some $200 a pound, and the still more costly essential oil from violets. Certain delicate odors such as those of jasmine and tuberose are destroyed by the heat involved in steam distillation, making it necessary to use the enfleurage process. Since by either process several tons of flowers may be required to yield one ounce of oil, it is not surprising that certain of the essential oils are so expensive.

Certain of the synthetics used are chemically identical with natural plant odors. The delicate fragrance of the rose, for example, is due in part to phenyl ethyl alcohol, which is now made by the chemist from coal tar at a cost of only a few dollars a pound. Moreover, the chemist has succeeded in synthesizing certain floral odors which cannot be recovered from flowers. Perfumes having the true scent of lilac of lily-of-the-valley were not to be had until the chemist synthesized these elusive and delicate odors.

EXPERIMENT No. 593 How Rose Water Is Made

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Rose petals, piece of absorbent cloth, glass and a sauce pan.

PROCEDURE: Place some rose petals in the pan and cover them with water. Heat the water gradually to boiling. (This can be done on a stove). Catch the water vapor rising from the pan by holding the cloth over it. Wring out into a glass the condensed vapor caught by the cloth. Repeat the procedure until a suitable quantity of rose water has been collected. Note the odor of rose oil which you have made.

235


236 COSMETICS: PERFUMES AND SOAP

EXPERIMENT No. 594 How Oil Of Sassafras Is Made

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Dried sassafras roots, small bottle, rubbing alcohol, clean cloth, candle or alcohol lamp, teaspoon.

PROCEDURE: Remove the bark from the sassafras roots. Place the strips in a bottle and add two teaspoonfuls of rubbing alcohol. Set the bottle aside for a couple of days, shaking it occasionally. Pour a few drops of the liquid on the cloth. Note the odor. Alcohol is used in the extraction of oils because they are more soluble in alcohol than in water.

EXPERIMENT No. 595 Essential Oils In Spruce Gum

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium bisulfate, test tube, candle or alcohol lamp and spruce tree resin.

PROCEDURE: Place two measures of spruce tree resin and one measure of sodium bisulfate in a test tube. Heat carefully, but do not char. Cool and then smell the mixture. Note the odor of oil of spruce which has been formed.

EXPERIMENT No. 596 Orange Oil

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Orange peel, mortar and pestle.

PROCEDURE: Place a piece of orange peel in your mortar and crush to extract the oil. Note the odor of orange oil obtained.

EXPERIMENT No. 597 How Essential Ons Are Made From Rosin

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium bisulfate, rosin, test tube, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Place three measures of rosin and two measures of sodium bisulfate in a dry test tube. Heat slowly (to prevent charring) until fumes are given off. When cool, smell the tar odor. In the distillation of turpentine, rosin is produced as a by-product.

EXPERIMENT No. 598 How Oil Or Cloves Is Made

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Cloves, test tube, test tube holder, candle or alcohol lamp.

PROCEDURE: Place four measures of cloves in a test tube half full of water. Boil the solution for several minutes. Cool, then taste a little of the solution. Note the stinging taste. If you have ever used "toothache drops", you will probably recall this taste because oil of cloves is used in their manufacture.

LIONEL CHEM-LAB 237

EXPERIMENT No. 599 Oil Of Lemon

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Lemon peel, mortar and pestle, test tube.

PROCEDURE: Grind some lemon peel thoroughly until its oil has been pressed out. Pour the oil into a test tube. Note the odor and taste of oil of lemon.

EXPERIMENT No. 600 How To Make Sage Sachet

(CL-11, CL-22, CL~33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sage leaves.

PROCEDURE: Collect a good quantity of sage leaves and allow them to dry. Note the pleasant odor which comes from these dry leaves.

EXPERIMENT No. 601 How To Make A Sachet Jar

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Cloves, cinnamon, vanilla extract, dried rose petals, mortar and pestle.

PROCEDURE: Mix a teaspoonful of cloves, a teaspoonful of cinnamon, and a teaspoonful of vanilla extract in the mortar. Add a quart measure of dried rose petals and grind well. Place the mixture in a jar for future use. Uncover whenever you wish to give a fragrance to the room.

EXPERIMENT No. 602 How Cymol Is Made

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium bisulfate, test tube, candle or alcohol lamp, camphor.

PROCEDURE: Place two measures of camphor chips and two measures of sodium bisulfate in a dry test tube. Heat cautiously until fumes arise. Remove test tube from flame, cool and smell contents.
Note the pungent odor.

EXPERIMENT No. 603 Anetol

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, VCL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Dry anise roots (drug store), test tube, candle or alcohol lamp.

PROCEDURE: Place several small pieces of anise root in a test tube one quarter filled with water, and boil for a few minutes. Remove from flame and smell the fumes. Note the pleasant odor.

SUMMARY: Aneto1 is used to provide a pleasant taste in certain dentifrices and for perfuming soaps.

EXPERIMENT No. 604 How To Make A Nail Bleach

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

238 COSMETICS: PERFUMES AND SOAP

APPARATUS: Glycerine, hydrogen peroxide, rose water, small bottle.

PROCEDURE: Put into a small bottle one test tube of hydrogen peroxide, three quarters of a test tube of rose water and one quarter test tube of glycerine. Shake test tube thoroughly until a uniform solution is obtained. This bleach is very economical and safe to use.

EXPERIMENT No. 605 Formula For Cold Cream

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: White beeswax, spermaceti, sweet almond oil (drug store), sodium borate, water, saucer, alcohol lamp and stirring rod.

PROCEDURE: Weigh carefully one gram of sodium borate and place it in a glass containing a test tube full of water. Weigh exactly four grams of beeswax. Place in the saucer and heat until the wax melts. Then add four grams of spermaceti, the sodium borate solution, and two test tubes of sweet almond oil. Stir the mixture until a cream is formed.

SUMMARY: This preparation is recommended by many leading chemists because it contains no ingredients which might irritate a delicate skin.

SOAP

Large soap manufacturers make a great variety of soaps, each intended for a specific purpose. There are hard soaps and soft soaps, Castile soaps made from olive oil, perfumed soap and other soaps of the "floating" variety which contain tiny bubbles of air to keep them buoyant.

In the commercial manufacture of ordinary soaps, an alkaline material such as sodium hydroxide (corresponding to the "lye" from wood ashes) is added to an oil or fat, and when this mixture is heated, the fatty acid of the oil unites with the metal part of the alkali to form soap.

There are two reasons why soap and water remove dirt. First, the soap emulsifies the grease that is present with the dirt so that water rinses away both grease and dirt. Second, small bits of dirt are adsorbed on the surface of the soap bubbles and are thus removed.

While soap is, in general, a good cleansing agent, it is by no means perfect. When used in hard water, for example, the fatty acid part of the soap combines with lime and magnesium salts in hard water to form sticky, gummy compounds which will not dissolve in the water. These sticky "lime soaps" are the cause of the familiar gummy ring which forms in the bath tub.

EXPERIMENT No. 606 How Soap Cleans

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55. CL-66, CL-77) .

APPARATUS: Test tube, salad oil and soap shavings.

LIONEL CHEM-LAB 239

PROCEDURE: Pour a small amount of salad oil, or any other kind of oil, into a test tube half full of water. Try to mix by shaking the tube vigorously. Allow the tube to stand for a few seconds. Observe how the oil and water quickly separate. Prepare a soap solution by dissolving two measures of soap shavings in a test tube half full of water. Add this solution to the test tube containing the oil and water and shake well. Note how long it takes for the oil and water to separate this time.

SUMMARY: Oil and soap mix together to form an emulsion which, when treated with water, will remove dirt.

EXPERIMENT No. 607 Preparing A Soap

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium carbonate, calcium oxide, two test tubes, candle or alcohol lamp, butter.

PROCEDURE: Place two measures of sodium carbonate in a test tube one third full of water. Add two measures of calcium oxide and boil for about three minutes keeping your face away from the test tube. Allow to settle, then pour off the clear solution into another test tube containing half a measure of butter. Heat for two or three minutes.

SUMMARY: Note how the butter dissolves in the liquid to form soap. Rub a few drops of the solution on your hand and note its cleansing property.

EXPERIMENT No. 608 Laundry Soap

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium silicate solution, mortar and pestle, soap shavings, a dish.

PROCEDURE: Put about five drops of sodium silicate solution into your mortar together with four or five measures of soap shavings. Grind well, place the mass in a dish, and set aside to dry.

SUMMARY: The presence of sodium silicate in soap helps to soften hard water and produce thick suds.

EXPERIMENT No. 609 An Antiseptic Soap

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Soap shavings, boric acid, mortar and pestle, a dish.

PROCEDURE: Place a spoonful of soap shavings in your mortar. Add a small portion of boric acid. Grind contents well, then mold into a cake. Remove and place in a dish to dry. Antiseptic soaps have a pleasant, “medicated" odor.

240 COSMETICS: PERFUMES AND SOAP

EXPERIMENT No. 610 A Soap Made From Wood Ashes

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Wood ashes, test tube, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Add some wood ashes to a test tube half full of water. Boil the contents for a few minutes, then set aside to cool. When cold pour the soap into a basin half full of warm water and try to work up a suds with your hands.

SUMMARY: Wood ash contains potassium carbonate which is used in the soap industry.

EXPERIMENT No. 611 Making Soap From Grease

(CL-11, CL-22, CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Calcium oxide, sodium carbonate, test tubes, grease, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve two measures of sodium carbonate in a test tube half full of water. Dissolve one half measure of calcium oxide in another test tube one quarter full of water. Add this solution to the sodium carbonate solution and shake well. Filter the solution into a clean test tube. Add some grease to the filtrate and heat until the grease dissolves. Cool the solution and examine it. Grease in the presence of sodium hydroxide forms a hard soap.

EXPERIMENT No. 612 Making Borax Soap

(CL-66, CL~77)

APPARATUS: Sodium borate, soap shavings, mortar and pestle, a dish.

PROCEDURE: Place about six measures of soap shavings together with two measures of sodium borate in the mortar. Add four drops of water and grind well. Remove the contents and place in a dish to dry. This type of soap is used extensively in laundries.

EXPERIMENT No. 613 Calcium Soap

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Calcium chloride, soap shavings and two test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve a measure of calcium chloride in a test tube one quarter full of water. Dissolve one measure of soap shavings in another test tube half full of water. Pour a few drops of this solution into the calcium chloride solution and note the thick white precipitate. The thick white precipitate is calcium soap.

EXPERIMENT No. 614- How Strontium Soap Is Made

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 613 substituting strontium chloride for calcium chloride. The white precipitate will be strontium soap. 

LIONEL CHEM-LAB 241

EXPERIMENT No. 615 How Cobalt Soap Is Made

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 613 substituting cobalt chloride for calcium chloride. The pink precipitate will be cobalt soap.


EXPERIMENT No. 616 Aluminum Soap
(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, GL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 613 substituting aluminum sulfate for calcium chloride. The white precipitate will be aluminum soap.

EXPERIMENT No. 617 Preparation Of Zinc Soap

(CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Zinc metal, sodium bisulfate, soap shavings, three test tubes.

PROCEDURE: Place a small portion of zinc metal in a test tube one quarter full of water and add two measures of sodium bisulfate. Heat until some of the zinc dissolves. Filter the solution into another test tube. Dissolve one measure of soap shavings in another test tube half full of water. Add five drops of soap solution to the clear solution and note the thick white precipitate. This precipitate is zinc soap.

EXPERIMENT No. 618 How Copper Soap Is Made

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 613 substituting copper sulfate for calcium chloride. The blue precipitate will be copper soap.

EXPERIMENT N0. 619 How Manganese Soap Is Made

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 613 substituting manganese sulfate for calcium chloride. The white precipitate will be manganese soap.

EXPERIMENT No. 620 Making Iron Soap

(CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Ferric ammonium sulfate, two test tubes, filter paper, soap shavings, funnel and a piece of cloth.

PROCEDURE: Dissolve four measures of ferric ammonium sulfate in a test tube half full of water. Dissolve one measure of soap shavings in another test tube half full of water. Pour a few drops of this solution into the ferric solution and note the thick brown precipitate. Filter the solution and place some precipitate on a piece of cloth. Note the rust stain.

SUMMARY: The thick brown precipitate is iron soap. The rust stain on the cloth is due to the iron in the soap.


242 COSMETICS: PERFUMES AND SOAP

EXPERIMENT No. 621 Chromium Soap 

(CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL77)

Repeat Experiment No. 613 substituting chrome alum for calcium chloride. The green precipitate will be chromium soap. 

EXPERIMENT No. 622 Hydrolysis Of Soap

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Phenolphthalein solution, test tube and soap.
 
PROCEDURE: Pour three or four drops of phenolphthalein solution into a test tube containing a small piece of soap. Note the pale pink color. Fill the tube half full of water and shake well. Note that the color is now much darker. A strong alkali is formed when water is added to soap, thus increasing the intensity of the pink indicator.

EXPERIMENT No. 623 Formation Of Magnesium Soap

(CL-66, CL-77)

Repeat Experiment No. 613 substituting magnesium sulfate for calcium chloride. The white precipitate will be magnesium soap.

EXPERIMENT No. 624 Preparation Of Soap Powder

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium carbonate, fine soap shavings, mortar and pestle, dish.

PROCEDURE: Mix four measures of fine soap shavings and eight measures of sodium carbonate in your mortar. Add six or seven drops of water and grind the contents well. Collect the mass with a knife and place it in a dish to dry. Pulverize with your fingers after it has dried completely. This material is soap powder.

EXPERIMENT No. 625 Preparing A Cleansing Powder

(CL-66. CL-77)

APPARATUS: Sodium carbonate, calcium carbonate, ammonium chloride, soap, dish, mortar and pestle.

PROCEDURE: Place eight measures of soap shavings, four measures of sodium carbonate, two measures of calcium carbonate and two measures of ammonium chloride in your mortar. Add six or seven drops of water and grind well. Remove the mixture and place it in a dish to dry. This material is similar to the scouring powder used in the home.

EXPERIMENT No. 626 A Colored Soap

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Mixed dyes, shaving soap, teaspoon, mortar and pestle.


LIONEL CHEM-LAB 243

PROCEDURE: Place a spoonful of soap shavings and a measure of mixed dyes in the mortar. Add several drops of water and grind until you obtain a uniform color. Use your fingers to mold the material into a cake. When the cake forms you will have made colored soap.

EXPERIMENT No. 627 How To Perfume Soap

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Soap shavings, perfume, mortar and pestle.
 
PROCEDURE: Pour three or four drops of perfume in your mortar together with a spoonful of soap shavings. Grind well and then mold the soap into a cake with your fingers. When the soap dries you will have a cake of perfumed soap.

EXPERIMENT No. 628 How To Make Transparent Soap

(CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Glycerine, white soap, heating spoon, alcohol lamp or candle.

PROCEDURE: Put four or five drops of glycerine and a small piece of white soap in the heating spoon. Heat until the two substances fuse. Allow to cool and note the transparency of the solid.

EXPERIMENT No. 629 How To Make Liquid Soap

(CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Soap shavings, bottle, teaspoon, mortar and pestle.

PROCEDURE: Place two spoonfuls of soap shavings and five drops of water in your mortar. Grind well, adding more water until the proper consistency has been obtained. Pour this liquid soap into a bottle to preserve it.

EXPERIMENT No. 630 How To Test Soap For Alkali

(CL-33, CL-44, CL-55, CL-66, CL-77)

APPARATUS: Phenolphthalein solution and dry soap.

PROCEDURE: Place a drop of phenolphthalein solution on a piece of dry soap and note whether a red color appears. An alkali always produces a pink color in the presence of phenolphthalein solution.

Go to ContentsLionel Chem-lab Chapter 24    or   Back to the Experiments Page

"The Science Notebook"  Copyright 2008-2017 - Norman Young